List of Illustrations and Maps
How to Use This Book
Chronology of Major Events
Aa A mysterious and ancient being worshiped in Egypt from the earliest eras of settlement and best known from
DEAD (the spells and prayers provided to deceased Egyp-
tians to aid them in their journeys through the Under- cultic ceremonies conducted in the Old Kingdom world), Osiris is praised as the god who shines forth in (25752134 B.C.E.), Aa's cult was popular in the city of the splendor of A'ah, the Moon. HELIOPOLIS, possibly predating NARMER (c. 3000 B.C.E.), A'ah was also included in the religious ceremonies who attempted to unite Upper and Lower Egypt. Aa was honoring the god HORUS, the son of ISIS and Osiris. The revered as "the Lord of the PRIMEVAL ISLAND OF TRAM- moon was believed to serve as a final resting place for all PLING," a mystical site associated with the moment of cre- "just" Egyptians. Some of the more pious or holy ation of Egyptian lore. In time this divine being became deceased went to A'ah's domain, while others became part of the cult of the god RÉ, the solar deity that was polar stars. joined to the traditions of the god AMUN in some periods.
The moment of creation remained a vital aspect of A'ahset (fl. 15th century B.C.E.) Royal woman of the Egyptian religion, renewed in each temple in daily cere- Eighteenth Dynasty monies. The daily journeys of Ré across the heavens as A'ahset was a lesser ranked wife or concubine of TUTHMO- the sun, and the confrontation of the god with the SIS III (r. 14791425 B.C.E.). Her tomb has not been dis- dreaded terror of the TUAT, or Underworld, kept creation covered, but a funerary offering bearing her name was as a pertinent aspect of Egyptian mythology. In this con- found at THEBES. Such an offering indicates a rank in the stant renewal of creation, Aa was revered as the "COMPAN- court, although her name on the offering bears no title. It ION OF THE DIVINE HEART," a designation that he shared is possible that A'ahset was a foreign noble woman, given with the divine being WA. to Tuthmosis III as tribute or as a cementing element of a
treaty between Egypt and another land. Such women A'ah (A'oh) A moon deity of Egypt, also called A'oh in received elaborate burial rites and regalia in keeping with some records, identified before c. 3000 B.C.E., when NAR- their station in the royal court. MER attacked the north to unite the Upper and Lower Kingdoms. A'ah was associated with the popular god a'akh (a'akhu; akh) A spirit or spirit soul freed from THOTH, the divinity of wisdom, who was a patron of the the bonds of the flesh, a'akh means "useful efficiency." rites of the dead. In the period of the Fifth Dynasty The name was also translated as "glorious" or "benefi- (24652323 B.C.E.) A'ah was absorbed into the cult of cial." The a'akh, had particular significance in Egyptian OSIRIS, the god of the dead. A'ah is depicted in The LAMEN- mortuary rituals. It was considered a being that would TATIONS OF ISIS AND NEPHTHYS, a document of Osirian have an effective personality beyond the grave because it devotion, as sailing in Osiris's ma'atet boat, a spiritual was liberated from the body. The a'akh could assume vessel of power. In some versions of the BOOK OF THE human form to visit the earth at will.
1 2 A'ametju
It was represented in the tomb in the portrait of a pation (c. 671 and 525404/343332 B.C.E.), the sacred crested ibis. The spirit also used the SHABTI, the statue bulls of Egypt were sometimes destroyed by foreign used to respond to required labors in paradise, a factor rulers or honored as religious symbols. endorsed in cultic beliefs about the afterlife. ALEXANDER III THE GREAT, arriving in Egypt in 332
B.C.E., restored the sacred bulls to the nation's temples
A'ametju (fl. 15th century B.C.E.) Eighteenth Dynasty after the Persian occupation. The Ptolemaic rulers court official (30430 B.C.E.) encouraged the display of the bulls as He served Queen-Pharaoh HATSHEPSUT (r. 14731458 THEOPHANIES of the Nile deities, following Alexander's
B.C.E.) as VIZIER or ranking governor. A'ametju belonged example. The Romans, already familiar with such animals to a powerful family of THEBES. His father, Neferuben, in the Mithraic cult, did not suppress them when Egypt was governor (or vizier) of Lower Egypt and his uncle, became a province of the empire in 30 B.C.E. Userman, served TUTHMOSIS III (r. 14791425 B.C.E.) in the same position. Userman's tomb at Thebes contains A'aru A mystical site related to Egyptian funerary cults wall paintings that depict the installation of government and described as a field or garden in AMENTI, the West, it officials in quite elaborate ceremonies. was the legendary paradise awaiting the Egyptian dead
The most famous member of A'ametju's family was found worthy of such an existence beyond the grave. The REKHMIRÉ, who replaced Userman as vizier for Tuthmosis West was another term for Amenti, a spiritual destina- III. Rekhmiré's vast tomb at Thebes contains historically tion. A'aru was a vision of eternal bliss as a watery site, vital scenes and texts concerning the requirements and "blessed with breezes," and filled with lush flowers and obligations of government service in Egypt. Some of other delights. Several paradises awaited the Egyptians these texts were reportedly dictated to Rekhmiré by Tuth- beyond the grave if they were found worthy of such des- mosis III himself. Another family that displayed the same tinies. The MORTUARY RITUALS were provided to the sort of dedicated performers is the clan of the AMEN- deceased to enable them to earn such eternal rewards. EMOPETS.
A'at (fl. 19th century B.C.E.) Royal woman of the Twelfth A'amu (Troglodytes) This was a term used by the Dynasty Egyptians to denote the Asiatics who tried to invade the The ranking consort of AMENEMHET III (r. 18441797 Nile Valley in several historical periods. AMENEMHET I (r. B.C.E.), A'at died at the age of 35 without producing an 19911962 B.C.E.) described his military campaigns on heir and was buried at DASHUR, an area near MEMPHIS, the eastern border as a time of "smiting the A'amu." He along with other royal women of Amenemhet III's house- also built or refurbished the WALL OF THE PRINCE, a series hold. This pharaoh constructed a necropolis, or cemetery, of fortresses or garrisoned outposts on the east and west at Dashur, also erecting a pyramid that was doomed to that had been started centuries before to protect Egypt's become a CENOTAPH, or symbolic gravesite, instead of his borders. One campaign in the Sinai resulted in more than tomb. The pyramid displayed structural weaknesses and 1,000 A'amu prisoners. was abandoned after being named "Amenemhet is Beauti-
The HYKSOS were called the A'amu in records con- ful." A'at and other royal women were buried in sec- cerning the Second Intermediate Period (16401532 ondary chambers of the pyramid that remained B.C.E.) and 'AHMOSE (r. 15501525 B.C.E.), the founder of undamaged by structural faults. Amenemhet built the New Kingdom. RAMESSES II (r. 12901224 B.C.E.) used another pyramid, "Amenemhet Lives," at HAWARA in the the term to designate the lands of Syria and Palestine. In FAIYUM district, the verdant marsh area in the central part time the A'amu were designated as the inhabitants of of the nation. He was buried there with Princess NEFERU- western Asia. In some eras they were also called the PTAH, his daughter or sister. Troglodytes.
A'ata (fl. 16th century B.C.E.) Ruler of Kermeh, in Nubia A'a Nefer (Onouphis) A sacred bull venerated in KERMEH, an area of NUBIA, modern Sudan, was in Egyp- religious rites conducted in ERMENT (Hermonthis), south tian control from the Old Kingdom Period (25752134 of Thebes. The animal was associated with the god B.C.E.), but during the Second Intermediate Period MONTU and with the BUCHIS bull in cultic ceremonies (16401532 B.C.E.), when the HYKSOS ruled much of and was sometimes called Onouphis. The A'a Nefer bull Egypt's Delta region, A'ata's people forged an alliance with was chosen by priests for purity of breed, distinctive col- these Asiatic invaders. A'ata's predecessor, Nedjeh, had oring, strength, and mystical marks. The name A'a Nefer established his capital at BUHEN, formerly an Egyptian is translated as "Beautiful in Appearing." In rituals, the fortress on the Nile, displaying the richness of the Ker- bull was attired in a lavish cape, with a necklace and a meh culture, which lasted from c. 1990 to 1550 B.C.E. crown. During the Assyrian and Persian periods of occu- This court was quite Egyptian in style, using similar Abdu Heba 3
architecture, cultic ceremonies, ranks, and government Abbott Papyrus A historical document used as a agencies. record of the Twentieth Dynasty (11961070 B.C.E.) in
When A'ata came to the throne of Kermeh, he conjunction with the AMHERST PAPYRUS and accounts of decided to test the mettle of 'AHMOSE (r. 15501525 court proceedings of the era. Serious breaches of the reli- B.C.E.), who had just assumed the throne and was con- gious and civil codes were taking place at this time, as ducting a campaign by land and by sea against AVARIS, royal tombs were being plundered and mummies muti- the capital of the Hyksos invaders. Seeing the Egyptians lated or destroyed. Such acts were viewed as sacrilege directing their resources and energies against Avaris, rather than mere criminal adventures. Grave robbers were A'ata decided to move northward, toward ELEPHANTINE thus condemned on religious as well as state levels. The Island at modern ASWAN. 'Ahmose is believed to have left Abbott Papyrus documents the series of interrogations the siege at Avaris in the hands of others to respond to and trials held in an effort to stem these criminal activi- the challenge of A'ata's campaign. He may have delayed ties. In the British Museum, London, the Abbott Papyrus until the fall of Avaris before sailing southward, but now offers detailed accounts of the trials and the uncov- A'ata faced a large armada of Egyptian ships, filled with ered network of thieves. veteran warriors from elite units. The details of this See also PASER; PAWERO; TOMB ROBBERY TRIAL. campaign are on the walls of the tomb of 'AHMOSE, SON OF EBANA, at THEBES. The text states that 'Ahmose found Abdiashirta (fl. 14th century B.C.E.) Ruler of Amurru, A'ata at a site called Tent-aa, below modern Aswan. The modern Syria Egyptian warriors crushed A'ata's forces, taking him and Abdiashirta reigned over Amurru, known today as a hundreds more as prisoners. A'ata was tied to the prow region of Syria, and was a vassal of AMENHOTEP III (r. of 'Ahmose's vessel for the return journey to Thebes, 13911353 B.C.E.). His son and successor was AZIRU. where he was probably executed publicly. The Egyptians Abdiashirta made an alliance with the HITTITES, joining received A'ata's men as slaves. 'Ahmose, son of Ebana, SUPPILULIUMAS I against the empire of the MITANNIS, the took two prisoners and received five more slaves loyal allies of Egypt. Abdiashirta and Amurru epitomize as well. the political problems of Egypt that would arise in the
An Egyptian ally of A'ata tried to regroup the Kermeh reign of AKHENATEN (r. 13531335 B.C.E.) and in the forces. 'Ahmose, son of Ebana, received three more slaves Ramessid Period (13071070 B.C.E.). when this rebel and his forces were crushed as a result of new campaigns. Buhen became the administrative center Abdi-Milkuti (fl. seventh century B.C.E.) Ruler of the of the Nubian region for Egypt as a result of the war, end- city of Sidon in Phoenicia, modern Lebanon ing the Kermeh dominance there. The culture continued, He was active during the reign of TAHARQA (r. 690664 however, until the New Kingdom collapsed. A military B.C.E.) of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty and faced the armies commander named Turi was installed as viceroy of Kush, of ASSYRIANS led by ESSARHADDON. An ally of Taharqa, or Nubia, under 'Ahmose's son and heir, AMENHOTEP I. Abdi-Milkuti was unable to withstand the Assyrian
assault, which was actually a reckless adventure on the Aazehre See KHAMUDI. part of Essarhaddon. Sidon was captured easily by
Assyria's highly disciplined forces. Abdi-Milkuti was
made a prisoner, probably dying with his family. ab See HEART.
Abdu Heba (fl. 14th century B.C.E.) Prince of Abar (fl. seventh century B.C.E.) Royal woman from Na- Jerusalem, in modern Israel pata, in Nubia He corresponded with AKHENATEN (r. 13531335 B.C.E.) She was the mother of TAHARQA (r. 690664 B.C.E.) of the of the Eighteenth Dynasty concerning the troubled events Nubian Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt and the daughter of the era. The messages sent by Abdu Heba are included of KASHTA and Queen PEBATMA. She was the wife of in the collection of letters found in the capital, 'AMARNA, a PIANKHI (750712 B.C.E.). It is not known if Abar traveled
remarkable accumulation of correspondence that clearly northward to see her son's coronation upon the death of delineates the life and political upheavals of that histori- his predecessor, SHEBITKU, but Taharqa visited NAPATA to cal period. This prince of Jerusalem appears to have build new religious sanctuaries, strengthening his origi- maintained uneasy relations with neighboring rulers, all nal base there. In 671 B.C.E., he returned as an exile when vassals of the Egyptian Empire. SHUWARDATA, the prince Essarhaddon, the Assyrian king (r. 681668 B.C.E.), over- of Hebron, complained about Abdu Heba, claiming that came the Egyptian defenses on his second attempt to he raided other cities' lands and allied himself with a vig- conquer the Land of the Nile. orous nomadic tribe called the Apiru.
When Abdu-Heba heard of Shuwardata's com- Abaton See PURE MOUND. plaints, he wrote Akhenaten to proclaim his innocence. 4 Abgig
He also urged the Egyptian pharaoh to take steps to tians, then enhanced by the Romans as a gold production safeguard the region because of growing unrest and region. migrations from the north. In one letter, Abdu Heba See also EGYPTIAN NATURAL RESOURCES. strongly protested against the continued presence of Egyptian troops in Jerusalem. He called them dangerous Abu Ghurob A site north of ABUSIR and south of GIZA, and related how these soldiers went on a drunken spree, containing two sun temples dating to the Fifth Dynasty robbing his palace and almost killing him in the pro- (24652323 B.C.E.). The better preserved temple is the cess. northern one, erected by NIUSERRÉ Izi (r. 24162392
See also 'AMARNA LETTERS. B.C.E.), and dedicated to RÉ, the solar deity of HELIOPOLIS.
An OBELISK was once part of the site, and inscriptions of Abgig A site in the fertile FAIYUM region, south of the the royal HEB-SED ceremonies honoring the ruler's three- Giza plateau. Vast estates and plantations were located decade reign were removed from the site in the past. The here, and a large STELA of SENWOSRET I (r. 19711926 temple has a causeway, vestibule, and a large courtyard B.C.E.) was discovered as well. The stela is now at for sacrifices. A chapel and a "Chamber of the Seasons" Medinet el-Faiyum. Abgig was maintained in all periods are also part of the complex, and the remains of a SOLAR of Egypt's history as the agricultural resources of the area BOAT, made of brick, were also found. The complex was warranted pharaonic attention. once called "the Pyramid of Righa." The sun temple of
USERKHAF (r. 24652458 B.C.E.) is also in Abu Ghurob Abibaal (fl. 10th century B.C.E.) Ruler in Phoenicia, but is in ruins. modern Lebanon Abibaal was active during the reign of SHOSHENQ I (r. Abu Hamed A site south of the fourth cataract of the 945924 B.C.E.) of the Twenty-second Dynasty. Shoshenq Nile in NUBIA, modern Sudan, where TUTHMOSIS I (r. I, of Libyan descent, ruled Egypt from the city of TANIS 15041492 B.C.E.) campaigned against several groups of (modern San el-Hagar) and was known as a vigorous mil- Nubians. The Nile altered its course just north of Abu itary campaigner. Shoshenq I also fostered TRADE with Hamed, complicating troop movements and defenses. other nations, and Abibaal signed a treaty with him. The Tuthmosis I used veteran soldiers and local advisers to PHOENICIANS had earned a reputation for sailing to far- establish key positions and defensive works in order to flung markets in the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas, gain dominance in the region. going even to the British Isles in search of copper. As a result, Abibaal and his merchants served as valuable Abu Rowash (Abu Rawash) A site north of GIZA. sources of trade goods for their neighboring states. The main monument on the site dates to the Fourth Abibaal insured Shoshenq I's continued goodwill by Dynasty, constructed by RA'DJEDEF (r. 25282520 B.C.E.), erecting a monumental statue of him in a Phoenician the son and successor of KHUFU (Cheops). Ra'djedef temple, an act guaranteed to cement relations. erected a pyramid at Abu Rowash, partly encased in red
granite and unfinished. A MORTUARY TEMPLE is on the Abisko A site south of the first cataract of the Nile, eastern side of the pyramid and a VALLEY TEMPLE was des- near modern ASWAN. Inscriptions dating to MONTUHOTEP ignated as part of the complex. A boat pit on the southern II(r. 20612010 B.C.E.) were discovered at Abisko. These side of the pyramid contained statues of Ra'djedef, the inscriptions detailed Montuhotep II's Nubian campaigns, lower part of a statue of Queen KHENTETKA, and a SPHINX part of his efforts to unify and strengthen Egypt after the form, the first such sphinx form found in a royal tomb. In First Intermediate Period (21342040 B.C.E.) and to the valley temple of the complex a statue of ARSINOE (2), defeat local southern rulers who could threaten the the consort of PTOLEMY II PHILADELPHUS (285246 B.C.E.), nation's borders. During Montuhotep II's reign and those was discovered. Also found were personal objects of of his Middle Kingdom successors, the area south of 'AHA (Menes, 2920 B.C.E.) and DEN (c. 2800 B.C.E.) of the Aswan was conquered and garrisoned for TRADE systems First Dynasty. A newly discovered mud-brick pyramid on and the reaping of natural resources available in the the site has not been identified, but an Old Kingdom region. Canals, fortresses, and storage areas were put into (25752134 B.C.E.) necropolis is evident. place at strategic locales.
See also NUBIA. Abu Simbel A temple complex on the west bank of the
Nile, above WADI HALFA in NUBIA, modern Sudan, erected Abu See ELEPHANTINE. by RAMESES II (r. 12901224 B.C.E.) early in his reign. The
structures on the site honor the state gods of Egypt and the Abu Gerida A site in the eastern desert of Egypt, used deified Ramesses II. During the construction of the tem- as a gold mining center in some historical periods. The ples and after their dedication, Abu Simbel employed vast area was originally explored and claimed by the Egyp- numbers of priests and workers. Some records indicate Abu Simbel 5
The mortuary temple of Ramesses II at Abu Simbel, moved to higher ground when the Aswan Dam flooded the original site. (Courtesy Steve Beikirch.)
that an earthquake in the region damaged the temples As the temple recedes, the scale of the inner rooms shortly after they were opened, and SETAU, the viceroy of becomes progressively smaller, and the level of the floor Nubia, conducted repairs to restore the complex to its rises. These architectural convention, common in most original splendor. Between 1964 and 1968, the temples of Egyptian temples, focus the structural axis toward the Abu Simbel, endangered because of the Aswan Dam, were sanctuary, where the god resides. The first pillared hall, relocated to a more elevated position on the Nile. This however, is on a grand scale, with eight Osiride statues of remarkable feat was a worldwide effort, costing some $40 Ramesses forming roof support or pillars. The walls are million, much of the funds being raised by international covered with battle scenes commemorating Ramesses II's donations, sponsored by UNESCO and member states. military prowess, including the slaughter of captives and
A gateway leads to the forecourt and terrace of the the Battle of KADESH. A second hall has four large pillars Great Temple of Abu Simbel, presenting a unique rock- and presents religious scenes of offerings. Side rooms are cut facade and four seated colossi of Ramesses II, each attached for cultic storage areas, and the entire suite leads around 65 feet in height. Smaller figures of Ramesses II's to the sanctuary. Within this chamber an ALTAR is still evi- favorite queen, NEFERTARI, and elder sons, as well as his dent as well as four statues, seated against the back wall mother, Queen TUYA, are depicted standing beside the and representing the deities RÉ-HARNAKHTE, AMUN-RÉ, legs of the colossi. A niche above the temple entry dis- PTAH, and the deified Ramesses II. plays the god RÉ as a falcon and baboons saluting the ris- The original temple was designed to allow the sun- ing sun, as certain species of these animals do in nature. light appearing on the eastern bank of the Nile to pene- At the north end of the terrace there is a covered court trate the halls and sanctuary on two days each year. The that depicts Ramesses II worshiping the sun also. A large seated figures on the rear wall were illuminated on these number of stelae are part of this court, including the days as the sun's rays moved like a laser beam through Marriage Stela, which announces the arrival of a Hittite the rooms. The reconstructed temple, completed in 1968, bride. provides the same penetration of the sun, but the original 6 Abusir
day upon which the phenomenon occurs could not be system was incorporated into the complex, using lion- duplicated. The sun enters the temple two days short of headed gargoyles and open channels. Copper-lined basins the original. were connected to underground copper pipes in this sys-
Beyond the Great Temple at Abu Simbel lies a small tem. These are still visible. Called "the Soul of Sahuré chapel dedicated to the god THOTH and, beyond that, a Glistens" at its dedication, this pyramid has a limestone temple to HATHOR. This temple glorifies Queen NEFERTARI core as the foundation, filled with sand and rubble and Merymut, Ramesses II's favorite consort. At the entrance faced with fine stone. to the temple, she is depicted between two standing The mastaba of the nobleman PTAHSHEPSES, a relative colossi of the pharaoh. Nefertari Merymut is also pre- of NIUSERRÉ (r. 24162392 B.C.E.) and a court official, is a sented on the walls of an interior pillared hall. The god- fully developed structure to the north of Niuserré unfin- dess Hathor is shown in the temple's shrine area. ished monument. Ptahshepses' tomb has a colonnaded
court with 20 pillars, a portico, a hall, and a chamber Suggested Readings: Hawass, Zahi, and Farouk Hosni. depicting family portraits. The Mysteries of Abu Simbel: Ramesses II and the Temples of Niuserré's pyramidal complex was dedicated as "the the Rising Sun. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, Places of Niuserré are Enduring." In erecting his valley 2001; Siliotti, Alberto. Abu Simbel and the Nubian Temples. temple, Niuserré usurped part of KAKAI's original struc- Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, 2001; ture. The core was made of limestone and included a Williams, Bruce. Excavations Between Abu Simbel and the colonnaded court and cultic chamber. Sudan Frontier, Part Seven: 25th Dynasty and Napatan The pyramid of Kakai (Neferirkaré; r. 24462426 Remains at Qustul Cemeteries W and V. Chicago: Oriental B.C.E.) was built out of mud brick and completed by his Institute, 1990. successor. It was dedicated as "Kakai Has Become a Soul"
or as "the Pyramid of the Ba-spirit." Local limestone Abusir A site south of GIZA dating to the Fifth Dynasty formed the core, and the facing was a fine limestone and (24652323 B.C.E.) and containing a vast cemetery and red granite. pyramidal complexes. The large pyramid of SAHURÉ (r. The pyramid of NEFEREFRÉ (r. 24192416 B.C.E.) is 24582446 B.C.E.) dominates the site that once contained also located on the site of Abusir. It was dedicated as "the 14 such structures, most now reduced to cores of rubble Pyramid which is Divine of the Ba-spirits" but was never or stone. Sahuré's pyramid has a causeway, VALLEY TEM- completed. It was a low mound of limestone, with no PLE, and a canal intact. The portico of the valley temple causeway or temple. Another ruin at Abusir is associated has eight columns as well as a large hall provided with with Queen KHENTAKAWES, the consort of SHEPSESKHAF (r. wall reliefs and a black basalt pavement. A temple area 24722467 B.C.E.). dedicated to the goddess SEKHMET appears to have been A new tomb was recently discovered at Abusir, dat- refurbished as a shrine in later eras, aiding in its preserva- ing to the Sixth Dynasty (23232150 B.C.E.) and built for tion. Storerooms, corridors, and niches form two levels, a judge named Inti. Large, with ground and subterranean and red granite papyrus columns support the upper floor. levels, the tomb is part of a complex of sites belonging to Cultic chambers, a sanctuary with an altar, and a granite Inti's family. Elaborate decorations and statues have also false door were also found there. An elaborate drainage been found.
Abydos A city north of DENDEREH, capital of the eighth
NOME, or district, called the Thinite nome, Abydos was
considered the greatest of all cemeteries and home to the
god OSIRIS. The necropolis area of the city was in use
from the earliest times and benefited from royal patron-
age throughout its history.
Of the royal monuments erected in Abydos, the
temple of SETI I (r. 13061290 B.C.E.) is the largest, built
of fine white limestone and containing splendid reliefs.
The first two courts of the temple, as well as the portico,
were probably completed by RAMESSES II (r. 12901224
B.C.E.) after Seti I's death. One scene in the temple
depicts Ramesses II adoring the gods ISIS and Osiris as
well as Seti I deified. Ramesses II is also credited with
the decoration in the first HYPOSTYLE HALL of the temple,
which has seven doors leading to chapels beyond a sec-
ond hypostyle hall. The second hypostyle hall serves as
a vestibule for the seven chapels incorporated into its Abydos 7
west wall. False vaults cover the chapels, and all have reliefs. The chapels honored six gods and the deified Seti I.
A KING LIST was discovered in a gallery in the shrine, showing Seti I and Ramesses II as a prince offering hon- ors to their royal predecessors. Beside the Gallery of Lists there are halls for the preservation of the BARKS OF THE GODS, butchers' quarters, and magazines. Immediately behind the temple is an area called the OSIREION, actually a CENOTAPH, or false tomb, built by Seti I but probably completed by MERENPTAH, his grandson. A feature in this shrine is an island, formed by canals of water that were kept filled at all times, upon which the sarcophagus and canopic chests were maintained.
The temple of Ramesses II, located to the northeast of the shrine of Seti I, is noted for its delicate reliefs,
Temple remains from Seti I's cenotaph at Abydos, displaying a which provide a description of the Battle of KADESH,
truly ancient form of architecture. (Courtesy Steve Beikirch.) carved into limestone. A red granite doorway leads to a pillared open court, and more reliefs depict a procession of offerings for the king. A portico on the west side of the nation's religious and mythological texts. Osiris's head temple opens onto small chapels honoring Seti I as a dei- was believed to have resided in Abydos, according to the fied being and various gods. Some of the deities have mythological texts. In time, however, the tomb of DJER (c. been provided with suites of rooms, and there is a 2900 B.C.E.), the second king of the First Dynasty, was humanoid DJED Pillar in one of the apartment chambers. identified as the true burial site of the god Osiris by his Granite statues honor Ramesses II, Seti I, the god AMUN, priests. The grave thus became involved in the annual and two other goddesses. The temple of Osiris in Abydos celebration of Osiris's death and resurrection. is located in the northeast of Ramesses II's temple. Now Two stelae were discovered in Abydos. One measur- called Kom el-Sultan, the region has only a few remains ing six feet by three feet was from the Thirteenth Dynasty, of a limestone portico and ramparts. Cenotaphs dedicated placed there by NEFERHOTEP I (r. c. 17411730 B.C.E.). to individuals were erected in the area. The second records the plans of TUTHMOSIS I (r.
The SHUNET EL-ZABIB, or "Storehouse of Dates," an 15041492 B.C.E.) to honor Osiris by endowing the god's enclosure dating to the Second Dynasty (27702649 temple with gifts. Neferhotep I and other rulers had to B.C.E.), is in the northwestern desert. Two actual com- limit the number of individual burials taking place within plexes, designed with massive inner walls and outer the city limits and in the necropolis areas. People from mud-brick walls, had main ramparts. The cenotaphs of other regions brought their loved ones to Abydos to bury the royal personages are located farther out in the them beside the god Osiris. desert, at a site known as UMM EL-GA'AB, the "Mother of A temple founded by TUTHMOSIS III (r. 14791425 Pots," because of the large quantity of vessels discovered B.C.E.) was recently discovered that was built to the on the surface--jars used for funerary offerings of the southwest of the Osiris Enclosure in the northern section graves. To the south, cenotaphs of the Middle Kingdom of the site. Tuthmosis III erected the temple to honor and early New Kingdom were also discovered. A temple Osiris and included colossal Osiride statues of himself in of SENWOSRET III (r. 18781841 B.C.E.) stands at the edge the precincts. Ramesses II later built in the same area at of the desert. The ruler's cenotaph is located near the the Portal Temple. face of the nearby cliffs. A pyramid, possibly erected by In the southern part of Abydos, Senwosret III built a 'AHMOSE (r. 15501525 B.C.E.) is located near the tem- mortuary temple and channels to provide water to the ple. A mortuary complex of TETISHERI, the grandmother site for rituals. The cenotaph tomb has a pole roof cham- of 'Ahmose and a leader in the Theban campaigns ber, corridors, and a burial room with a concealed sar- against the Hyksos and the start of the New Kingdom, is cophagus and canopic box of red granite set into niches also in the area. concealed by masonry. The limestone mortuary temple
Abydos, as the seat of the Osirian cult, was a large has an enclosed wall and a pylon gate. Colonnades, city and was much revered during all eras of ancient courts, and cultic chambers were discovered in frag- Egypt. The city's original deity was apparently a black mented condition in the complex. dog-headed creature known as KHENTIAMENTIU, the "Chief of the Dwellers of the West," a title assumed by Suggested Readings: David, A. R. A Guide to Religious Osiris when his cult grew popular along the Nile. The Ritual at Abydos. London: Warminster, 1981; Gri- west, AMENTI, was always a territory of death in the mal, Nicholas. A History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford, U.K.: 8 Abydos Fleet
Blackwell, 1995; Shaw, Ian. The Oxford History of Ancient Prince Achaemenes' mother, demanded that Inaros be Egypt. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 2000. crucified, an act protested by General Megabyzus.
Abydos Fleet An armada of 12 or 14 royal vessels dis- Achaemenians (Achaemenids, Hakhamanishiya) A covered buried near ABYDOS, some eight miles from the royal house of Persia. This dynasty of Persia (modern Nile. Each vessel, from 50 to 60 feet in length, was Iran) ruled Egypt as the Twenty-seventh Dynasty (525 encased in a mud-brick coffin and pit. They date to the 404 B.C.E.) and as the Thirty-first Dynasty (343332 earliest eras of Egypt. Shorter, less elaborate vessels have B.C.E.). The Achaemenians were descendants of Achae- been found at SAQQARA and HALWAN. Like the vessel menes, the ruler of a vassal kingdom in the Median found at the Great PYRAMID of KHUFU (Cheops, r. Empire (858550 B.C.E.). Cyrus the Great (c. 590529 25512528 B.C.E.) these ships were part of the MORTUARY B.C.E.), a descendant of the dynasty's founder, overthrew RITUALS of the early eras. Excavations at the site give indi- the Median line ruling Persia and expanded his control of cations that more vessels may be part of the necropolis neighboring lands. His son, CAMBYSES, took Egypt in 525 treasures of Abydos. B.C.E. The Achaemenians included: DARIUS I, who came
from a collateral branch of the royal line; XERXES I; ARTA-
XERXES I Longimanus; Xerxes II; DARIUS II Nothus; ARTA- Abydos List See KING LISTS. XERXES II Memnon; ARTAXERXES III OCHUS; ARSES; and
DARIUS III Codomanus, who fell before the armies of Achaean League A confederation of Greek city-states ALEXANDER III THE GREAT in 330 B.C.E. and allies that achieved considerable prominence in the See also PERSIANS. reign of PTOLEMY II PHILADELPHUS (r. 285246 B.C.E.). This league impacted upon Egyptian TRADE practices Achillas (d. c. 47 B.C.E.) Military officer of Egypt until it became embroiled in a dispute with Rome, a ris- He served PTOLEMY XIII (r. 5147 B.C.E.) and was possibly ing power in the Mediterranean that began to assert its present when the murder of POMPEY the Great took place. influence, around the second century. Pompey had fled to Egypt for safety but was assassinated
on September 28, 48 B.C.E. His head was reportedly pre- Achaemenes (d. c. 460 B.C.E.) Prince of Persia slain by served and presented as an offering to Julius CAESAR. an Egyptian rebel When Caesar occupied ALEXANDRIA, Achillas was He was the son of DARIUS I (r. 521486 B.C.E.). The prince involved in a siege of that capital, an offensive that was appointed satrap, or governor, of the Nile by his proved unsuccessful. brother XERXES I (r. 486466 B.C.E.), Darius I's heir. In A veteran of many battles, esteemed by other military 481 B.C.E., Achaemenes led a military force composed of figures, even among his political foes, Achillas ran afoul conscripted Egyptians amassed to conduct various mili- of ARSINOE (4), the royal sister of CLEOPATRA VII. Arsinoe tary campaigns, including assaults on the Greeks. These was an enemy of Cleopatra and Caesar, wanting the units were defeated at the Battle of SALAMIS by the Greeks. throne of Egypt for herself. She raised an army to depose Returning to Egypt, Achaemenes carried out the harsh her sister and her Roman allies, and she asked Achillas to ruling policies of Xerxes, enslaving Egypt as a Persian serve as her commanding general. Not skilled in court province with little value. Such a policy stemmed from intrigues or in the murderous ways of Arsinoe and her Persian disdain for the Egyptian religious or philosophi- predecessors, Achillas managed to confront and infuriate cal heritage and a firm belief in the unique revelations the princess, who had him executed. concerning human affairs which had been bestowed upon the Persian people. The confiscation of temple Achoris (1) A site located just south of the FAIYUM and wealth was carried out at least in one instance, and north of modern Tihna el-Gebel. The famed "Fraser Xerxes did not endear himself to the conquered Egyp- Tombs," rock-cut grave enclosures, were discovered in tians by assuming ancient titles or roles in keeping with Tihna el-Gebel. These date to the Old Kingdom Nile traditions. (25752134 B.C.E.). The other ruins at Achoris contain
In 460 B.C.E., INAROS, a native Egyptian and a prince three small temples and a Greco-Roman necropolis. of HELIOPOLIS, started a full-scale insurrection. Inaros, Achoris was used by NOMARCHS of the Fifth Dynasty listed in some records as a son of PSAMMETICHUS III (24652323 B.C.E.). (Psamtik) (r. 526525 B.C.E.), set up an independent cap- ital at MEMPHIS. Achaemenes led an army against Inaros, confronting him at Papremis, a Delta site. There the Per- Achoris (2) See HAKORIS. sian prince died on the field. His death prompted the ter- rible punitive campaign conducted against Inaros by a Actium This promontory on the western coast of veteran Persian general, MEGABYZUS. Queen Atossa, GREECE at the entrance to the Ambracian Gulf is where a agate 9
decisive battle for control of Egypt and the Roman empire MANETHO, the Ptolemaic Period historian, credits 'Adjib took place in 31 B.C.E. Octavian, the future AUGUSTUS, with a reign of 26 years, but he is now believed to have met Marc ANTONY and CLEOPATRA VII (5130 B.C.E.) at ruled only 14 years. 'Adjib is probably the first ruler to be Actium. Antony was camped on the site, and the naval recognized by most areas of Lower and Upper Egypt as battle that took place outside of the gulf provided the the ruler of united Egypt. He conducted military cam- name for the battle. Octavian's 400 ships defeated the 500 paigns to gain territories and to consolidate his position. vessels of Marc Antony and Cleopatra VII, and they fled His principal wife was TARSET, or Betresh, the mother of to ALEXANDRIA. Antony committed suicide outside of his heir, SEMERKHET. Alexandria, and Cleopatra VII, facing imprisonment and He built two tomb complexes, one at SAQQARA and humiliation, killed herself when the Roman forces took one in ABYDOS, the holy city of OSIRIS, the god of the dead. up residence in the city soon after the battle. Octavian His Abydos tomb, small and poorly constructed, had (Emperor Augustus) initiated an Olympic-style series of stone vessels bearing his name. Semerkhet usurped some games at Actium to commemorate his victory there. pieces after succeeding him on the throne. 'Adjib's
Saqqara tomb was decorated in the "palace facade" style, Adda Stone A worn fragment of a stela discovered at a unique design of recessed panels. GEBEL ADDA in NUBIA, modern Sudan, inscribed with demotic and the Meroitic hieratic scripts. Despite lapses, Admonitions of Ipuwer This is remarkable literary the Adda Stone provided keys to the translation of relic dating to the First Intermediate Period (21342040 Meroitic, the language of the Nubian culture that domi- B.C.E.), or perhaps later. Egypt, bereft of a strong royal nated that region from c. 270 B.C.E. until 360 C.E. house, suffered a series of rival kingdoms during this
time and a reversal of the traditional social customs. The Adea-Eurydice (fl. fourth century B.C.E.) Royal wo- Admonitions are profoundly pessimistic for this reason, man of the Greeks questioning the cosmic implications of Egypt's fallen She was the wife of PHILIP III ARRHIDAEUS (r. 323316 state. The text was discovered in the Leiden Papyrus 344, B.C.E.), the half brother of ALEXANDER III THE GREAT. Adea- having been copied from an earlier version by Nineteenth Eurydice was a half niece of Philip and joined in the plot Dynasty scribes (13071196 B.C.E.). Ipuwer calls for a to slay him. She died in a similar purge conducted by the strong pharaoh to restore the spirit of MA'AT, justice, piety, heirs of Alexander the Great. and peace to the Nile kingdoms. Such didactic literature
was always popular in Egypt.
See also LITERATURE. Adicran (fl. sixth century B.C.E.) Libyan ruler He was partially responsible for the fall of APRIES (r. 589570 B.C.E.) of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty. An ally of Adule A site on the Red Sea near Massawa, Adule was Egypt, Adicran faced a Greek invasion and appealed to used as a hunting ground for wild elephants by PTOLEMY Apries for aid in repelling the foe. The Greeks had estab- II PHILADELPHUS (r. 285246 B.C.E.) and PTOLEMY III EUER- lished the colony of CYRENE on the Libyan coast and were GETES (r. 246221 B.C.E.). Adule and other nearby areas
now threatening the Libyan ruler. Apries sent several on the shores of the Red Sea were occupied by the units of Egyptian veteran troops to Adicran's aid, and Egyptians over the centuries, eventually becoming they suffered a stinging defeat at the hands of the Greeks. trade centers for goods imported from many distant lands The Egyptian troops returned home and mutinied and linked to well-known TRADE routes leading to the because of the incident. When Apries sent his general, Nile. AMASIS (r. 570526 B.C.E.), to mediate the mutiny, Amasis sided with the troops and was proclaimed the rightful afnet A head covering shown on the goddesses SELKET ruler of Egypt. and ISIS and on a statue of TUT'ANKHAMUN (r. 13331323
Adicran faced the Cyrene King Battus II the Lucky, B.C.E.), discovered in his tomb. The afnet resembled who overcame the Libyans and Egyptians in c. 570 B.C.E. the NEMES, the royal headdress, but was not striped He founded new colonies and Hellenized the hump of and lacked the front panels. Its use was probably eastern Libya, calling it Cyrenaica. In 525 B.C.E., the restricted to royalty or to the images of divine beings, internal feuds between rival Egyptian families seeking the although commoners and nobles alike wore a similar throne ended when the Persians arrived with the army of head covering. CAMBYSES. See also CROWNS.
'Adjib (Merpubia, Enezib, Anedjib) (fl. c. 2700 agate A semiprecious stone and a variety of quartz, B.C.E.) Fifth ruler of the First Dynasty agate was found in the Egyptian quarry at WADI His name meant "Strong of Heart" or "Safe is His Heart." HAMMAMAT. 'Adjib is the first Egyptian ruler in the Saqqara KING LIST. See also EGYPTIAN NATURAL RESOURCES. 10 Agatharchides
Agatharchides (fl. second century B.C.E.) Chronicler announced his intentions to the Egyptian people, who and trade expert left their villages to swell the ranks of his forces. An He served PTOLEMY VIII EUERGETES II (r. 170163, angry horde of Egyptians thus faced Agathocles at the 145116 B.C.E.) in the capital of ALEXANDRIA. Born a palace in the capital. He resigned on the spot and hurried Greek in Cnidus, a city on the coast of Anatolia (modern home to prepare for a flight out of the city. Ptolemy V was Turkey), Agatharchides went to Egypt's capital to study carried to a large arena in Alexandria, surrounded by Tle- the monumental archives in the LIBRARY OF ALEXANDRIA. polemus's troops. There the Egyptians bowed before the As a result of his scholarly reputation, he was commis- young king, swearing their loyalty. The governor then sioned by Ptolemy's officials to prepare a comprehensive demanded retribution for the death of Queen Arsinoe, report on the city's trade and commerce. Agatharchides and Ptolemy V agreed. A crowd raced to Agathocles' produced On The Red Sea, a work that used testimony home, where they beat him to death along with his entire from contemporary merchants and traders. Their family. accounts provide historical authenticity to the report and offer vivid insights into the wide-ranging TRADE efforts of Agesilaus (d. 360 B.C.E.) King of Sparta in Greece that time. Agatharchides is considered one of the most Agesilaus was critically involved in Egyptian affairs in the significant scholars of the second century B.C.E. He also reign of TEOS (r. 365360 B.C.E.) of the Thirtieth Dynasty. wrote Events in Asia and Events in Europe, now lost. The son of Archidamus and half brother of Agis II, Agesi-
laus was a great military commander and a master of the Agathocles (1) (fl. third century B.C.E.) Prince of Thales siege. He had a varied military career, campaigning This prince fell victim to the political intrigues of ARSI- throughout his reign despite ill health. He was eventually NOE (2), the sister of PTOLEMY II PHILADELPHUS (r. humiliated militarily and forced to add to state revenues 285246 B.C.E.). The son of King LYSIMACHUS, he was the by hiring out as a mercenary for other rulers, such as ranking heir to the throne of Thrace, a region in the mod- Teos. ern southeastern Balkans. Agathocles faced the political The Egyptians, involved in a campaign against Pales- cunning of Arsinoe. She married Lysimachus and bore tine, asked Agesilaus to aid in invasion plans. The Spar- him two children, viewing Agathocles as an obstacle to tans sailed to Palestine to join the Egyptians there. Teos the throne. He became the object of ridicule and rumors was beginning a series of expansion campaigns, hoping to in the court of Thrace, all designed to isolate him and to take Syria and oppose PERSIA on all fronts. Having the alienate him from his father. Arsinoe and her followers veteran Spartans in his service promised success. Agesi- then accused him of treason, claiming he was bent on laus, however, found Teos to be militarily naive and quar- murdering Lysimachus and taking the throne. Lysi- relsome. The two argued about troop placements, making machus believed the accusation and executed Agathocles. the veteran Spartan warrior uneasy at the thought of con- Arsinoe did not benefit from the death, however. When tinuing the alliance. When he received word that Teos Lysimachus died, she faced her own tragic consequences was taxing the temples of Egypt to pay for his military seeing her sons barred from inheriting and having to flee adventures, Agesilaus realized that the Egyptian ruler to her half brother. The governor of Pergamum (modern would be short-lived on the throne. The Spartans decided Bergama in Turkey), so horrified by the unjust treatment to abandon Teos, an act that greatly handicapped the of the Thracian prince, started a campaign of military Egyptians and made the campaign extremely doubtful. retribution against Lysimachus. Thrace fell to the Seleu- Agesilaus returned to SPARTA. There he received the cids of Syria as a result. Egyptian delegates of NECTANEBO II (r. 360343 B.C.E.),
who was a nephew of Teos. Agesilaus agreed that Teos Agathocles (2) (d. c. 205 B.C.E.) Court official and would not remain on the throne because of his ill-advised conspirator of the Ptolemaic Period policies and his unfit temperament. In order to hold on He became powerful in the court in the reign of PTOLEMY to their power, Teos's relatives proposed to depose him. V EPIPHANES (r. 205180 B.C.E.). Agathocles joined forces Agesilaus agreed to the overthrow and aided Nectanebo's with a courtier named SOSIBIUS in a palace coup in cause, standing at his side at his coronation. Agesilaus ALEXANDRIA, the capital of Egypt. Ambitious and eager to died at the age of 84 while journeying home to Sparta control Ptolemy V, who was quite young, Agathocles and from the coronation. Sosibius murdered the king's mother, ARSINOE (3). Agath- ocles served as regent for the orphaned king, but he was agriculture This was the bountiful occupation of unable to hold power. ancient Egyptians from predynastic times (before 3000
Governor TLEPOLEMUS of the city of PELUSIUM (near B.C.E.) that enabled them to transform an expanse of modern Port Said in Egypt) was so enraged by the mur- semiarid land into rich fields after each inundation of the der of Queen Arsinoe that he marched on Alexandria Nile. Agriculture in Egypt always depended upon the with his frontier army. Along the way, Tlepolemus pooling of resources and labor so that the mineral-rich agriculture 11
waters of the Nile could be introduced inland for fertil- Agriculture began in the FAIYUM and in the DELTA ization of lands. Early farmers dug trenches from the Nile regions well before the start of the Dynastic Period, c. shore to the farmlands, using draw wells, crude irrigation 2920 B.C.E. Normally the Egyptians plowed the fields tools, and then the SHADUF, a primitive machine that with oxen, and teams of two men each worked to form allowed them to raise levels of water from the Nile into shallow furrows for the seeds. One man guided the plow, canals. The shaduf was introduced into Egypt by the HYK- and the other led the oxen through the designated pat- SOS, or Asiatics (16001500 B.C.E.). Fields thus irrigated tern. Some tomb reliefs depict the activity and show a produced abundant annual crops. second plow being dragged behind the first one. The sec-
From the Predynastic Period, agriculture was the ond implement turned up the earth between the furrows. mainstay of the Egyptian economy. Most Egyptians were If the farmers wanted only the top layer of soil tilled in employed in agricultural labors, either on their own lands any season, they used lighter plows, normally pushed by or on the estates of the temples or nobles. Control of irri- the farm workers. In any case the furrows had to be bro- gation became a major concern, and provincial officials ken up after the initial plowing. Men and women entered were held responsible for the regulation of water. The the fields with simple wooden hoes to break up the storage of crops occurred at the local level and at royal clumps of earth. The sowing of the fields was a two-part granaries in the capital, and assessors were sent from the activity in most areas. The farmers put the seed in the capital to the provinces to collect taxes in the form of earth and then drove herds of sheep or swine into the grain. The local temples of the gods also had vast fields, fields to trample the seeds deep into the furrows. Nor- with their own irrigation needs. The temples had storage mally crops were harvested with sickles. Barley, emmer, units and were subject to taxes in most eras, unless and other grains were gathered with such tools and taken exempted for a particular reason or favor. to the local threshing areas, where again animals were
A tomb display of agriculture, dating to the New Kingdom Period and portraying harvesters in the fields. (Hulton Archive.) 12 agriculture
employed. The harvest was carried on the backs of don- vats. Pomegranate and date wines were also available. keys or asses, and at the storage areas the crops were Other useful crops were the papyrus, date palm, and flax. ground by oxen. Such plants produced sources of fibers and other materi-
The first fruits of each harvest were reserved for the als. local gods and the temples. The deity MIN (1), popular
HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS OF THE FAIYUM throughout Egypt, was offered praise for each crop drawn from the earth. ALTARS were sometimes erected to provide One of the first necessities for the evolving Egyptian adequate rituals, and granary officials, priests, or govern- nation was to control the Nile River, which inundated the ment representatives were on hand for all harvests, mea- land throughout its valley each year with deposits of silt suring the crops for tax assessments. These harvest and mud. In the FAIYUM, where Predynastic Period inhab- celebrations were always attended by the entire popula- itants had discovered the ease with which they could turn tions of the nearby districts, and the people gave thanks to agricultural pursuits, efforts were made to channel the to the Nile and to the agricultural patrons for the abun- water coming through the Bahr Yusef into the region. dance of another year. Dikes, canals, and ditches were dug in the Old Kingdom
(25752134 B.C.E.), but the major renovations were
EGYPTIAN CROPS AND PRODUCTS accomplished by the pharaohs of the Twelfth Dynasty, The Egyptians used the main cereal crops of their fields especially by AMENEMHET III (18441797 B.C.E.). for the staples of their daily diets: emmer for bread and The purpose of the irrigation systems and hydraulic barley for beer. Wheat was not known along the Nile projects was to extend the time during which the Nile until the Ptolemaic Period (30430 B.C.E.). Early Egyp- waters could be made available to fields in the western tians also raised chickpeas and lentils, pomegranates, let- Delta and the Faiyum. The Nile had formed Lake MOERIS tuce (of various varieties), onions, carob, garlic, and there in the Predynastic Period, and the Egyptians started plants used for oils, such as sesame. Honey collected building a retaining wall some 27 miles long, a construc- from hives was used as a sweetener, and there were tion which provided them with 27,000 acres of farmland. condiments, spices, and oils, including sesame and olive. During the flood period, the Nile provided new water for Most commoners did not enjoy the luxury of meat as part the lake, and the water was carefully channeled into of their daily lives. Herds of cattle were large in many depressions that were dug from the soil by hand. Regula- eras, however, and the Egyptians liked beef, mutton, tors, such as matted covers and wooden slats, provided pork--which was restricted in some eras--and goat. It is control over the flow of the water. It has been estimated probable that certain species of antelope supplemented that Lake Moeris doubled in size during inundations, and diets as well. most of its water was directed into other depressions or
The Nile provided a variety of fish for the table, and into channels that led to a vast irrigation-ditch complex. the Egyptians became skilled at catching them. Fish were Sluices and narrow ravines were devised for regulat- netted or caught in baskets, while spearfishing and ing irrigation, and gullies were cut into the natural banks angling were done from small rafts made of papyrus. or placed in the retaining walls at various points so that There appear to have been some religious restrictions water could be stored or used as the seasons and the regarding the eating of at least one particular type of fish crops demanded. These sluices were covered with the in particular districts. This custom was observed by same reed mats and kept under constant supervision by a priests and by the upper classes, while commoners gath- unit of trained irrigation experts. The mats were lowered ered whatever came their way. or raised according to the requirements of distant fields
The Nile also provided a variety of waterfowl, which that were connected to the water reserve by channels. All were caught in clap-nets and taken to poultry yards for of the hydraulic system components required constant slaughter. The two halves of the net were spread over an vigilance and repairs, and these were carried out through- area and then snapped shut to ensnare the fowl. These out the year. When the shaduf was introduced by the fowl, however, were probably reserved for the upper Hyksos in the Second Intermediate Period (16401532 classes. Pigeons were as common in ancient times as now B.C.E.), the movement of water was greatly improved. and were used as a food source, perhaps even raised for Crops could be rotated and an additional growing season that purpose. Ducks and geese were also plentiful, and coaxed from the Faiyum because of the ability of crews to during the New Kingdom (15501070 B.C.E.), chickens transfer water efficiently. were introduced into the Nile Valley. Though the Egyptians had a skillfully designed
Grapes were grown in the western Delta and in the hydraulic system, they did not have earthmoving equip- oases, and the Baharia Oasis was famous for its quality ment. Hundreds of able-bodied men came into an area wines. The Egyptians drank both red and white wines, and simply dug out the ground in a desired region. The and the vineyards labeled them according to quality and earth was put into baskets, which were carried away to a variety. The favorite beverage of both poor and rich alike, particular point where a wall was needed or where however, was barley beer, made everywhere and kept in mounds could protect various crops or estates. The A-Group 13
assembly line of diggers, basket carriers, and mound 44 B.C.E. and was a formidable representative of Octavian builders worked ceaselessly until the new reservoir was in the period after Caesar's assassination, during which completed and filled. Such a feat was accomplished in the his friend came into possession of extensive wealth and reign of AMENHOTEP III (13911353 B.C.E.). Amenhotep consolidated his political power. Agrippa was also instru- III built a vast resort, MALKATA, on the western shore of mental in arranging the union of Octavian and Antony in the Nile at THEBES, including a lake for the royal barges the extermination of the Liberators, Caesar's assassins, in dug out of the ground by crews of workmen who accom- particular Brutus. plished the ruler's will in just over two weeks. After the defeat of the Liberators, Agrippa was Octa-
The fall of the New Kingdom in 1070 B.C.E. did not vian's chief lieutenant, defeating Antony's brother, Lucius, hinder agriculture in Egypt. The farmers simply turned to in the Perusine War in 40 B.C.E. and suppressing a rebel- local NOME administrators and continued their seasonal lion in Gaul. Returning in triumph to Rome, Agrippa was routines. Some dynasties, ruling a century or two, made elected consul and then, in 37, was appointed admiral. efforts to reclaim the Faiyum, and the Ptolemies (30430 He spent the next six years cleansing parts of the B.C.E.) added royal residences and new innovations to the Mediterranean of pirates, including Sextus Pompey, the fields, introducing advanced systems of irrigation and son of Pompey the Great, who had been reduced to pirat- crop controls. The Greek methods supplemented the tra- ing after the defeat of his father by Julius Caesar. ditional ones, adding to the fertility of the Nile Valley. In 31 B.C.E., Agrippa joined Octavian at Actium During the Ptolemaic Period agriculture was a state con- where the Romans faced the fleet and army of Cleopatra trolled industry. and Marc Antony. Agrippa commanded the left wing, but
Seeds, grains, and textile plants, as well as tools, were just as important as his tactical skill was his invention of lent to the farmers by the state-operated agricultural the harpax, a grappling hook fired by a catapult at an offices, and designated crops were grown throughout the enemy vessel, which then permitted the vessel's capture Nile Valley according to the seasons and the schedules by the superior Roman marines. The harpax was pivotal mandated. The crops were repayments to the state and to the success of the Romans at Actium and the defeat of had to be delivered to the same agencies. The Ptolemies both the fleet and the ambitions of Cleopatra VII and her coordinated the agricultural output of Egypt with current lover, Marc Antony. trade systems. When Octavian became Augustus, Agrippa con-
The Romans, aware of Egypt as "the bread basket of ducted a census of the provinces, from 29 to 28 B.C.E. He the world," took control in 30 B.C.E. and maintained regi- found life in Rome, with its intrigue and competition for mented improvements in the important agricultural dis- the favor of Augustus, not to his taste, however. At his tricts. Other farmers, isolated and unconcerned about request, he was posted to the eastern provinces. There he political rivalries or changes, continued tilling the land, added to his reputation for administrative talent. Recalled irrigating their fields, and reaping bountiful harvests. to Rome, he rebuilt much of the Eternal City, including
See FOODS, NILE. the Panthera, and founded colonies in Phoenicia (mod-
ern Lebanon). Suggested Readings: Baines, John, and Jaromir Malek. He wed Caecillia, the daughter of Pomponius Atti- Atlas of Ancient Egypt. New York: Facts On File, 1985; cus, divorcing her to marry Marcella, the wealthy niece James, T. G. H. Pharaoh's People: Scenes from Life in Impe- of Augustus. That marriage resulted in the birth of Vip- rial Egypt. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1984; sania Agrippina, the first wife of Emperor Tiberius. In 21 Kemp, Barry J. Ancient Egypt: Anatomy of a Civilization. B.C.E., when he was recalled to Rome, he married Julia, London: Routledge, 1989; Spencer, A. J. Early Egypt: The Augustus's daughter. She bore him three sons and a Rise of Civilization in the Nile Valley. London: British daughter. Museum Press, 1993.
A-Group An independent people in Upper NUBIA Agrippa, Marcus Vipsanius (d. 12 B.C.E.) Friend and (modern Sudan) from c. 31002800 B.C.E, the A-Group adviser to Octavian (later Augustus) were also designated as being from "the LAND OF THE Agrippa was largely responsible for the military campaign BOW." The rulers of these people had considerable local that resulted in the crushing defeat of the combined army power and resources. Their graves contained gold jewelry and fleet of Egypt under Marc ANTONY and Queen and finely made pottery. Egyptian and other foreign items CLEOPATRA VII in 31 B.C.E. at the battle of ACTIUM. A com- found in these graves indicate a trade system that reached moner born in 63 B.C.E., Agrippa was a constant compan- into the Mediterranean. Other groups in the area became ion to Octavian, nephew to Julius CAESAR and the future enemies of the A-Group, but the B-Group appears par- Emperor AUGUSTUS. When Octavian entered into military tially related. Egypt's pharaohs of the First Dynasty training in 45 B.C.E., Agrippa accompanied him. He sub- (29202770 B.C.E.) annexed part of Nubia and the A- sequently stood at Octavian's side at Caesar's funeral in Group people formed the new colony. 14 Aha
Aha (Hor-Aha, Menes) (d. c. 2900 B.C.E.) First ruler Egyptian men were found in the complex, obviously slain of the First Dynasty (r. 29202575 B.C.E.) or dying by their own hand to accompany Aha into eter- A Thinite, who could trace his lineage to THINIS, near nity. There were also seven young lions buried in sub- ABYDOS in Upper Egypt, he was also called Hor-Aha, the sidiary graves in the complex of Aha, the animals "Fighting Hawk." Aha is now believed to be the leg- representing royal strength. endary MENES, as the name Men appears as one of his ROYAL NAMES. In the tomb of his mother, NEITHOTEP how-
Ahenobarbus, Gnaeus Domitius (d. c. 31 B.C.E.) ever, a small ivory was discovered that depicted Aha and
Roman general and supporter of the various Roman factions Menes side by side. Aha's relationship to NARMER, who
in Egypt started the unification of Egypt, is also open to specula-
Ahenobarbus aided Marc ANTONY in his effort to become tion. Neithotep is believed to have been a consort of
master of the Roman world. The son of a prominent fam- Narmer, given to him to seal alliances with local Delta
ily that wielded much influence in the Roman Senate, he clans.
bore the name Ahenobarbus, or "red beard," because of
Aha is the ruler recorded as founding the city of
the traditional tale that a distant ancestor had his beard MEMPHIS, known also as Ineb Hedj, the White Walled.
turned that color by the gods Castor and Pollux. He was The capital was formed by Aha when he deflected the
also noted as the grandfather of the future emperor Nero. course of the Nile with a dam south of the present site.
Originally Ahenobarbus backed Brutus and the Lib- Memphis bore the name Hiku-Ptah, or Hut-Ka-Ptah,
erators who had assassinated Julius CAESAR, calling for translated as "the Mansion of the Soul of Ptah." The
the continuation of the Roman Republic. Following the Greeks transformed that into Aigyptos, the modern desig-
defeat of the Republicans after Caesar's assassination in nation of the land. Although Aha did not control all of
44 B.C.E., Ahenobarbus fled Rome and was forced to sur- Egypt, he consolidated his power in Memphis and began
vive by working as a pirate in the Mediterranean. In 40 a central government. He even managed to claim land in
B.C.E., he was reconciled with Marc Antony (who had NUBIA, modern Sudan, conducting a campaign there and
declared himself against the Liberators), serving him as commemorating the event with a wooden label found in
the governor of Anatolia (modern Turkey) until 35 B.C.E. Abydos.
He was a consul of Rome when Marc Antony and OCTA-
Aha established trade with Palestine and Syria while
VIAN, the future Augustus and first emperor of Rome, campaigning to bring more of Egypt under his control. A
proved unable to remain political allies. Ahenobarbus temple honoring the god PTAH was erected at Memphis in
went with Antony to ALEXANDRIA, Egypt, but soon found Aha's reign, and he built a shrine to the goddess NEITH in
CLEOPATRA VII (5130 B.C.E.), Antony's famed lover, to be SAIS in the eastern Delta. Aha also established the cult of
an evil influence. He charged that she was opposed to tra- the Apis bulls in the capital.
ditional Roman values and, when Antony declined to
The historian MANETHO credits him with about 63
heed his counsel, Ahenobarbus deserted Antony's cause years on the throne, mentioning that he is supposed to
just before the Battle of ACTIUM in 31 B.C.E. He died soon have been slain by a hippopotamus. Another legend
after, supposedly of remorse, but probably from a termi- claims that he was saved from enemies by riding on the
nal illness. His foul temper was legendary. back of a crocodile. Aha built a temple in the Faiyum to SOBEK, the crocodile deity.
Queen BERENIB was his consort, or the ranking Ah'hotep (1) (fl. 16th century B.C.E.) Royal woman of queen. Aha's son and heir, DJER, was the child of a lesser the Seventeenth Dynasty ranked queen, HENT (1), and he also wed TEY. These She was the consort of Sekenenre TA'O II (c. 1560 B.C.E.) women probably were buried beside Aha in SAQQARA, the and the mother of the founder of the New Kingdom, necropolis, of Memphis. Aha's CENOTAPH tomb at Abydos 'AHMOSE (r. 15501525 B.C.E.). The daughter of Senakh- erected at Umm el-Ga'ab, is the largest in the area. It is a tenre TA'O I and Queen TETISHERI, Ah'hotep was raised in brick-lined structure, rectangular in form and adorned DEIR EL-BAAS, just north of Thebes, during the period in with corner bastions and towers. A subterranean chamber which the HYKSOS, or Asiatics, ruled the northern terri- was designed for burial, and wooden poles were used in tories. She bore two sons, KAMOSE and 'Ahmose, and two the construction. Servants and courtiers were slain or daughters, 'AHMOSE-NEFERTARI and 'AHMOSE-HETEMPET. died willingly to accompany Aha into the next world at When Ta'o II began the war of unification, Ah'hotep Abydos. stood as guardian of the Theban throne. She received
His tomb in Saqqara is a pit cut into the rock, with Ta'o's body when he was slain and then sent her first- 27 magazines on the ground level and five subterranean born son, Kamose, on the same crusade. Kamose died in chambers. Made of mud brick, this tomb was decorated 1550, and 'Ahmose became the new ruler. Ah'hotep with the "palace facade" design. A boat pit on the north served as regent for this young son, marrying him to his side of the tomb contained a SOLAR BOAT. There were sister, 'Ahmose-Nefertari, who was possibly Kamose's enclosure walls provided as well. The remains of young widow. For almost 10 years, Ah'hotep ruled the Theban 'Ahmose 15
lands of southern Egypt, maintaining an uneasy peace area with a small fleet and several units of the army. with the Hyksos. When 'Ahmose began his spectacular 'AHMOSE, SON OF EBANA, present at these military cam- campaign against the Asiatics, Ah'hotep maintained order paigns, detailed the activities in his funerary hieroglyphs. and recruited more and more units for the army. Her Other details are available from the tomb of 'AHMOSE-PEN name was linked with that of 'Ahmose in inscriptions, as NEKHEBET, another contemporary. in the fortress of BUHEN, south of ASWAN on the Nile. After a long period, Avaris surrendered, and the Hyk-
She died at the age of 90 after the nation was unified, sos fled into Sharuhen, a fortress in southwestern Pales- and she was given a vast mortuary complex at THEBES, tine. The Egyptians followed there as well, placing being buried near Kamose. Magnificent offerings were Sharuhen under siege. While the army kept the Hyksos provided for her burial, including a ceremonial ax (a mil- sealed inside their fortress in Palestine, 'Ahmose faced itary honor) and a golden boat mounted on a wooden another revolt. This rebellion was instituted by A'ATA, a chariot with bronze wheels. 'Ahmose praised her on a ruler of KERMEH, a region south of ASWAN, who faced stela at KARNAK, saying: "She is the one who performed 'Ahmose and his armies. 'Ahmose won the battle and the rites and cared for Egypt." The immense coffin of took A'ata prisoner. The troops of A'ata were given as Ah'hotep was found in 1881, used for PINUDJEM (1). Her slaves to the veteran Egyptian soldiers. 'Ahmose then mummified remains were discovered in a small tomb established the viceroyalty, or governorship, of Kush, or near the entrance to the VALLEY OF THE KINGS. No original NUBIA (modern Sudan), with the administrative offices tomb has been identified. located on the ELEPHANTINE Island at Aswan. A trusted
companion, 'AHMOSE SITAYET, was named to this position.
A second Nubian campaign settled the region. Ah'hotep (2) (fl. 16th century B.C.E.) Royal woman of
Sharuhen surrendered after three, or possibly six, the Eighteenth Dynasty
years, and the Egyptians followed the Hyksos all the way She was the consort of AMENHOTEP I (r. 15251504
into modern Syria. They fought battles there to rid them- B.C.E.). The daughter of 'AHMOSE and Queen 'AHMOSE-
selves of Hyksos survivors, and when that campaign NEFERTARI, Ah'hotep married her brother and is listed as
ended, 'Ahmose turned to the matter of a national gov- "King's Daughter, King's Wife, King's Mother." Amen-
ernment. He rewarded his loyal followers with land hotep I, however, died without an heir. The son born to
grants and rebuilt canals and irrigation systems. Mines him by Ah'hotep died in infancy. This baby, AMUNEMHET
and QUARRIES were opened and foreign TRADE resumed. (1), was discovered in a cache of mummies alongside his
An inscription at MASARA states that in his 22nd year of aunt, 'AHMOSE-MERYTAMON. Ah'hotep was buried in
rule, 'Ahmose opened the quarry there for limestone to THEBES.
be used at Heliopolis and for AMUN's temple at OPET, now
part of LUXOR. The MASARA STELA, erected by an official 'Ahmose (Nebpehtiré) (d. 1525 B.C.E.) Founder of the named NEFERPERET, states that captured Hyksos oxen Eighteenth Dynasty and the New Kingdom were used to drag the quarried stones to the barges on the 'Ahmose, whose name means "The Moon Arises," reigned Nile. 'Ahmose returned to the campaign in Palestine and from 1550 B.C.E. until his death. 'Ahmose's dynasty also on the Mediterranean coast in his later years. A STELA put opened the historical period called the New Kingdom up on the Euphrates River in modern Iraq by TUTHMOSIS I (15501070 B.C.E.). He was the son of Sekenenre TA'O II (r. 15041492 B.C.E.) refers to 'Ahmose being on the and Queen AH'HOTEP (1) at THEBES, and the brother of banks of that river in his own era. KAMOSE, the last ruler of the Seventeenth Dynasty. 'Ahmose's chief consort was 'Ahmose-Nefertari, and Kamose and Ta'o II had waged war against the HYKSOS, or they had several children: AMENHOTEP I (his heir), Asiatics, who had usurped the northeastern regions of 'AHMOSE-SIPAIR, SIAMUN (2), and Ramose. His daughters Egypt and had perished in the attempt. 'Ahmose suc- were 'AHMOSE-MERYTAMON and AH'HOTEP (2). Other con- ceeded to the throne of Thebes when Kamose died. sorts were 'AHMOSE-IN-HAPI and THENT HEP, the mother of
Young at the time, 'Ahmose was unable to take Princess Hent Temehu. TETISHERI, his grandmother, coun- advantage of Kamose's gains. The Hyksos regrouped and seled him in his early years, as did his mother, Ah'hotep captured HELIOPOLIS. For perhaps a decade 'Ahmose was (1). A unique BUILDING INSCRIPTION depicts 'Ahmose and served by his mother as his regent, and she consolidated 'Ahmose-Nefertari seated together in the royal residence. his southern holdings and prepared him to lead an army This ABYDOS commemorative, a stela six and a half feet northward. 'Ahmose brought a military cunning and an high and three feet wide, describes how the royal couple administrative genius to bear on the war and on the sub- planned the great mortuary memorials for his mother, sequent decades of his reign. 'Ahmose moved against Ah'hotep, and his grandmother, Tetisheri. AVARIS, the Hyksos capital in the eastern DELTA, using 'Ahmose was about 35 years old when he died in land forces and ships that were able to navigate the east- 1525 B.C.E. His tomb was erected at DRA-ABÚ EL-NAGA on ern branches of the Nile. Placing Avaris under siege, the western shore of Thebes, and a second false tomb was 'Ahmose had to put down a rebellion of priests in another erected in Abydos with a terraced temple. This was a true 16 'Ahmose II
pyramid with scenes of his expulsion of the Hyksos. died, 'AHMOSE-SIPAIR became the heir and possibly co- 'Ahmose's funerary complex cult continued for a long regent, also dying before 'Ahmose. AMENHOTEP I became time after his death. His remains were found in DEIR EL- the second king of the dynasty. It is possible that Queen BAHRI in 1881, not in his undiscovered tomb, and they 'AHMOSE (1), the consort of TUTHMOSIS I (15041492 were wreathed in pale blue delphiniums. 'Ahmose's mum- B.C.E.), was a daughter of Prince 'Ahmose-ankh. mified remains were also protected by a covering of tough black resin. He was buried in a large cedar coffin. 'Ahmose-Hetempet (fl. 16th century B.C.E.) Royal Forensic studies indicate that 'Ahmose was of medium woman of the Seventeenth Dynasty height, somewhat thin, with a firm chin and good teeth. 'Ahmose-Hetempet was a daughter of Sekenenré TA'O II He suffered from arthritis and scoliosis, both diseases (c. 1560 B.C.E.) and Queen AH'HOTEP (1). Her mummified prominent in the dynasty. 'Ahmose was not circumcised, remains were discovered in DEIR EL-BAHRI in 1881. although it was a custom of the time. 'Ahmose-Hetempet had dark hair and was discovered in a
sycamore coffin. Her original tomb has not been located. 'Ahmose II See AMASIS.
'Ahmose-Hettinehu (fl. 16th century B.C.E.) Royal 'Ahmose (1) (fl. 16th century B.C.E.) Royal woman of woman of the Seventeenth Dynasty the Eighteenth Dynasty She was a daughter of Sekenenré TA'O II (c. 1560 B.C.E.) She was the Great Wife, or ranking consort, of TUTHMOSIS I and Queen 'AHMOSE-IN-HAPI. Her remains were found at (r. 15041492 B.C.E.). Although she is sometimes men- DEIR EL-BAHRI, damaged and refurbished. 'Ahmose-Het- tioned as a daughter of 'AHMOSE and sister of AMENHOTEP tinehu's coffin was made of acacia and saved from her I, in her titles she is called "King's Sister" but not "King's
original vandalized tomb. Daughter." She may have been the daughter of Prince 'AHMOSE-ANKH.
She was given in marriage to Tuthmosis I when he 'Ahmose-In-Hapi (fl. 16th century B.C.E.) Royal was designated as the heir of Amenhotep I. 'Ahmose bore woman of the Seventeenth Dynasty four children: her sons AMENMOSE and WADJMOSE, and She was a secondary consort of Sekenenré TA'O II (c. 1560 her daughters NEFERUKHEB and HATSHEPSUT. Neither of B.C.E.) and the mother of Princess 'AHMOSE-HETTINEHU.
'Ahmose's sons was designated as heir to the throne. 'Ahmose-In-Hapi's remains are those of a strong woman, Neferukheb died young, and Hatshepsut became a queen- and her dark hair was in plaits. She was a daughter of pharaoh of Egypt. Senakhtenré TA'O I.
'Ahmose was celebrated in the temple reliefs erected by Hatshepsut, who ruled from 1473 to 1458 B.C.E. The 'Ahmose-Merytamon (fl. 16th century B.C.E.) Royal temple is at DEIR EL-BAHRI on the western shore of the woman of the Eighteenth Dynasty Nile at Thebes. These inscriptions and a portrait were She was a lesser-ranked consort of AMENHOTEP I designed to validate Hatshepsut's usurpation of the (15251504 B.C.E.) and the daughter of 'AHMOSE and the throne. 'Ahmose is described as having been visited by half sister of Amenhotep I. Little is known of her life, but the god AMUN, who fathered Hatshepsut in a shower of her remains provide extensive evidence of arthritis and gold. She did not live to see her daughter raised to the scoliosis, diseases prominent in her royal line. Her throne, as she died at a young age. The portraits of Queen mummy was discovered in a cache of royal remains at 'Ahmose depict a vigorous, handsome woman. DEIR EL-BAHRI, moved from her original tomb on the west
bank of the Nile at Thebes. The mummy of an infant 'Ahmose (2) (fl. 15th century B.C.E.) Prince of the Eigh- prince, AMUNEMHET (1), her nephew, was found beside teenth Dynasty her remains. 'Ahmose-Merytamon's body was badly dam- The son of AMENHOTEP II (r. 14271401 B.C.E.), he was aged, and her arms were broken off her body. not the designated heir to the throne and served as the high priest of the god RÉ at HELIOPOLIS. A burial stela at 'Ahmose-Nefertari (fl. 16th century B.C.E.) Royal the cemetery of the MNEVIS bulls, the THEOPHANIES of the woman of the Eighteenth Dynasty god Ré in some eras, was discovered bearing his name. She was the daughter of Sekenenré TA'O II and Queen His burial site remains undocumented. AH'HOTEP (1) and the wife of 'AHMOSE (r. 15501525
B.C.E.). 'Ahmose-Nefertari probably married her brother, 'Ahmose-ankh (fl. 16th century B.C.E.) Prince of the KAMOSE, the last ruler of the Seventeenth Dynasty, who Eighteenth Dynasty died in 1550 B.C.E. while engaged in a war with the HYK- The son of 'AHMOSE (r. 15501525 B.C.E.), this prince is SOS, or Asiatics, in the northeastern DELTA. When 'Ahmose an obscure figure but is reported in some lists to have came to the throne at a young age, she became his Great been the original heir to the throne. When 'Ahmose-ankh Wife, or ranking queen. She was 'Ahmose's sister. 'Ahmose, son of Ebana 17
'Ahmose-Nefertari played a unique role in founding 'Ahmose's campaigns, including the battle with A'ATA and the Eighteenth Dynasty and the New Kingdom historical the Nubian forces south of Aswan in modern Sudan. period with her husband. She was visible to Egyptian soci- He lived to take part in at least one campaign con- ety in all phases of rebuilding the nation after the expul- ducted by AMENHOTEP I (r. 15251504 B.C.E.). 'Ahmose- sion of the Hyksos by 'Ahmose and his forces. Inscriptions Pen Nekhebet received many honors during his lifetime, in the SINAI Peninsula and on SAL ISLAND at the third and his tomb chronicles have served succeeding genera- cataract of the Nile, in modern Sudan, include her name tions by providing a precise and clear firsthand account and rank. The "BUILDING INSCRIPTION" erected in ABYDOS of his tumultuous era. Some records indicate that he lived relates how 'Ahmose and 'Ahmose-Nefertari sat together until the reign of HATSHEPSUT (r. 14731458 B.C.E.) to plan the great mortuary complexes for their mother, Ah'hotep (1), and their grandmother, Queen TETISHERI. 'Ahmose-Sipair (fl. 16th century B.C.E.) Prince and pos- Their recorded conversation is tenderly described, con- sible coruler of the Eighteenth Dynasty cerned with fulfilling obligations to these deceased He was the son of 'AHMOSE (r. 15501525 B.C.E.) and women who had guided Egypt during the Hyksos crisis. Queen 'AHMOSE-NEFERTARI, and possibly served as coruler
'Ahmose-Nefertari bore the heir, AMENHOTEP I; Prince with his father. His tomb, which was erected on the west- 'AHMOSE-SIPAIR (one of the original heirs); Prince Ramose; ern shore of THEBES, displays insignias reserved for kings. Princess AH'HOTEP (2); and other daughters. She survived 'Ahmose-Sipair died before he could inherit the throne, 'Ahmose and counseled Amenhotep I (r. 15251504 and AMENHOTEP I, his brother, became the second ruler of B.C.E.) during the early years of his reign, having the title the New Kingdom Period. Another brother, Prince "Female Chieftain of Upper and Lower Egypt." Many 'AHMOSE-ANKH, had been the original heir but had died honors were bestowed upon 'Ahmose-Nefertari by the young. The mummified remains of Prince 'Ahmose-Sipair court because of her prior role as queen regent. When she were found in DEIR EL-BAHRI, tied to a stick and in a died at the age of 70, she was given a portion of Amen- sycamore coffin, having been recovered from his vandal- hotep's mortuary temple on the western shore of the Nile ized tomb. at THEBES. Her mortuary cult--the daily offerings and cer- emonies made at her tomb--remained popular for almost 'Ahmose Sitayet (fl. 16th century B.C.E.) Vizier of the a century. Eighteenth Dynasty
'Ahmose-Nefertari was the first Egyptian royal 'Ahmose Sitayet was appointed by 'AHMOSE (r. 15501525 woman to be designated the "GOD'S WIFE OF AMUN." This B.C.E.) as the viceroy of Kush, or NUBIA, the territory title, associated with the deity AMUN, assumed powerful south of ASWAN (in modern Sudan). He accompanied attributes in later eras, providing dynasties with unique 'Ahmose in the military campaigns against A'ATA and the political powers. Some lists indicate that she was alive Nubian rebellion, and after the Egyptian victory he was when TUTHMOSIS I came to the throne as Amenhotep I's appointed VIZIER, or governor, of the region, a post that heir. At the death of Amenhotep I in 1504 B.C.E., he and carried the title "King's Son of Kush." In this capacity 'Ahmose-Nefertari were deified as the patrons of Thebes. 'Ahmose Sitayet lived at Aswan on the ELEPHANTINE 'Ahmose-Nefertari also founded an order of upper-class Island. There he administered the mines and quarries of women, called the "Divine Votaresses of Karnak." The the region and supervised the extensive trade campaigns unusual depictions of 'Ahmose-Nefertari in blue-black conducted by the Egyptians from forts extending south- tones of deification reflect her status and cult, which ward on the Nile, outposts dating to the Middle Kingdom remained popular for centuries. The mummified remains era (20401640 B.C.E.). His son, Tjuroy, succeeded him in of 'Ahmose-Nefertari were discovered in DEIR EL-BAHRI in the post. damaged condition. She was almost bald and had on a human-hair wig. Her front teeth were prominent, a physi-
'Ahmose, son of Ebana (fl. 16th century B.C.E.) Mili- cal trait inherited from her line, and her right hand had
tary and court official of the Eighteenth Dynasty been removed.
'Ahmose, son of Ebana, served the dynastic founder,
'AHMOSE (r. 15501525 B.C.E.), and then AMENHOTEP I (r. 'Ahmose-Pen Nekhebet (fl. 16th century B.C.E.) 15251504 B.C.E.) and later rulers. A noble of Nekheb Courtier and military officer of the Eighteenth Dynasty (modern ELKAB), he was involved in military campaigns He served in the reign of 'AHMOSE (r. 15501525 B.C.E.), of Egypt which he described on the walls of his tomb (as and, like 'AHMOSE, SON OF EBANA, another military chroni- did 'AHMOSE-PEN NEKHEBET). Personalized and dramatic, cler of the era, 'Ahmose-Pen Nekhebet was a noble from these accounts provide a rare insight into the mili- Nekheb (modern ELKAB). The military campaigns that led tary procedures of the era and the religious and social to the expulsion of the HYKSOS, or Asiatics, from Egypt by processes. 'Ahmose are clearly recorded in 'Ahmose-Pen Nekhebet's He was in the campaign against A'ATA, in the Nubian tomb. On the walls of the tomb in Elkab, he chronicles area (modern Sudan), receiving slaves and lands as his 18 'Ahmose Tumerisy
share in the victory of the Egyptians under 'Ahmose. Akhenaten served as coregent with his father, AMEN- 'Ahmose, son of Ebana, was the grandfather of PAHERI. HOTEP III (r. 13911353 B.C.E.), maintaining the usual
cultic rituals until he married NEFERTITI, perhaps a 'Ahmose Tumerisy (fl. 16th century B.C.E.) Royal woman cousin, and possibly a daughter of AYA (2) and Tiye, com- of the Eighteenth Dynasty moners. Alternatively, Nefertiti might have been a com- She was the daughter of AMENHOTEP I (r. 15251504 moner granddaughter of YUYA and Tuya, the parents of B.C.E.) and Queen AH'HOTEP (2). During the reign of Queen TIYE (1). The marriage was politically advanta- TUTHMOSIS I (15041492 B.C.E.), 'Ahmose Tumerisy lived geous because Nefertiti's family came from AKHMIN, a in the royal residence of THEBES, serving perhaps as an stronghold of aristocratic power needed by the pharaohs. "auntie" to the royal children or being married to an offi- In the second year of his reign, Akhenaten began his cial. A favorite of the court, she was honored by the worship of the solar god ATEN, a deity that had been evi- pharaoh and his family. 'Ahmose Tumerisy was buried in dent in the royal structures of TUTHMOSIS IV (r. a platform at DEIR EL-BAHRI, on the Theban shore of the 14011391 B.C.E.), his grandfather, and AMENHOTEP III. Nile, in the complex erected by MONTUHOTEP II (r. Aten was a SOLAR DISK that shone on the Nile River, 20612010 B.C.E.). Some records indicate that she was believed by some scholars to be a form of Re'-Harakhte. originally buried in DRA-ABÚ EL-NAGA. The young pharaoh renounced the name Amenhotep and
called himself Akhenaten, the "Horizon of the Sun Disk"
or "He Who is of the Service to Aten." Nefertiti became Aigyptos The Greek word that gave rise to the modern
Nefer-Nefru-Aten, meaning "Beautiful is the Beauty of name Egypt, it was derived from the term Hiku-Ptah,
Aten." which denoted the city of MEMPHIS as "the Mansion of the Soul of PTAH." In the fourth year of his reign, Akhenaten and Nefer-
titi visited a site on the Nile south of modern MALLAWI.
There a new capital was constructed, called Akhetaten, Aion A deity of the Greco-Roman Period in Egypt from "the Horizon of the Sun Disk." This site is now known as 332 B.C.E. to 395 C.E., he was believed to be a personifica- el-'AMARNA, in honor of a tribe of Bedouins who settled tion of Time. A solar deity, associated with SERAPIS and there in the 1700's C.E. Vast and marked by 14 perimeter the Roman deity Mithras, the god was depicted in a relief stelae, the new capital was six miles long, centering on found in OXYRRHYNCHUS (1) (modern el-Bahnasa). The the royal residence and the temple of Aten. There were panel shows a winged creature with the head of a lion, well-planned urban districts, pools, gardens, and a royal the torso of a human, and the legs of a goat. An aura or avenue that ran parallel to the Nile. An innovative brick nimbus surrounds the god's head. He holds keys, a torch, bridge, designed to connect two separate buildings and and a bolt of lightning. His cult was popular only in local containing an opening called the WINDOW OF APPEAR- areas. ANCE, where the ruler and his consort addressed guests
and bestowed honors upon courtiers who had served Aker An ancient deity of Egypt in the form of a lion, with distinction, graced the royal avenue. The beautiful usually depicted in pairs, back to back, and called Akeru and unique "Amarna style" was used in decorating the in the plural, Aker was originally an earth god but capital, demonstrating a natural and free unison of the became involved in the cult of RÉ, which was solar in ori- arts. Akhetaten was completed in the fifth or sixth year of gin. He represented the eastern and western horizons of Akhenaten's reign. the Underworld, or TUAT, and faced both the sunrise and Religious services in the capital were reserved for the sunset. The Akeru guarded the solar bark of Ré on his Akhenaten alone, although he appointed a high priest in daily sojourns across the sky. A lion cult in Aker's honor the later years. Few others had access to the sacred was started at To Remu or LEONTOPOLIS (the modern Tel precincts; even Nefertiti was relegated to minor roles in Migdam). Akeru were depicted in the tomb of Queen the daily rituals. Many ceremonies were held in the open NEFERTARI, the Great Wife, or first consort, of RAMESSES II sunlight, a custom that brought about complaints from (r. 12901224 B.C.E.). foreign dignitaries. These ambassadors and legates from
other lands attended the ceremonies in honor of Aten and Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV, Neferkheperure' suffered heatstrokes as a result. Wa'en're) (d. 1335 B.C.E.) Ninth ruler of the Eighteenth Outside of the capital, however, the old gods of Dynasty, called the "heretic pharaoh" Egypt held sway. Akhenaten closed down some temples, He reigned from 1353 B.C.E. until his death. Akhenaten confiscating the vast plantations of the priests. He also has been called the first monotheist or the "heretic viewed himself as the lone mediator with Aten, thus pharaoh" in some lists, because of his denial of the divine injuring the great bureaucratic machinery that main- pantheons of Egypt. His throne name was Neferkhepe- tained Egypt's vast government agencies. His destruction ruré (translated as "Re's transformations are perfect"), to of temple plantations, sources of valuable food products, which he added Wa'en're ("the unique one of Ré"). led Egypt toward economic ruin. Abuses by lesser offi- akhet 19
cials and the weakening of established distribution pro- other innovations of the 'Amarna style of art, a won- cesses started early in his reign. drously free and gifted method of expressing Egyptian
In his eighth year, Akhenaten welcomed his mother, metaphysical ideals. Egyptian LITERATURE of this time Queen Tiye, and his sister, BAKETAMUN, to the capital. demonstrates the same creativity and limitless explo- They accepted a villa there and remained at Akhenaten's ration of ideas. During Akhenaten's reign the spoken lan- side. He was still militarily active at the time, not having guage of Egypt was used in written texts, replacing the established his reclusive ways or his abandonment of formal, classical language of former periods. 'Amarna is Egypt as a nation. During this period he conducted a also famous for its potent beer, which has survived to this campaign south of ASWAN (in modern Sudan) and sent day. Using the recipe discovered in the ruins of the capi- troops to Egyptian vassal states in the Mediterranean tal, breweries in Scotland and elsewhere are marketing region. Mercenary troops maintained garrisons in vassal that era's refreshment. cities. The collection of correspondence from this era is Akhenaten has been called the world's first monothe- called the 'AMARNA LETTERS. They demonstrate his mili- ist, but he allowed other solar deities to be displayed in tary activities. his capital at 'Amarna. He also declared himself a god, the
His family life was deteriorating, however. A second son of Aten, and had a high priest dedicated to his cult, wife, KIYA, possibly a MITANNI princess originally named sharing his jubilee ceremonies with Aten. Akhenaten has TADUKHIPA, bore him two sons and a daughter but then been recorded as being a pacifist, oblivious to the needs fell out of favor. A daughter by Nefertiti, MEKET-ATEN, is of the empire. However, wall scenes at 'Amarna depict reported to have died bearing Akhenaten's child, and by him and Nefertiti smiting Egypt's enemies, and he did the 12th year of his reign, Nefertiti was no longer at his maintain garrisons in his territories. side. She was replaced by another one of her daughters, The fact that Egypt entered a period of turmoil dur- MERYT-AMUN (1). Nefertiti remained in the capital but ing his reign can be attributed to his attempt at religious resided in a separate villa, removed from religious and reformation, a concept quite beyond the comprehension social affairs. Her demise is not documented. Some his- of the average Egyptian at the time. His choice of lesser torical accounts state that she lived to counsel ranked individuals, newcomers to power in his court, led TUT'ANKHAMUN when he took the throne in 1333 B.C.E. to a dismal inability to grasp foreign affairs in their full
After Nefertiti's exit from the palace, Akhenaten context and to maintain the vast bureaucratic machinery became even more involved in the service of Aten. He that guided Egypt over the centuries, leading to chaotic spoke of the god as a celestial pharaoh, using the sun abuses and confusion. Akhenaten was a recluse in disks and its illuminating rays as symbols of creation. 'Amarna for too long a period and was unable to commu- Akhenaten's hymn to Aten, discovered in the tomb of Aya nicate his own religious vision to the Egyptian people as in 'Amarna, provides the universal theme of worship that a whole. he tried to promote throughout the land. His agents, however, began a program of destruction that violated the Suggested Readings: Montserrat, Dominic. Akhenaten: other temples and shrines of Egypt, dismaying the com- History, Fantasy and Ancient Egypt. New York: Routledge, mon populace and making Aten unpopular. 2000; Redford, Donald. Akhenaten. Princeton, N.J.:
SMENKHARÉ, a relative of Akhenaten, and the hus- Princeton Univ. Press, 1987; Weigall, Arthur. The Life and band of Meryt-Amun, is believed by some scholars to Times of Akhnaton. New York: Cooper Square Press, 2000. have been Nefertiti in assumed guise, serving for a time as coregent. He succeeded Akhenaten in 1335 B.C.E. but
akhet (1) The season of inundation in the ancient ruled only two years, dying at the age of 20. Akhenaten
Egyptian calendar, the rising of Sirius, the dogstar, called died in his 18th year of reign, 1335 B.C.E., and was buried
SOPDU by the Egyptians and Sothis by the Greeks, sig- in 'Amarna. His remains were moved by priests when
naled the beginning of the annual flooding of the Nile. Tut'ankhamun was entombed and placed somewhere in
When this sign appeared in the heavens the river was set THEBES. His capital was abandoned, and later rulers, such
to spread over the fields and orchards along the banks, as HOREMHAB (13191307 B.C.E.), removed stones called
revitalizing the land with silt and effluvium from Africa's TALATATS for other projects. Some 12,000 blocks from
core. Akhet was the first season of the year, starting as it Akhenaten's capital at 'Amarna have been gathered from a
did with the rising of the Nile, a factor that all Egyptians pylon built by Horemhab at KARNAK.
understood as basic to the nation's vitality. Akhet was one
Akhenaten's portraits intrigue modern scholars,
of the three major seasons of the Egyptian calendar year, depicting a grotesque figure with a sagging torso and
with a duration of four 30-day months. Akhet was fol- elongated features. Some of these images indicate a dis-
lowed on the calendar by the seasons PROYET and SHOMU. ease, such as Fröhlich's Syndrome. It is possible, however,
See also CALENDAR; SEASONS. that these statues were Osirian in style, portraying the god of death in the stages of decomposition, a popular artistic device in certain eras. The statues correlate to akhet (2) See HORIZON. 20 Akhetaten
Akhetaten See 'AMARNA, EL-. Egypt's vast empire in the New Kingdom Period
(15501070 B.C.E.). The 'AMARNA LETTERS were written in Akhethotep (fl. 24th century B.C.E.) Official of the Fifth Babylonian, a late form of the Akkadian language. Dynasty and the son of the vizier Ptah-hotep Akhethotep served NIUSERRÉ (r. 24162392 B.C.E.) as Alara (fl. c. 780 B.C.E.) Powerful ruler of Napata, in Nubia VIZIER, a position also held by his father before him. He The kingdom of NAPATA, located in NUBIA, modern Sudan, also served as a judge and as an overseer of priests maintained Egyptian traditions in religious, social, and involved in the MORTUARY RITUALS conducted at the pyra- governmental affairs. Alara was the brother of KASHTA, mids of deceased pharaohs. His grandson, PTAH-HOTEP who founded the Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt, ruling (2), the great sage famous for his Maxims, was buried in from 770 to 750 B.C.E. Kashta and his successor, PIANKHI an alcove of Akhethotep's tomb. Elaborate paintings tes- (1), ruled only a part of Egypt in their lifetimes. The Nap- tify to the wealth and prestige of this distinguished fam- atans would later claim all of Egypt when SHABAKA ily. Akhethotep's tomb was discovered in SAQQARA, near marched northward in 712 B.C.E. and conquered the modern Cairo. entire Nile Valley. Alara's daughter, TABIRY, the mother of
Shabaka, married Piankhi. Alara's wife was a noblewoman Akh-iker-en-Ré See ANCESTOR CULT LETTERS. named Kassaga.
Akhlane (Akhlamu) An ancient Semitic nomadic alchemy A term derived from the ancient Egyptian group in northern Syria, called "the enemies of the ASSYR- skill in the working of precious metals, alchemy has a IANS." In the reign of AKHENATEN (Amenhotep IV, r. modern occult influence. The word is derived from the 13531335 B.C.E.), the Akhlane appear in the Egyptian Arabic al-kimia, the art of Khemet, Khem, or Kamt, correspondence known today as the 'AMARNA LETTERS. which means the Black Land--Egypt. Alchemy is thus They are described as a vigorous clan on the Euphrates the "Art of Egypt." River and in the area of the Persian Gulf. The Assyrians, who found them a formidable foe, called them the Alexander II See PTOLEMY XI. "Akhlamu-Aramaeans." The Akhlane disappeared soon after Akhenaten's reign, possibly absorbed into other cul- tures or renamed in later historical periods. Alexander [III] the Great (d. c. 323 B.C.E.) Conqueror
of Egypt in 332 B.C.E. and the ruler of the known world in
his era Akhmin (Khent Menu, Apu, Panopolis, Khemmis) He was the third king named Alexander in Macedonia, A site almost 300 miles south of modern Cairo, called
the son of Philip of Macedonia and Queen OLYMPIAS of Khent Menu, or Apu by the Egyptians and Panopolis by
Epirus. Born in Philip's capital, Pellas, in 356 B.C.E., the Greeks. Another name, Khemmis, was derived from
Alexander was tutored for three years, from the age of 13 the Greeks. Akhmin served as the capital of the ninth
to 16, by Aristotle. The great philosopher was at Alexan- NOME and the cultic center for the worship of the god
der's side when the young prince assumed the Macedo- MIN (1). The goddess TAIT was also honored in the city. A
nian throne in 336 B.C.E. Alexander had also been necropolis dating to the Sixth Dynasty (23232150
trained in military arts, in keeping with the Macedonian B.C.E.) is on the site. Recent construction uncovered a
tradition. statue of RAMESSES II (r. 12901224 B.C.E.) in Akhmin. A
Two years later, Alexander started a campaign against second statue depicted Ramesses II's daughter, Queen
the Persian Empire and in November 333 B.C.E., the MERYAMUN. A temple dating to Egypt's Eighteenth
Macedonian king and his superbly trained army defeated Dynasty was also uncovered there. Egypt's linen industry
the Persians under King DARIUS III Codoman at GRANICUS was fostered in Akhmin in late eras. The Greek scholar
and ISSUS. The Persians should have won the battle of STRABO visited Akhmin in the Ptolemaic Period (30430
Issus, but Macedonian resolve and Alexander's military B.C.E.).
acumen insured the victory for the Greeks. Darius III
tried to make peace, but Alexander refused and went to Akhtoy See KHETY. Phoenicia, where he conquered the city of Tyre in 332.
His capture of this key site ended Persia's power on the Akkadians The dynasty founded by Sargon in north- Mediterranean coast. Alexander then conquered Palestine ern Mesopotamia c. 2371 B.C.E. also used to designate and entered the Nile Valley. In the fall of 332 B.C.E., groups in the area who shared the Semitic languages, the Alexander entered Egypt, claiming the territory as a rich Akkadians adopted the Sumerian cuneiform writing sys- and valuable prize. The Persian satrap on the Nile tem and were represented culturally in Assyria and Baby- resisted for a time but then surrendered Egypt to the lon. The Akkadian language became the lingua franca of young conqueror. Aware of the fact that the Egyptians Alexander Balas 21
looked upon him as just another foreign tyrant, Alexan- Suggested Readings: Fox, Robin Lane. Alexander the der courted them by using their own religious mecha- Great (New York: Penguin, 1994); Green, Peter. Alexan- nisms. He went to the famed Oasis of SIWA in the LIBYAN der of Macedon 356323 B.C.: A Historical Biography DESERT, where he visited the ORACLE of AMUN. This was a (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992); Wood, shrine dedicated to the god Amun, who spoke to wor- Michael. In the Footsteps of Alexander The Great: A Journey shipers and gave responses to questions about religious from Greece to Asia (Berkeley: University of California and state affairs. Alexander was declared the true ruler of Press, 1997). Egypt at Siwa Oasis, and word of Amun's recognition spread quickly throughout the land.
He cemented this acclamation by going to MEMPHIS, Alexander IV (Ha'a-ibre Setep-en-Amun) (d. 304
B.C.E.) Ruler of Egypt and son of Alexander the Great the ancient capital, to be crowned in the traditional man- ner, including the seal of approval of the SOULS OF PE and He was the son of ALEXANDER [III] THE GREAT and Rox- the SOULS OF NEKHEN. Throughout Egypt rumors spread anne and ruled Egypt from 316 B.C.E. until his death. that Alexander was the son of NECTANEBO II, the ruler of Alexander IV took the throne name Ha'a-ibre Setep-en- Egypt from 360 to 343 B.C.E. Queen Olympias was Amun, translated as "Ré's Heart Rejoices, Chosen of depicted as having had an affair with Nectanebo II, with Amun." Alexander IV was born after the death of his Alexander resulting from their love. Alexander's Egyptian father in 323 B.C.E. His uncle PHILIP III ARRHIDAEUS, re- throne name was Mery-amun-Setepenre', translated as portedly a somewhat challenged half brother of Alexan- "Beloved of Amun, Chosen by Ré." der the Great, ruled from 323 to 316 B.C.E., when he
Alexander also founded a new capital for the Land of was murdered. the Two Kingdoms at the site of a small village called PTOLEMY I served as satrap or governor of Egypt for
Rakhotis, on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea. This both Philip and Alexander. Roxanne, as queen, probably city, ALEXANDRIA, would become one of the major cultural held the post of regent for her son. In 304 B.C.E., Cas- centers of the world during the Ptolemaic and Roman sander, the Macedonian "General of Europe," murdered Periods. Alexandria was located in the western Nile Delta Alexander and Roxanne. Queen OLYMPIAS, the mother of and was provided with an offshore causeway, connected Alexander the Great, fell to the henchmen of Cassander to a small island to provide safe harbor for trading ships. at the same time. The royal house of Macedonia had been
In the spring of 331 B.C.E., Alexander marched out destroyed. of Egypt, leaving two Greek governors in command, Ptolemy and Cleomenes. CLEOMENES OF NAUKRATIS, a Alexander Aetolus (fl. third century B.C.E.) Greek poet Greek resident of Egypt, soon took charge of affairs, of Alexandria completing Alexandria. Ptolemy, the son of Lagus, bided PTOLEMY II PHILADELPHUS (r. 285246 B.C.E.) appointed his time but had his own ambitions for Egypt, becoming Alexander Aetolus as an official of the great LIBRARY OF PTOLEMY I SOTER. As they consolidated Macedonian
ALEXANDRIA. The library was an institution known for its control over Egypt, Alexander met Darius III at vast archives that included centuries of world history and GAUGAMELA and defeated him once again. Darius fled
the cultural achievement of many peoples. His task was but was assassinated by a former ally. Alexander con- to list and catalog the tragic dramas housed in the library. quered Babylon, Ecbatana, Persepolis, and Susa, the Alexander Aetolus's writings are lost, although the title of great Persian cities, and then marched on Medea. He one of his plays, Astragalistae, or "The Dice Throwers," took the title of Basileus, the Great King, and entered has survived. Alexander's shorter poetic works are known India in 326 B.C.E. in modern times only by fragments that have survived
His death in Babylon in June 323 B.C.E. began a over the centuries. titanic struggle for control of his vast empire. Ptolemy I claimed Egypt for himself. In a bold strike, he and a picked cohort of veterans rode hard to the north to inter- Alexander Balas (Ephiphanes) (fl. second century cept the massive funeral procession of Alexander's B.C.E.) King of Syria and Pergamum, modern Turkey remains. He had been embalmed in honey and placed in a He asked PTOLEMY VI PHILOMETOR (r. 180164/163145 large mausoleum on wheels so that his body could be B.C.E.) to aid him in ruling the remains of the crumbled seen and publicly venerated by the people of his con- Macedonian Empire. Alexander Balas slew Demetrius I quered domain as he progressed toward the royal burial Soter, the heir of the Syrian Seleucid Dynasty. When ground in Macedonia. Ptolemy I and his men captured DEMETRIUS II NICATOR, the son of Demetrius I, met the body and set off for Alexandria, where the conqueror Alexander Balas in battle, he avenged his father's death. was put into a crystal coffin. Alexander the Great was Alexander Balas had maintained Egyptian support and then reportedly buried under the junction of the Canopic the approval of the Senate of Rome until the fateful battle Way and the Street of the Soma in Alexandria. that ended his life. 22 Alexander Helios
Alexander Helios (fl. first century B.C.E.) Son of being constructed in his name. Alexander's viceroy, Cleopatra VII (5130 B.C.E.) and Marc Antony CLEOMENES OF NAUKRATIS, was thus the actual creator of He was born in 40 B.C.E., the twin of CLEOPATRA SELENE. Egypt's new capital, which was ideally situated for trade Alexander Helios was designated the ruler of "Farther and commerce and expanded rapidly. Dinocrates, the Asia," an area that included Armenia, Medea, and the Greek city planner from Rhodes, supervised the actual unconquered realms of the Parthians. He vanishes from construction. the scene after the Battle of ACTIUM and the suicides of The center of the city was designed to provide TRADE CLEOPATRA VII and Marc ANTONY. centers, residences, sunken courts, and even catacombs.
The SERAPEUM (2), the sacred burial site and shrine of the Alexandria The capital of Ptolemaic Egypt, founded sacred APIS bulls, was built on the hill of Rhakotis in the in 331 B.C.E. by ALEXANDER THE GREAT as the result of a city's oldest section. Royal residences, municipal build- vision, the conqueror chose the site of Rhakotis in the ings, and government seats were also introduced. Two western Delta of the Nile. Rhakotis was an ancient other structures also brought acclaim to the new capital: town, dating to the New Kingdom (15501070 B.C.E.) the LIBRARY OF ALEXANDRIA and the LIGHTHOUSE at and was located on the westernmost Nile tributary. Two Pharos. The remains of Alexander the Great were report- limestone ridges run parallel to the coast of Alexandria, edly placed in the Soma of the city after being restored to the outer one breaking the waves and the inner ridge the capital by PTOLEMY I SOTER in 323 B.C.E. Ptolemaic protecting the city against shifting alluvium. Alexander mausoleums and the tombs of ANTONY and CLEOPATRA VII ordered a causeway, called the Heptastadion, "seven have disappeared over the centuries, along with the con- stades long," to link the ridges. Two ancient harbors queror's body. were on either side: the Eunostos or Harbor of Safe Thousands of new residents flocked to Alexandria, Return on the west, and the Great Harbor on the east. A and grants of property, called a cleruchy, were given to third harbor, on Lake MAREOTIS, linked the city to the foreign mercenaries who resided in the city and made Nile. themselves available for military service. A Greek elite
Two suburban areas, Neopolis and the Island of moved from NAUKRATIS (el-Nibeira), the original Hellenic Pharos, were included in Alexander's original plans. He outpost, and special laws and regulations were passed to did not remain in Egypt, however, and never saw the city protect their unique status.
Sphinxes and other monuments displayed in Old Alexandria. (Hulton Archive.) 'Amarna, el- 23
of KARNAK at THEBES with a pink granite altar. The New
Alexandria Modern coastline
Kingdom (15501070 B.C.E.) altars had evolved into vast
Ancient coastline stone tables with ramps and steps that added to their
pre-Hellenistic City wall in Roman dominance. The limestone altar of the god Ré-Horakhte
harbor works period
at DEIR EL-BAHRI, on the western shore of Thebes, had ten
(lighthouse) 0 2,500 Feet steps leading to its dais. The ATEN altars at 'AMARNA were
0 800 Meters
designed with ramps and courtyards. In the Late Period
(712332 B.C.E.), altars with horned designs were used,
(ancient causeway made of stone or brick blocks with raised corners.
to Pharos Island)
See also TEMPLES.
ancient city Jewish
necropolis Amada A site in NUBIA, modern Sudan, Amada was
Serapeum Kom el-Dik
where a temple dedicated to the gods AMUN and Ré
Horakhte was started by TUTHMOSIS IV (r. 14011391
B.C.E.) and decorated by AMENHOTEP III (r. 13911353
B.C.E.). Tuthmosis IV extended the shrine during his
reign. The shrine is noted for fine reliefs in color and for
images of MESSUY, the viceroy of Kush, as Nubia was
called. MERENPTAH's cartouches are also preserved there.
Messuy's depiction at Amada led to his identification in Suggested Readings: Empereur, Jean-Yves. Alexandria some eras with Amunmesses, a usurper following Rediscovered. Trans. Margaret Moehler. (New York: Merenptah's reign (12241214 B.C.E.). George Braziller, 1998); Fraser, P. M. Ptolemaic Alexan- The great temple at Amada was erected by RAMESSES dria: Text, Notes, Indexes (London: Clarendon Press, II (r. 12901224 B.C.E.) with pillared halls and Osiride 1985); La Riche, William. Alexandria--The Sunken City statues of that pharaoh. Two stelae, one dedicated to (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1996); Vrettos, Amun-Ré and the other announcing the arrival of a HIT- Theodore. Alexandria: City of the Western Mind (New TITE princess as Ramesses II's bride, were found there. York: Free Press, 2001). Elaborate paintings, vestibules, a sanctuary, and a chapel
to the god THOTH complete the temple design. Two more Alexandria, Battle of The military campaigns stelae, honoring various officials of the eras, were also between Julius CAESAR and the forces supporting PTOLEMY discovered on the site. The temple of Amada was moved XIII (r. 5147 B.C.E.) in Egypt's capital. Caesar was under
when the ASWAN High Dam was constructed. siege in Alexandria from August 48 B.C.E. to February 47 B.C.E. after placing CLEOPATRA VII on the throne and exil- Amara A fortified site near WADI HALFA on the Nile in ing Ptolemy to the desert. The Romans defended the NUBIA, modern Sudan, Amara was founded by SETI I (r. royal residence at ALEXANDRIA from land forces and an 13061290 B.C.E.). There are two settlements involved in Egyptian naval force. Setting fire to these ships, Caesar Amara, on the eastern and western banks of the river. inadvertently engulfed the LIBRARY OF ALEXANDRIA in Amara West was a vast FORTRESS complex with enclosing flames as well. Caesar also took Pharos Island, the site of walls and defenses. Amara East dates to the Meroitic the LIGHTHOUSE of Alexandria, one of the Seven Wonders Period (c. 300 B.C.E.350 A.D.). The remains of a Rames- of the World. sid temple, probably erected by RAMESSES II (r. 12901224
By January 47 B.C.E., Caesar was thoroughly sur- B.C.E.), and a necropolis were discovered here. rounded by Egyptians, but Mithridates of Pergamum arrived with 20,000 men. Caesar had sent for him at the 'Amarna, el- (Akhetaten, Tell el-'Armana) The start of the campaign. When the new allies entered the Arabic name of the site that served as the capital, conflict, Caesar went out to confront Ptolemy XIII in the Akhetaten, "The Horizon of ATEN," it was built by AKHEN- desert region. The BATTLE OF THE NILE ensued, with Cae- ATEN (Amenhotep IV of the Eighteenth Dynasty, r. sar victorious. 13531335 B.C.E.) as his capital and destroyed by
HOREMHAB a few decades later. Erected on a level plain altar Called a khat by Egyptians, this was a table of between the Nile and the eastern cliffs north of Assiut, offerings in temples and tomb chapels, in use from the 'Amarna was six miles long and marked by boundary ste- earliest eras on the Nile. An altar fashioned out of traver- lae. The districts of the city were well planned and laid tine alabaster was included in the sun temple of NIUSERRÉ out with geometric precision and artistry. All of the (r. 24162392 B.C.E.) at ABU GHUROB. TUTHMOSIS III (r. regions of 'Amarna were designed to focus on the royal 14791425 B.C.E.) presented the great religious complex residence and on the temple of the god Aten. 24 'Amarna Letters
Officials and courtiers lived in the principal districts, and military exploits of the era. They are actually repre- and the homes provided for them were large and lavish. sentations of correspondence between known kingdoms, Most contained gardens, pools, and summer villas, as providing insights into allegiances, protocol, pacts, vassal well as reception areas. The temple and the palace were status, and the ever-changing realms of competing located on the royal avenue, designed to run parallel to empires. the Nile. This thoroughfare was spanned by an immense brick bridge, which was not only a startling architectural
Amasis (Khnemibré) (d. 526 B.C.E.) Sixth king of the innovation but achieved an artistic unity that became the
Twenty-sixth Dynasty hallmark of the god's abode. The bridge joined two sepa-
Amasis usurped the throne of APRIES and ruled from 570 rate wings of the royal residence and contained the famed
B.C.E. until his death. He was a general of Egypt's armies, WINDOW OF APPEARANCE, which was discovered in reliefs
having served PSAMMETICHUS II (r. 595589 B.C.E.) as of the area. Akhenaten and NEFERTITI greeted the faithful
commander of an expedition to NUBIA, modern Sudan. He of the city in the window and honored officials, military
served Apries (r. 589570 B.C.E.) in the same capacity leaders, and artisans, forming an appealing portrait of
until Egypt was drawn into a war between Libya's ruler, regal splendor in this setting.
ADICRAN, and the Greek colony of CYRENE. Apries sent
The palace did not serve as a royal residence but as a
troops to aid Libya in freeing itself from the Greek site for rituals and ceremonies. The royal family occupied
colonists, but they were badly defeated by the superior limited space in separate apartments. The remaining parts
Greek military. The Egyptian troops promptly mutinied, of the structure were designed as altar sites, halls, stables,
and Amasis was sent to their camp in the Delta to medi- gardens, pools, throne rooms, and ceremonial chambers.
ate a truce. He sided with the soldiers and was hailed as The entire palace was decorated with painting in the
the new ruler of Egypt. 'Amarna style. Waterfowl and marsh scenes graced the
Apries, forced into exile, returned in 567 B.C.E. with walls, adding a natural pastoral quality to the residence.
Greek mercenaries who had little enthusiasm for the civil The main throne room for official ceremonies in honor of
war that ensued. Apries met Amasis at MOMEMPHIS (prob- Aten was set between pillared chambers and halls, one
ably a site near Terana on the Canopic branch of the Nile) with 30 rows of 17 pillars each. Adjacent to the palace in the Delta region and was quickly routed. He was then was the temple of the god. This site had a rectangular handed over to a mob and was slain but was buried with wall that measured 2,600 by 900 feet. The temple, as considerable pomp. A red granite STELA was erected on many of the structures in 'Amarna, was adapted to the the site of the battle. Nile climate and designed for outdoor services. There Amasis, secure on the throne, proved a capable ruler. were few roofs evident in the architectural planning of Being a commoner by birth, he brought a unique perspec- the complexes. The homes of the 'Amarna artisans were tive to the throne, one that earned him a reputation for in the southeast section of the city, surrounded by amiability, demonstrating a good nature, unpretentious another wall. Six blocks of such residences were laid out attitudes, and a rare understanding of life among the in this area, between five parallel streets. common castes on the Nile. He started his reign in SAIS in
Akhetaten, also called "the City of the SOLAR DISK," is the eastern Delta by assigning Apries's Greek troops to supposedly named 'Amarna or Tell el-'Amarna today to MEMPHIS, where they formed a bodyguard. Amasis earned commemorate a tribe of Bedouins that settled on the site the title of "Philhellene," or "He who loves the Greeks," approximately two centuries ago. A vast cliff cemetery because of his concern about Greek resistance to the was established nearby linked to 'Amarna by the ROYAL growing Persian imperial domain. He limited the TRADE WADI.
activities of the Greeks in Egypt to the city of NAUKRATIS,
See also ART AND ARCHITECTURE; TALATAT. which provided them with a haven but protected Egyp-
tian merchants from competition at the same time. He 'Amarna Letters A collection of correspondence span- married LADICE, a Cyrenian woman, and so came to con- ning the reigns of AMENHOTEP III (r. 13911353 B.C.E.), trol parts of Cyprus, including the vast Cyprian fleet. A AKHENATEN (r. 13531335 B.C.E.), and into the first year friend of Polycrates, the tyrant of Samos, Amasis donated of TUT'ANKHAMUN's reign (r. 13331323 B.C.E.), these funds, about 11,000 talents, for the restoration of the were discovered in the ruins of Akhenaten's capital of temple of Apollo at Delphi after its ruination in 548 B.C.E. 'AMARNA in 1887, taken from a site called "the Place of When CROESUS of Lydia asked for aid in repelling the Per- the Letters of the Pharaohs." Some 382 cuneiform tablets sians, Amasis proved a generous ally. constitute the body of the collection, written in the old Amasis's mother was TAKHEREDENESET, a commoner. Babylonian dialect of the AKKADIANS, the lingua franca of He also married Queen NAKHSEBASTERU, who bore a son the territory at the time. This adopted language used named 'Ahmose, and Queen KHEDEBNEITHERET, who was altered Egyptian and Syrian terms as well. The letters possibly the daughter of Apries. His daughter, Princess contain diplomatic texts that reflect the changing trade NITOCRIS (1), was officially "adopted" by ANKHESNEFERI- Amenemhet I 25
BRÉ, a sister of the slain Apries, as a GOD'S WIFE OF AMUN, Amenemhab served TUTHMOSIS III (r. 14791425 B.C.E.) or a Divine Adoratrice of Amun. and AMENHOTEP II (r. 14251401 B.C.E.) and had a long
He built monuments at Sais, BUTO, Memphis, and and distinguished military career. His wife served as a ABYDOS, and a temple to the god Amun in the SIWA Oasis nurse for the royal family, and she probably introduced of the LIBYAN DESERT. Only a few statues of Amasis sur- him to Tuthmosis III. His tomb on the western shore of vive, as the Persian conqueror CAMBYSES (ruling Egypt the Nile at THEBES provides elaborate autobiographical from 525 to 522 B.C.E.) destroyed those he could find. inscriptions that contain detailed accounts of Tuthmosis Amasis was buried in Sais in a stone structure with dou- III's vigorous campaigns. Amenemhab followed this war- ble doors and pillars. SHABTIS, or tomb statues, were rior pharaoh across many lands as Egypt forged an found on the site. His son PSAMMETICHUS III succeeded empire. On one occasion, when Tuthmosis III recklessly him in 526 B.C.E. but faced a Persian invasion a year later. started elephant hunting, Amenemhab cut off the trunk Cambyses had Amasis's body exhumed and ravaged of a maddened bull elephant that charged the pharaoh. because of Amasis's support for the Greeks. He received the third "Gold of Valor" award for this feat.
On another battlefield, Amenemhab saw the enemy Amaunet (Amunet) The divine consort of the god release a young mare into the ranks of the oncoming AMUN, worshiped in THEBES in the early Middle Kingdom Egyptian cavalry. Such a mare was designed to bring (20201640 B.C.E.), her name meant "the hidden one." about a mating frenzy among the Egyptian stallions. Amaunet was also included in the OGDOAD, the eight Amenemhab slit open the belly of the mare, thus reduc- deities of HERMOPOLIS. Self-created, she was depicted as a ing the animal's allure. He dismembered it at the same woman wearing the crown of Lower Egypt. time, using the stench of blood and gore to further enrage
the Egyptian steeds in their charge. Ever at the side of Am Duat (Am Tuat) A mortuary text depicted on the Tuthmosis III, Amenemhab outlived that pharaoh and walls in the tomb of TUTHMOSIS III (r. 14791425 B.C.E.) served his son and heir, Amenhotep II, a man who in the VALLEY OF THE KINGS in THEBES, the Am Duat, delighted in military life and in hand-to-hand combat in "Book of that which is in the underworld," shows the the field. nightly journey of the god Ré, a prototype of the sojourn required of the deceased. The Am Duat is divided into 12 Amenemhet I (Sehetepibré) (d. 1962 B.C.E.) Founder sections, representing fields or caverns, and traces the of the Twelfth Dynasty pathway into the earth that starts at the gateway of the He reigned from 1991 B.C.E. until his death. His name western horizon. The text contains many adventures and meant "AMUN is foremost," and he served as the VIZIER of torments but ends in spiritual redemption and the attain- Upper Egypt (the southern territories) in the reign of ment of paradise. MONTUHOTEP IV (r. 19981991 B.C.E.), the last pharaoh of
See also BOOK OF THE DEAD; TOMB TEXTS. the Eleventh Dynasty, who died without an heir. Amen-
emhet I led an expedition for the pharaoh to the WADI Amemait A ferocious divine being associated with HAMMAMAT, a dried river gully near KOPTOS, where the Egyptian MORTUARY RITUALS and traditions, the creature Nile swerves closest to the Red Sea. There he obtained possessed the head of a CROCODILE, the foreparts of a the stone used for the sarcophagus of Montuhotep IV. large CAT, and the rear of a HIPPOPOTAMUS. Called "the Amenemhet I was a commoner, the son of one Sen- Great of Death" or "the Devourer," Amemait was female. wosret and a woman named NEFRET, listed as prominent The illustrations of the beast in the BOOK OF THE DEAD members of a family from ELEPHANTINE Island. Amen- depict Amemait waiting beside the scales in the JUDG- emhet I portrayed himself as the true unifier of Egypt MENT HALLS OF OSIRIS, where the god OSIRIS weighed the after years of decline and partial separation. Various hearts of the deceased against the feather of the goddess prophecies, including the famous one written by Nefer- MA'AT. The hearts of those who were evil in life were given rohu, were made public to guarantee authenticity for the to Amemait as food. The NEGATIVE CONFESSIONS, claims new pharaoh's claims. The prophecy of Nefer-rohu, also of not committing various crimes or sins, were designed called Neferti, describes Amenemhet I as the son of "a to protect the deceased from Amemait, who was clearly a woman of NUBIA" (or of the Elephantine area in modern dispenser of justice, not of mindless terror. AMULETS and Aswan). spells were also employed to keep this divine being from Having had years of experience as a vizier, Amen- devouring the dead. The horror involved in Amemait's emhet knew how to force the Egyptians to accept his dining on the dead derived from the Egyptian's fear of rule. He commanded a fleet of ships and sailed through- going into "nothingness," or the endless void. out the land to demand obeisance from his people. On
one such voyage, Amenemhet I was accompanied by Amenemhab (fl. 15th century B.C.E.) Military general KHNUMHOTEP (1), a prince and undisputed leader of the of the Eighteenth Dynasty Oryx Nome (or province) at BENI HASAN. There were 20 26 Amenemhet II
In 1979 B.C.E., Amenemhet I named his son, Senwos-
ret I, as his coregent, thus discouraging attempts by oth-
ers to take the throne. Senwosret also received a set of
"Instructions" from Amenemhet I. This document was
also called the Testament of Amenemhet. In it the pharaoh
declares that a ruler must avoid all intimacy with lesser
courtiers, and these "Instructions" clearly define royal
obligations based upon the needs of the people, including
personal sacrifices and loneliness. Possibly the INSTRUC-
TION OF AMENEMHET I was written after the second assault
on the pharaoh's life, a palace feud that was successful in
bringing Amenemhet I's reign to an end.
Senwosret I, who campaigned militarily in his father's
name, was in the desert region when word came of the
assassination. He raced back to the capital with a large
force and routed the enemies of his inheritance. Amen-
emhet was buried in a pyramid in LISHT, called "Horus of
Repeating Births," now in ruins. The assassination of
Amenemhet is a key element in the plot of the tale of
"SINUHE THE SAILOR." The hero of the tale is involved in
some way in the harem struggles, and he flees Egypt
when Senwosret I receives word of the royal death.
See also NEFER-ROHU'S PROPHECY.
Amenemhet II (Nubkauré) (d. 1892 B.C.E.) Third
ruler of the Twelfth Dynasty
He reigned from 1929 B.C.E. until his death. Amenemhet
II was the son of SENWOSRET I and Queen NEFRUSHERI. The warrior pharaoh Amenemhet III of the Middle Kingdom's Serving three years as coregent with his father, AMEN- Twelfth Dynasty. (Hulton Archive.)
EMHET II conducted two military campaigns, a foray into
NUBIA, modern Sudan, and one to rout the BEDOUINS on
the SINAI Peninsula. He also made trade pacts with Syria ships in this armada, and Amenemhet I was displaying and Levantine cities. His reign was highlighted by inter- the political support of a nome aristocrat alongside mili- nal difficulties as the various NOMARCHS (provincial aris- tary might. He also moved the capital from Thebes to ITJ- tocrats) attempted to overthrow a centralized system of TAWY, "the Seizer of the Two Lands," near the modern government in order to exercise independence. Beginning town of Lisht. The capital was originally called Amen- under Senwosret, Amenemhet II reclaimed the FAIYUM emhet-Ity-tawy and was shortened over the years. He territory of Egypt, the lush marshland fed by the BAHR married NEFRU-TOTENEN, who is believed to have borne YUSUF (a small river that leads into the region from the SENWOSRET I, the heir. A second queen, SIT-HATHOR, gave Nile between modern el-Ashmunein and old Meir). The birth to Princess DEDYET (1) and Princess Nenseb-djebet. Faiyum, called Ta-she by the Egyptians, "the Land of the Later in his reign a woman named NEFRU-SOBEK (2) Lakes," or Payuum, became an agricultural base for the became his queen. He had two daughters: Nefrusheri and country. At various times the Faiyum extended over Nyetneb. 4,000 square miles and included Lake MOERIS. The cult of
Amenemhet I proved an efficient administrator and SOBEK, the crocodile god, was established in Shedet, the militarily astute ruler. He established his new capital capital of the region. Amenemhet II's CARTOUCHE was dis- between the boundaries of Upper and Lower Egypt in covered in Lebanon, and other seals were found in the order to have increased control of the DELTA. He also temple of MONTU at Thebes. He sent expeditions to the erected the WALL OF THE PRINCE, a series of forts that safe- Red Sea and to PUNT and used the local gold mines. guarded Egypt's eastern and western borders. He founded Amenemhet II married Queen MERYET (2), the SEMNA fort in Nubia and routed the Bedouins on the SINAI mother of the heir, SENWOSRET II and Queens TEO and Peninsula, using the genius of General Nysumontu. KEMANWEB. His daughters were Ata, Atuart, Khnumt, Sit Within the palace, however, Amenemhet I faced harem Hathor, Sit Hathor Hormeret, and Sit Hathor Meryt. Sen- revolts, one unsuccessful attempt on his life, and a last wosret II served as his coregent for five years before murderous assault. Amenemhet II died. Amenemhet 27
Amenemhet II was buried in DASHUR, near MEMPHIS, chamber. This burial site was sealed by a single slab of in a white pyramid originally some 263 feet square, called stone that weighed an estimated 45 tons. "The Soul of Amenemhet." The tombs of the princesses of the reign contained a vast collection of jewelry, now Amenemhet IV (Ma'akheruré) (d. 1787 B.C.E.) Sev- prized by the modern world. A queen, KEMINIBU, from the enth ruler of the Twelfth Dynasty Thirteenth Dynasty (17841640 B.C.E.) was found buried He reigned from 1799 B.C.E. until his death. The son of there also. AMENEMHET III and probably Queen A'at, he served as
coregent with his father for two years and carried on the Amenemhet III (Nima'atré) (d. 1797 B.C.E.) Sixth
family's projects in the FAIYUM, the lush region in middle
Egypt. He is believed to have erected the temple of QASR ruler of the Twelfth Dynasty
EL-SAGHAH, just north of Lake QARUN. He also completed He reigned from 1844 B.C.E. until his death. Amenemhet
Amenemhet III's temple at Medinet MA'ADI, and he sent an was the son of SENWOSRET III and Queen NEFERHENT (2)
expedition to the SINAI and maintained TRADE pacts. and is considered one of the outstanding pharaohs of the
SOBEKNEFERU, the sister of Amenemhet IV, whom he had Middle Kingdom (20401640 B.C.E.). Egypt enjoyed a
married, assumed the throne when he died after a brief period of economic growth during his reign. In an era of
reign. Sobekneferu thus became a woman pharaoh, the peace, Amenemhet III developed the FAIYUM region in
only woman holding that title in the Middle Kingdom Middle Egypt and used the mines and quarries of the
(20401640 B.C.E.). The two pyramids at MAZGHUNA, in SINAI and southern Egyptian regions to good advantage.
the southern part of DASHUR, are ascribed to this royal Amenemhet III also held the government of Egypt in pair, the last rulers of the Twelfth Dynasty, bringing to an tight rein. In the Sinai, 49 texts concerning the era were end this royal line and an entire historical period. discovered at SERABIT EL-KHADIM, with others found at WADI MAGHARA and WADI NASB. Originally the Egyptians set up seasonal camps at such mining sites, but in Amen- Amenemhet V (Ameny Intef IV; Sekhemkare or emhet III's reign permanent settlements were established,
Sankhibré; Hornedjheritef) (fl. c. 1760 B.C.E.) Fourth
ruler of the Thirteenth Dynasty complete with residences, defensive fortifications, wells,
His throne name meant "the Heart of Ré lives." He was and cemeteries. The temple of HATHOR at Serabit el-
also called Ameny Intef IV and by the throne name Khadim, designed to honor that goddess, was enlarged,
Hornedjheritef, "Horus, Avenger of His Father," in some and military units were assigned to the mines for protec-
monuments. The HYKSOS, or Asiatics, were in the DELTA tion of workers gathering gems.
during his reign, establishing their hold on the northern
In the south, Amenemhet III fortified the great trad-
and eastern territories, but there are no records of conflict ing post at SEMNA, at the southern end of the second
between the two royal houses. He is credited with receiv- cataract. Most of Amenemhet III's efforts were aimed at
ing tribute from BYBLOS (in modern Lebanon). The Thir- the Faiyum region, however, as he reclaimed the dense teenth Dynasty in the Second Intermediate Period is a marshlands and furthered the irrigation projects and shadowy royal line, reportedly composed of 50 pharaohs, dikes started by other pharaohs of his line. He was hon- most unidentified. ored in the Greco-Roman eras for his reclamation of the Faiyum and worshiped under the name Lamares. Two colossal statues of Amenemhet III made of granite on
Amenemhet VI (fl. 18th century B.C.E.) Obscure ruler
of the Thirteenth Dynasty limestone bases were discovered at BIAHMU, a site north-
His actual date of reign is unknown. Amenemhet VI was east of HAWARA. He decorated the temple of the god SOBEK
called "the Asiatic" and his mortuary pyramid is report- at Kiman Fares and built a chapel for RENENUTET, the
edly in DASHUR. Egyptian goddess of the harvest.
Amenemhet III's queen was A'AT, the mother of AMEN- EMHET IV who was buried at DASHUR in a southwest corri-
, Amenemhet VII (Sedjefakaré) (fl. 18th century B.C.E.) dor. The pyramid there, called "Amenemhet Is Beautiful," Fifteenth ruler of the Thirteenth Dynasty was faulty, and the pharaoh abandoned it and built a sec- He ruled possibly c. 1740 B.C.E. Amenemhet VII's name ond one at Hawara, in the southeastern Faiyum, called was discovered on monuments in TANIS, the ELEPHANTINE "Amenemhet Lives." This second pyramid is called a Island (at modern Aswan), and in MEDAMUD. Nothing LABYRINTH because of its intricate chambers, trapdoors, else is known about his reign. dead-end passages, and sliding panels. The burial cham- ber is a vast block of quartzite, hollowed out and sunk Amenemhet (1) (fl. 14th century B.C.E.) Prince of the into the foundation of the pyramid. Amenemhet III's SAR- Eighteenth Dynasty COPHAGUS, also of quartzite, and a smaller one for Amenemhet's mummy was found standing upright, princess Neferu-ptah, his daughter, were found in the propped against the wall of TUTHMOSIS IV's (14011391 28 Amenemhet
B.C.E.) tomb. He was the son of Tuthmosis IV, but not MUT, a favorite of Hatshepsut, Amenemhet served as a an heir. Limestone CANOPIC JARS (containers for the vital supervisor of the bark of the deity Amun and a leader in organs) were found nearby, bearing his name. He obvi- the festivals on which Amun was paraded through the ously predeceased his father and was buried in a sec- streets or carried to the western shore of THEBES. He was ondary chamber of Tuthmosis IV's tomb in the VAL-LEY buried in Thebes. OF THE KINGS on the western shore of the Nile at THEBES.
This tomb was robbed soon after the death of Tuth- Amenemhet's Instructions See INSTRUCTIONS OF AMEN- mosis IV and then restored in the reign of HOREMHAB EMHET I. (13191307 B.C.E.). Tuthmosis IV's body was removed by priests of a later era and placed in the tomb of AMEN- Amenemnisu (Neferkaré) (d. 1040 B.C.E.) Coregent HOTEP II. The mummy of prince Amenemhet was proba-
of the second ruler of the Twenty-first Dynasty bly recovered and prepared for a similar relocation but Amenemnisu held this rank during the last four years of somehow overlooked in the process. Well preserved, the reign of SMENDES (1) on the throne from 1044 B.C.E. Amenemhet stood stiffly against the wall through the until his death. He was probably the son of HERIHOR, the centuries prior to his discovery. high priest of AMUN at Thebes, and a woman named NOD-
JMET. Smendes allowed Amenemnisu to serve in this Amenemhet (2) (fl. 20th century B.C.E.) Nobleman of capacity at the new capital of TANIS, in the eastern Delta, Beni Hasan in order to unite efforts with Thebes. He served his nome BENI HASAN and the state in the reign Amenemnisu, whose name meant "Amun Is King," of SENWOSRET I (19711926 B.C.E.). This noble typifies had served Menkheperresenb (2), another high priest in the NOMARCHS, or provincial aristocrats of Egypt, individ- Thebes. During the civil war in the Theban region, uals who inherited titles of prince or count in each sepa- Amenemnisu exiled his opponents to the LIBYAN DESERT rate nome of the land. Part of Amenemhet's inherited for a time but then pardoned them, supposedly in a province was called MENET-KHUFU, revered as the birth- decree dictated by an oracle of the god Amun. The burial place of KHUFU (Cheops, r. 25512528 B.C.E.), the builder site of Amenemnisu was unknown until recent excava- of the Great Pyramid at GIZA. Amenemhet was the son of tions in Tanis revealed his tomb there. He made KHNUMHOTEP (1), inheriting the Oryx Nome, a region PSUSENNES I his coregent before his death. always known as demonstrating strong support for the ruling pharaohs of Egypt. Amenemope (Userma'atré Setepenamun) (d. 984
A military commander, probably leading army units B.C.E.) Fourth ruler of the Twenty-first Dynasty from his own territory, Amenemhet served Senwosret I in Amenemope reigned from 993 B.C.E. until his death. He Nubian campaigns, the region below ASWAN (now mod- was the successor and probable son of PSUSENNES I and ern Sudan). He led expeditions for TRADE and handled Queen MUTNODJMET (2), having served as a coregent for operations in the royal quarries and mines. For his ser- two years. He built a tomb for himself at TANIS, but his vices he received golden collars (symbols of honor) and mummy was placed in Mutnodjmet's tomb for some rea- 3,000 head of cattle. Amenemhet served the throne of son unexplained. His name meant "Amun in Opet," a Egypt for more than a quarter of a century. section of the old capital of Thebes. Amenemope buried
Psusennes I with rich offerings, whereas his own funerary Amenemhet (3) (fl. 19th century B.C.E.) Official of the regalia was small. He had a yellow quartzite SARCOPHA- Twelfth Dynasty GUS, which had a lid fashioned out of a block of stone Amenemhet served AMENEMHET III (r. 18441797 B.C.E.) usurped from an Old Kingdom site but had a gilded CAR- as superintendent of repairs conducted at WADI HAMMA- TONNAGE mummy mask. The sarcophagus was in his MAT, an important TRADE route from KOPTOS to the Red tomb, but his mummy, found intact, was discovered in Sea. Amenemhet led a large military force to Wadi Ham- his mother's burial chamber near the temple of Tanis. mamat to escort workers assigned to quarry blocks of basaltic stone in the area. Numbering 2,000, Amen- Amenemope (1) (fl. 12th century B.C.E.) High priest of emhet's force not only quarried the stones but also refur- Amun in the Twentieth Dynasty bished the site and added new conveniences that He served in the reign of RAMESSES IX (r. 11311112 promoted settlements. B.C.E.). Amenemope was the son of RAMESSESNAKHT and
the brother of Mesamun, his predecessors. His son was Amenemhet (4) (fl. 15th century B.C.E.) Temple official the usurper HERIHOR. Amenemope began to assert his of the Eighteenth Dynasty religious powers in the 10th year of Ramesses IX's reign. He served Queen-Pharaoh HATSHEPSUT (r. 14731458 He was depicted in temple reliefs as equal to the pharaoh, B.C.E.). Amenemhet was also a priest of the temple of a violation of the Egyptian artistic canon. He was buried AMUN. Once believed to have been the brother of SENEN- in THEBES. Amenhotep I 29
Amenemope (2) (fl. 14th century B.C.E.) A sage of the (15501070 B.C.E.). The walls of some chambers of this New Kingdom tomb are exquisitely painted. He lived probably during the reign of AMENHOTEP III (r. 13911353 B.C.E.) and was the author of the Instructions Amenhirkhopshef (2) (fl. 13th century B.C.E.) Prince of Amenemope. This text was found in a papyrus now in of the Nineteenth Dynasty the British Museum in London. He was a resident of The son of RAMESSES II (12901224 B.C.E.) and Queen AKHMIN, and described himself as an agricultural official NEFERTARI MERYMUT, he was called Amenhirwonmef who set up the royal titles to land uncovered by the low- ("Amun is at his right hand") originally and then Amen- ering of the Nile water each year. Amenemope, whose hirkhopshef ("Amun wields his sword"). This prince is wife was Twasoret, also served as the overseer for taxes shown in the procession of Ramessid royal heirs in LUXOR for the Akhmin area and administered the distribution of Temple, and in ABU SIMBEL, the site of his father's great crops locally. monument. He is also depicted in KV5, the recently
He wrote his Instructions for his son, and this work opened tomb of the sons of Ramesses II. This tomb, the reflects the spirit of MA'AT, nurtured on the Nile over the largest ever found in Egypt, was designed to house the centuries. His work was composed of more than 80 sec- remains of more than 100 of Ramesses II's sons in the val- tions and was written in short lines. Amenemope trans- ley. There is another lavish tomb bearing his name in the lated the ideals of Egypt into everyday tasks of a common VALLEY OF THE QUEENS on the western shore of the Nile at person's life. The Maxims of Ptah-hotep is another example THEBES. of this type of literature. Such didactic LITERATURE was Amenhirkhopshef was the commanding general of popular in the Nile Valley. Amenemope was buried in a Egypt's armies and heir apparent of the throne. He was pyramid in Akhmin. Amenemope's work was discovered active in Ramesses II's campaigns, punishing city-states on various writing boards, on an OSTRAKA, and in a frag- such as Moab that had accepted the protection of the HIT- mentary papyrus. TITES, the enemies of Egypt at the time. When a treaty
was signed between the Hittites and the Egyptians, Amenemopet A remarkable family of THEBES, serving Amenhirkhopshef was mentioned in royal correspon- the pharaohs of the New Kingdom (15501070 B.C.E.), dence. The Hittite King HATTUSILIS III and his queen, some held positions in the temple of AMUN at Thebes PEDUKHIPA, sent greetings to Nefertari Merymut and the and others headed bureaucratic offices. The third crown prince Amenhirkhopshef. He died in the 20th year prophet of Amun in the reign of RAMESSES III (11941163 of Ramesses II's reign. Eleven other brothers would pre- B.C.E.) was a member of this family. Another individual cede their father in death. MERENPTAH, his eventual heir, named Amenemope served as the viceroy of Kush or was 13th in the line of succession. NUBIA, the area south of Aswan in modern Sudan, for SETI I (r. 13061290 B.C.E.). BAKENKHONSU, the high
Amenhotep I (Djeserkaré) (d. 1504 B.C.E.) Second priest of Amun in the reign of RAMESSES II (12901224 ruler of the Eighteenth Dynasty B.C.E.), was also a family member. These public servants
Amenhotep I was one of the most handsome and popular were aristocrats, or NOMARCHS, from a southern pro- of the ancient pharaohs, whose name meant "Amun is vince. Their efforts, and those of other large clans in- Content." He reigned from 1525 B.C.E. until his death and volved in various bureaucratic offices, allowed the was the son of 'AHMOSE and Queen 'AHMOSE-NEFERTARI, government of Egypt to continue, decade after decade, who possibly served as regent at the start of Amenhotep without interruption. I's reign. He was not the original heir. Records indicate
that he outlived two older brothers to inherit the throne Amenhirkhopshef (1) (fl. 12th century B.C.E.) Prince from 'Ahmose. of the Twentieth Dynasty In his first regnal year, or perhaps during the time of Amenhirkhopshef was the son of RAMESSES III (r. 'Ahmose-Nefertari's regency, Egypt faced an invasion and 11941163 B.C.E.) and Queen ISET (2). The prince died at had to defeat a confederation of Libyan tribes on the the age of nine. Queen Iset is reported to have miscarried nation's western borders. A royal army, probably led by a baby when she heard of Amenhirkhopshef's death, and Amenhotep I personally, went south to halt expansion of the unborn infant was mummified and entombed in the the Nubians in the area below ASWAN, in modern Sudan. prince's own crypt. In Amenhirkhopshef's burial cham- Amenhotep restored and refurbished the FORTRESSES on ber, Ramesses III is depicted leading his son to the god the Nile south of the first cataract, bastions dating in ANUBIS, the jackal-headed deity associated with OSIRIS and some instances to the Middle Kingdom (20401640 funerary rituals. The prince served as a royal scribe dur- B.C.E.). He also installed a governor for that region, a ing his brief life. He was buried in the VALLEY OF THE noble named Turi, who was entrusted with the duties of QUEENS on the western shore of the Nile at THEBES, the maintaining order, promoting trade, and gathering tribute site used for the tombs of princes in the New Kingdom for the throne. 30 Amenhotep II
Within Egypt, Amenhotep I initiated building pro- Amenhotep II (Akhepruré) (d. 1401 B.C.E.) Seventh jects at the temple of KARNAK in THEBES. This temple, ruler of the Eighteenth Dynasty one of the most remarkable religious complexes in the The son of TUTHMOSIS III and Queen MERYT-RE-HATSHEP- world, covered 250 acres. The building programs of SUT, Amenhotep II reigned from 1427 B.C.E. until his Amenhotep I added to the original shrine, begun in the death. He was reportedly not the original heir. A brother, Middle Kingdom, and set the standard for later pharaohs Amenemhet, believed to be the son of Tuthmosis III and of the New Kingdom (15501070 B.C.E.), who continued Queen NEFERU-RÉ, died before he could inherit the the work there for centuries. Because of his military throne. Amenhotep II was handsome, tall, and athletic. defenses and his building programs, Amenhotep was He was a warrior delighting in hand-to-hand combat, very popular during his lifetime. He also used the SINAI executing prisoners personally in elaborate ceremonies. mines and the various quarries. Egypt, unified and free When he was made coregent, Amenhotep added of the Asiatic HYKSOS (defeated by 'Ahmose), prospered. Hegaiunu to his name, meaning "the ruler of Iunu," His popularity only increased after his death in 1504 HELIOPOLIS. B.C.E. He and Queen 'Ahmose-Nefertari were proclaimed His entire life was spent in preparing for his reign as the patron deities of Thebes. A shrine was dedicated to he underwent the usual education for princes and heirs. them on the western shore of the Nile at the capital, He excelled in archery and horsemanship, and he com- Thebes. manded the vast Egyptian naval base at PERU-NEFER near
AH'HOTEP (2), a sister of Amenhotep I, was his Great Memphis. Experienced in war, Amenhotep II moved Wife, or ranking queen. Secondary consorts were 'AH- quickly in the second year of his reign against the cities MOSE MERYTAMON and SATKAMOSE. Ah'hotep bore the son on the Mediterranean Sea that were in open revolt. He and heir, but the child died in infancy. Because there was marched into Palestine to Shemesh-Edom and subdued no one to succeed him, Amenhotep chose TUTHMOSIS I each city-state all the way to the Orontes River, to mod- from among his military officials. Tuthmosis was proba- ern Lebanon and Syria. At Tikishi he captured seven bly from a secondary royal line. A relative named princes and brought them to Egypt. Amenhotep moved 'Ahmose was given to Tuthmosis as consort to consoli- on to the Euphrates River in modern Iraq, where he
erected a stela alongside the ones raised up there by his date his claims and to link him in yet another fashion to
father and great grandfather (TUTHMOSIS I, r. 15041492 the royal family.
B.C.E.), the founders of the empire. He also rescued Egyp-
Amenhotep I was the first pharaoh to separate his
tian troops surrounded at another battle site in the area. tomb from his mortuary temple and burial complex. Nor-
Returning to Egypt, Amenhotep brought prisoners and mally the MORTUARY TEMPLES of the pharaohs were
considerable booty to THEBES. erected at the gravesites to allow priests to make daily
In Egypt, Amenhotep II left monuments at DEN- offerings and to conduct rituals of eternal rest for the
DEREH, HELIOPOLIS, GEBEL EL-SILSILEH, TOD, ELKAB, GIZA, deceased. Looters reached the burial chambers of such
ERMENT, and MEDAMUD. In his third year, Nubian rebel- complexes, tearing apart the mummies and sometimes
lions brought Amenhotep to ASWAN and the ELEPHANTINE burning them. Amenhotep wanted to escape destruction Island. The princes captured in the region of the Orontes at the hands of such grave robbers, who were possibly River the year before accompanied Amenhotep on this given aid by the priests themselves, in return for a share voyage. All seven of them hung head downward from the in the goods. His original tomb is now unknown but was prow of his ship. The bodies were later displayed in other listed in the inspection done by RAMESSES IX (11311112 prominent sites. Amenhotep II reportedly delighted in B.C.E.) as being located at Dra Abu el-Nuga. Amenhotep the slaughter of his enemies. In his seventh year he went I's mummy was rewrapped by priests of the Twenty-first to CARCHEMISH, in Syria, to subdue another revolt. Dynasty (1070945 B.C.E.) after his original tomb was Amenhotep II's consorts were SITAMON and then vandalized, taken to DEIR EL-BAHRI, and placed in the MERYT-AMUN (2), his sister, but another consort, Queen mummy cache there. During this second burial, delphini- TEO, bore his heir, TUTHMOSIS IV. His mother, Meryt-Re- ums were used to adorn his remains, along with other Hatshepsut, however, remained the Great Wife, or rank- red, yellow, and blue flowers. A wasp settled onto one of ing queen. Amenhotep II had several sons and daughters. the flowers and died there, keeping the pharaoh company Amenhotep's mummy was discovered in his tomb in the through the centuries. VALLEY OF THE KINGS on the western shore of the Nile at
Amenhotep I was five and one-half feet tall, with a Thebes. He had wavy brown hair, graying at the temples. long, oval skull and sloping forehead. His strong jaw His mummified skin was studded with small tubercules, marks him as the son of 'Ahmose. Statues of him were possibly the result of embalming. Believed to have died at carried through the streets of Thebes as an oracle, or the age of 45, Amenhotep suffered from rheumatism and prophet, called "the judge of the living and the dead." some sort of systemic disease, no doubt from tooth prob- The cult of Amenhotep I continued through the Twenti- lems. Signs of severe dental decay are evident in his eth Dynasty (11961070 B.C.E.). mummy. Amenhotep, son of Hapu 31
His tomb in the Valley of the Kings proved to be a reported that the northern statue of Amenhotep III emit- treasure house of Egyptian history. The AM DUAT prayers ted a soft bell-like sound at each dawn. In the early third are depicted on the walls in compelling reliefs. The burial century B.C.E. the Roman emperor Septimius Severus chamber of his tomb, found undisturbed, was used by ordered repairs on the upper part of that statue, which priests of later dynasties as a storehouse for other rescued were performed crudely, and as a result the singing sound mummies of the New Kingdom (15501070 B.C.E.). This stopped forever. tomb had an early styled entry stairwell, corridors, Amenhotep III celebrated three HEB-SEDS, normally antechambers, pillared halls, and a decorated sunken used to denote 30 years of rule. He constructed a palace, burial chamber. Magazines and well shafts were included Per-Hay, "the Mansion of Rejoicing," for this event. in the design. One of Amenhotep II's sons shared the Queen Tiye and the massive bureaucracy of Egypt main- tomb. tained foreign and domestic affairs, while Amenhotep
See also MUMMY CACHES. lolled in Malkata, and the military might of Egypt sup-
pressed any rebellions against the empire. The pharaoh
could spend his time building on the Nile and erecting Amenhotep III (Nebma'atré) (d. 1353 B.C.E.) Ninth monuments in his honor at his leisure. pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty
He was quite obese in his later years. His portraits, The son of TUTHMOSIS IV and Queen MUTEMWIYA, Amen- already sculpted in the style that would blossom in the hotep III reigned from 1391 B.C.E. until his death. As a 'AMARNA PERIOD, depict him as having a snub nose, full young man, Amenhotep III married TIYE (1), the daughter lips, and almond-shaped eyes. Troubled with severe of Hurrian master of horse at THEBES. Together they ruled tooth decay, a dynastic period condition, Amenhotep an empire that extended from northern Sudan to the became ill. An ally, King TUSHRATTA of Babylon, sent Euphrates River. His mother, Mutemwiya, is believed by him a statue of Ishtar--the Babylonian goddess of heal- some scholars to have been the daughter of ARTATAMA, the ing--to restore his vigor and to demonstrate friendly MITANNI king, given to Egypt as part of Tuthmosis IV's
concern. treaties with that nation. Amenhotep III's birth was Amenhotep III's tomb in the VALLEY OF THE KINGS, on recorded in the temple in LUXOR, given divine intervention the western shore of Thebes, has three main corridors. and divine patronage. Tiye, whom he had married before The tomb chamber has a pillared hall, and the various ascending the throne, bore him AKHENATEN (Amenhotep chambers are all highly decorated. The red granite lid IV), and princesses SITAMUN (2), BAKETAMUN, HENUTTANEB, used on the sarcophagus for the burial of Amenhotep III NEBETAH, ISET (3), and other children. Amenhotep III mar- was usurped by SETI I (13061290 B.C.E.) of the Nine- ried Iset and Sitamun when they came of age. teenth Dynasty. Amenhotep III's mummy was discovered
A vast series of commemorative scarabs issued by the in the tomb of AMENHOTEP II. Modern scholars, however, pharaoh provide a portrait of his first 12 years on the do not believe that this embalmed body is truly Amen- throne. One SCARAB memorializes the arrival of GILUKIPA hotep III. There is considerable debate about the actual (or Khirgipa), a Mitanni princess who came with an identity of several recovered remains. entourage of more than 300 Mitannis to be his wife. Her niece, TADUKHIPA, arrived at the end of Amenhotep's reign Suggested Readings: Fletcher, J. Chronicle of a Pharaoh: and possibly married Akhenaten. These Mitanni royal The Intimate Life of Amenhotep III. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford women were sent to Egypt by King Shuttarna II, who was University Press, 2000; O'Connor, D., and E. Cline, eds. their relative. Amenhotep III, Perspectives on His Reign. Ann Arbor: Uni-
The addition of such women to AMENHOTEP III's versity of Michigan Press, 1998. harem led to the construction of a new palace to the south of MEDINET HABU, on the western shore of the Nile at THEBES, called MALKATA, or "the Place Where Things Amenhotep IV See AKHENATEN. Are Picked Up," by modern Egyptians. This palace was actually a miniature city with several royal compounds, Amenhotep, son of Hapu (Huy) (fl. 14th century an artificial lake reportedly dug and filled within a matter B.C.E.) Court official of the Eighteenth Dynasty of weeks, and a harbor. Shrines and temples, as well as A revered sage and scholar, he served in the reign of bureaucratic offices, were part of the complexes. AMENHOTEP III (r. 13911353 B.C.E.). Amenhotep, son of
Tributes and trade profits provided Amenhotep III Hapu, was one of only a few commoners to be deified in with unending wealth as he built many shrines and mon- ancient Egypt. Also called Huy, he was from the Delta uments, many of which have not survived. Among these area of ATHRIBIS, born around 1460 B.C.E. He rose through monuments are the COLOSSI OF MEMNON, two gigantic the ranks of government service, including the office of statues of Amenhotep III that were part of his mortuary scribe of the military, and then served as a commander, temple. The Greeks named the statues after Memnon, the and eventually as a general. Amenhotep also supervised Trojan hero slain by Achilles. Strabo, the historian, the building projects of Amenhotep III. When he died 32 Amenia
dying before Horemhab took the throne of Egypt. Queen
MUTNODJMET (1), who became Horemhab's Great Wife,
was buried beside Amenia in Saqqara rather than having
a tomb in the royal necropolis at THEBES.
Ameni-A'amu (fl. 19th century B.C.E.) Mysterious royal
personage in the Thirteenth Dynasty
He is historically associated with AMENEMHET III (r.
18441797 B.C.E.). A small pyramid at DASHUR is
inscribed with his name and royal insignias. These
inscriptions appear to place him in the reign of Amen-
emhet III, perhaps as the designated heir to the throne.
Amenirdis (1) (fl. eighth century B.C.E.) Royal woman
of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty
She was the sister of PIANKHI (1) (750712 B.C.E.) and the
daughter of KASHTA and Queen PEBATMA. As a royal
princess, Amenirdis was adopted by SHEPENWEPET (1) as
her successor in the role of GOD'S WIFE OF AMUN or
Divine Adoratrice of Amun, the office of high priestess
and political representative of the ruling family. This role,
carried out in THEBES, descended over the years from the A statue of the famed sage Amenhotep, Son of Hapu; he is title of God's Wife held by New Kingdom queens starting distinctive because of his flowing hair; now in the Egyptian with 'AHMOSE-NEFERTARI, the wife of 'AHMOSE I (r. Museum, Cairo. (S. M. Bunson.) 15501525 B.C.E.). The high priestess presided over a
harem of Amun's devotees and conducted ceremonies.
Amenirdis could not marry while serving as Divine around 1380 B.C.E., at the age of 80, a funerary chapel Adoratrice of Amun, adopting her successor, SHEPEN- was erected for him beside Amenhotep III's temple. WEPET (2). When she retired, however, she married her
Amenhotep, Son of Hapu, was depicted in many stat- brother, SHEBITKU (r. 698690 B.C.E.) and bore Shepen- ues placed in KARNAK temple, a royal favor in that age. He wepet III. Statues have been recovered depicting is shown usually with long wavy hair instead of a formal Amenirdis in royal regalia. Like other high priestesses, wig. His association with the god AMUN brought about a she built a tomb in KARNAK. Some priestesses were claim by the temple priests of the Twenty-first Dynasty buried in a necropolis called "the vineyard of Anubis." (1070945 B.C.E.) that Amenhotep had divine origins. He Such women held considerable political power over was deified alongside IMHOTEP, the architect of the STEP Upper Egypt, the southern territories, serving as a PYRAMID of DJOSER (r. 26302611 B.C.E.). Clinics or "voice" of the god Amun and thus able to dictate many shrines were developed for their cults, and ceremonies policies. They were recruited mostly from the ranks of were conducted in their memory throughout Egypt. the royal families of Egypt and wore the crowns and
ornaments of queens. Amenia (fl. 14th century B.C.E.) Woman of the court in the Eighteenth Dynasty Amenirdis (2) (fl. seventh century B.C.E.) Royal woman She was the commoner wife of HOREMHAB (r. 13191307 of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty B.C.E.). Amenia married Horemhab when he was a mili- Amenirdis was destined to become a GOD'S WIFE OF AMUN tary man, serving in Egypt's army and attaining the rank or a Divine Adoratrice of Amun, a high priestess of the of chief of the forces and king's deputy in the reign of deity at THEBES. She was designated as the successor of TUT'ANKHAMUN (r. 13331323 B.C.E.). Horemhab was also the high priestess SHEPENWEPET (2). When PSAMMATICHUS decorated for valor by AKHENATEN (r. 13531335 B.C.E.) I (r. 664610 B.C.E.) came to power, however, he sent a in 'AMARNA. large fleet of ships to Thebes, bearing his daughter
Horemhab built a vast tomb for himself and Amenia NITOCRIS (2), who then assumed the role of Divine Ado- in SAQQARA, the MEMPHIS necropolis, while he was a mili- ratrice, an act that overthrew the Nubian control of tary officer. This tomb, recently uncovered, depicts Egypt. Amenirdis, a member of the overthrown family of Horemhab as a commoner, although the URAEUS, the sym- NECHO I (r. 672664 B.C.E.), was ousted from Thebes. Her bol of royalty, was added to some of his figures there dur- role was ended because she no longer had the political ing his reign. Amenia was buried in Saqqara, probably base necessary to influence Egypt's affairs. Amenwah 33
Amenken (fl. 15th century B.C.E.) Financial official of community was called DEIR EL-MEDINA, once known as the Eighteenth Dynasty "the Place of the Servitors of Truth." Amennakht was a He served AMENHOTEP II (r. 14271401 B.C.E.) as a high trained scribe who served as an overseer for the workers official in the royal treasury of Egypt, concerned with in the royal tombs. He and his fellow SERVITORS OF THE the tabulation and the distribution of gifts to court PLACE OF TRUTH were able to build personal tombs of favorites and NOME officials. The pharaohs presented unusual size, ornately decorated. They donated their outstanding servants with golden collars and other skills in providing one another with exquisitely painted costly insignias of honor on feast days. Amenken was gravesites. buried in THEBES.
Amenpanefer (fl. 11th century B.C.E.) Tomb robber of Amenmesses (Menmiré) (fl. c. 1214 B.C.E.) Sixth ruler the Twentieth Dynasty of the Nineteenth Dynasty, recorded as a usurper Amenpanefer committed his crimes in the reign of He took the throne of SETI II (r. 1214c. 1204 B.C.E.). His RAMESSES XI (r. 11001070 B.C.E.) in THEBES. A stone name, Amenmesses, meant "Fashioned by Amun, God of carver who labored in the tombs of the VALLEY OF THE Thebes." He ruled only four years, possibly as an inter- KINGS at Thebes, he was arrested by authorities and taken lude ruler between MERENPTAH and Seti II, who was the in for questioning after a rash of tomb robberies. Amen- crown prince and designated heir. Amenmesses was pos- panefer confessed to being part of a nefarious gang that sibly the son of MERENPTAH and Queen TAKHAT (1). preyed upon the mummies of Egypt's dead pharaohs. He Records give her only the title of "King's Mother," not described how he and eight coconspirators dug a tunnel that of a royal wife of rank. He is believed to have mar- and broke into the tomb of SOBEKEMSAF III (a Seventeenth ried BAKETWEREL, but no documentation supports this. Dynasty ruler). They stole jewels and then set fire to the Three bodies discovered in Amenmesses' tomb in the VAL- royal mummy. Queen NUBKHAS (2) (Seventeenth Dynasty) LEY OF THE KINGS on the western shore of Thebes have received the same destructive treatment from Amenpane- not been identified. He is also recorded as marrying TIA fer and his fellow criminals. Amenpanefer and his cohorts (2), the mother of SIPTAH. Amenmesses did not rule in faced harsh sentences when condemned. Most grave rob- the north, where Seti II controlled the Delta and the bers were executed, not just for stealing and vandalism, dynastic capital of PER-RAMESSES. but also for the crimes of blasphemy and impiety.
He had the backing of the Theban priests, including See also TOMB ROBBERY TRIAL. the high priest, Roma-Ray, who had considerable power in the name of the god AMUN. Amenmesses also con- Amenti The mythological domain of the dead trolled NUBIA, modern Sudan. How he died at the end of described as located spiritually in the West, considered to four years is unknown. He simply disappeared from the be the residence of the god OSIRIS, this was a luxurious scene, and Seti II usurped his statues and monuments. paradise of lakes, trees, and flowers, an abode of peace for Some cartouches were even removed from his tomb in all eternity for those deemed worthy of such rewards. Thebes, at BIBAN EL-MOLUK, and some chambers were See also ETERNITY; MORTUARY RITUALS. vandalized. The tomb has three corridors, a square cham- ber, and four pillared halls. Amenti, Lord of See OSIRIS.
Amenmose (fl. 16th century B.C.E.) Prince of the Eigh- Amenwah (fl. 12th century B.C.E.) Tomb robber of the teenth Dynasty Twentieth Dynasty He was the son of TUTHMOSIS I (r. 15041492 B.C.E.) and Amenwah reportedly invaded the tomb of RAMESSES III (r. Queen 'AHMOSE (1), and an older brother of Queen- 11941163 B.C.E.). The desecration came in a troubled Pharaoh HATSHEPSUT (r. 14731458 B.C.E.). Records indi- era following the pharaoh's death, in which temple priests cate that he was general of Egypt's armies. He and entire villages plundered gravesites. Amenwah was predeceased Tuthmosis I. Amenmose had a brother, WADJ- associated with DEIR EL-MEDINA, an ancient village hous- MOSE, who also died before he could inherit the throne ing artisans who worked in the tombs in the VALLEY OF from his father. Amenmose was buried in the royal THE KINGS on the western shore of the Nile at THEBES. He necropolis on the western shore of THEBES. was rounded up in a sweeping raid on tomb robbers of
that era. Pleading innocent to all charges brought against Amennakht (fl. 12th century B.C.E.) Official of the him, he was eventually released for lack of evidence. Twentieth Dynasty Modern excavations of Amenwah's tomb established his Amennakht served RAMESSES III (r. 11941163 B.C.E.) as a guilt. He not only robbed Ramesses III's tomb but also supervisor of tomb artists and craftsmen. These artists placed his ill-gotten goods in his own burial chamber for resided in a special community near the VALLEY OF THE all eternity. KINGS on the western shore of the Nile at THEBES. The See also TOMB ROBBERY TRIAL. 34 ames
ames The ancient Egyptian name for the SCEPTER in ital at Meri, modern Tell al-Hariri, Syria, and at Halab, the form of a club or mace that was used as a royal now called Aleppo. The region called Amurru was insignia in most eras, the ames dates back to the early located in northern Palestine and in the Syrian desert period of Egypt (c. 3000 B.C.E.), when the warriors of the region. Inscriptions from the era of Egypt's First Interme- south invaded the Delta, subduing the Bee King's armies diate Period (21342040 B.C.E.) indicate that the Amor- and unifying the nation. The kings maintained the ites controlled Phoenicia, modern Lebanon, disrupting insignias of ancient times and incorporated them into the TRADE with Egypt. AMENEMHET I (r. 19911962 B.C.E.) newer rituals of office. restored such trade during his reign.
Amestris (fl. fifth century B.C.E.) Royal woman of the Amratian The name given to the first Predynastic Persian Empire Period, NAGADA I, this phase was centered in el-'Amirah, She was the consort of XERXES I and the mother of ARTA- near ABYDOS, in Upper Egypt. Sites dating to c. 3600 XERXES I (r. 465424 B.C.E.). Her husband was murdered, B.C.E. give evidence of Badarian (a prior phase) influ- but she remained strong and dominated the first years of ences, improved and adapted to advance techniques. The her son's reign. pottery from this Amratian period includes black topped
red ocher ware, with linear designs in white, including
figures. MACEHEADS, vases, and ivory carving were also amethyst A semiprecious stone, a variety of quartz,
recovered from Amratian sites. usually lavender or purple in color, these stones were dis-
See also EGYPT. covered in the southern desert regions of Egypt and were highly prized.
See also EGYPTIAN NATURAL RESOURCES. Amtes (Yamtes) (fl. 23rd century B.C.E.) Royal woman
of the Sixth Dynasty
She was a consort of PEPI I (r. 22892555 B.C.E.). Some Amherst Papyrus This was a document from THEBES
records indicate that Amtes was involved in a HAREM (1) that contained an account of the Ramessid-Period TOMB
plot to overthrow Pepi I. The conspiracy was unsuccess- ROBBERY TRIALS. With the ABBOTT PAPYRUS, which includes
ful, and an official named WENI was called upon to inves- an account of the same event, this text provides detailed
tigate the charges against Amtes and her fellow information and insight into the Twentieth Dynasty
conspirators. No record is available to give an account of (11961070 B.C.E.), a period of declining royal authority the verdict of the trial, but she disappeared from the and law and order in the Nile Valley. The Amherst court as a result. Papyrus was owned originally by the first baron Amherst of Hockney, England, and consisted of the lower half of a document concerning Twentieth Dynasty robberies. The
amulet This was a decoratively carved item that was
worn by ancient Egyptians in keeping with their religious upper portion of the papyrus, now called the Leopold II
traditions. Called the wedjau, such an amulet was nor- Papyrus, was discovered in Brussels. The two sections
mally fashioned out of metal, wood, FAIENCE, terra-cotta, were joined by scholars and photographed for translation
or stone and was believed to contain magical powers, purposes.
providing the wearer with supernatural benefits and
charms. The potential power of the amulet was deter- Ami-ut A dog-headed deity of ancient Egypt, con- mined by the material, color, shape, or spell of its origin. cerned with funerary elements, he was probably a fore- Living Egyptians wore amulets as pendants, and the runner of OSIRIS and became overshadowed by that deity. deceased had amulets placed in their linen wrappings in A headless BULL's skin attached to a rod was the symbol of their coffins. Various styles of amulets were employed at Ami-ut, an insignia used in some funerary rituals. different times for different purposes. Some were carved
See also TEKENU. as sacred symbols in order to demonstrate devotion to a
particular deity, thus ensuring the god's intercession and Amorites An ancient Semitic people called the Amur- intervention on behalf of the wearer. ru or Martu in records from Sumeria, they dominated the The DJED, for example, was the symbol of stability region of Mesopotamia, Syria, and Palestine from c. 2000 that was associated with the god OSIRIS. This was nor- to c. 1600 B.C.E., bringing them into conflict with Egypt. mally worn on the chest, on a cord or necklace. The Their homeland is believed to have been Arabia, and amulet was placed on the neck of the deceased, in order they are credited with bringing the fall of the city of Ur. to protect that part of the anatomy in the afterlife. The
The Amorites migrated into the region in the 21st djed was normally fashioned out of glazed faience, gold, century B.C.E., assimilating to the Sumerian-Akkadian gilded wood, LAPIS LAZULI, or some other semiprecious culture in time. Almost all of the kings of Babylon could stone. The djed as a national symbol was used in festivals trace their ancestry to this stock. The Amorites had a cap- and celebrations. Amunemhet 35
The ANKH, the EYE OF RÉ, the Amulet of the Heart, the Both the temples at KARNAK and LUXOR benefited from PAPYRUS SCEPTER, and images of the vulture were popular royal patronage. In time, Amun was revered throughout among the faithful. The favored amulet, however, appears Egypt, as the Amunite priests assumed more and more to be the SCARAB, the sacred beetle symbol that repre- political control. In some historical periods, the deity was sented all of the mystical connotations of the solar cults addressed as Amun-Ré. A shrine was erected for Amun in and eternal life. The scarabs were normally fashioned out the SIWA OASIS, which was later called Jupiter Ammon by of stone, wood, metal, schist, steatite, and bronze (dis- the Romans, and pilgrimages were undertaken in every covered in a Twentieth Dynasty site), and could be small era to worship the god there. in size or large. At Thebes, Amun was provided with a consort, the
The BOOK OF THE DEAD, the mortuary text used goddess MUT, and with a son, KHONS (1) or Khonsu. The throughout Egypt's later eras, contained a list of amulets ram, the symbol of the god's true spiritual power, was required for the proper preparation of a corpse. One kept at Thebes for religious ceremonies, embodying amulet placed in almost every mummy was the djed. the energies of the deity and his beauty. During the The scarab and other amulets were placed according to 'AMARNA Period the temples of Amun were attacked and tradition and fashioned out of specific materials, colored closed by order of AKHENATEN (r. 13531335 B.C.E.). red or green normally. Incanted with spells these sym- When TUT'ANKHAMUN came to the throne in 1333 B.C.E., bols supposedly were inspired by the god THOTH in HER- he restored the god's primacy over Egypt. This restoration MOPOLIS in the Old Kingdom (25752134 B.C.E.). of Amun as the paramount deity of Egypt was calculated
See also MAGIC. to appease the priests of Amun and to settle the unrest
caused in the land by the heretical actions of Akhenaten. Amun (Amon) A god of ancient Egypt known in early Many FESTIVALS were celebrated in honor of Amun. eras but attaining dominance in the New Kingdom at One of these, the "Beautiful Feast of the Valley," was THEBES, Amun, whose name means "hidden," figured in
especially popular. The god's statue was taken across the the Hermopolitan myths associated with the dynamic Nile to the western shore of Thebes, where people waited force of life. The deity and his female counterpart, to greet the retinue of priests and devotees. Ritual meals AMAUNET, were mentioned in the PYRAMID TEXTS in the
and mortuary offerings were set before the tombs of the Fifth Dynasty (24652323 B.C.E.) and Sixth Dynasty dead, while people held picnics in the various mortuary (23232150 B.C.E.). The first evidence locating the god in chambers and courts. Amun's priests visited each tomb or Thebes is an inscription of the NOMARCH Rehuy, also of grave site, and special Bouquets of the God were placed at the Sixth Dynasty, who claimed to have performed ser- the tombs as mementos. Singers and dancers, accompa- vices for Amun. nied by lively bands, followed the priests and conducted
When the Thebans began to exert influence over rituals. The festivals of Amun were popular throughout Egypt's political scene, Amun's cult started its ascendancy. Egypt in the New Kingdom. During the New Kingdom (15501070 B.C.E.) the god was elevated in status and infused with many attributes Suggested Readings: Ashby, Muata Abhaya. The Hymns of of other divine beings. Amun was declared to have given Amun: Ancient Egyptian Mystical Psychology. New York: birth to himself, and it was stressed that no other gods Cruzian Mystic, 1997; Assman, Jan, and Anthony Alcock,
trans. Egyptian Solar Religion in the New Kingdom: RE, Amun had such power. All of the other deities in Egypt's pan-
and the Crisis of Polytheism. New York: Routledge, 1995. theon traced their being to his self-creation. Amun was included in the OGDOAD of HERMOPOLIS, then at the PRIMEVAL MOUND of MEMPHIS, at which time he was sup- Amun-dyek'het (fl. seventh century B.C.E.) Queen of posed to have formed all the other gods. He then left the the Twenty-fifth Dynasty enslaved by the Persians earth to abide as RÉ in the heavens, taking the form of a The consort of TAHARQA (r. 690664 B.C.E.), she fell into divine child revealed in the LOTUS. the hands of ESSARHADDON of Assyria when he invaded
In statues, Amun was normally depicted as a hand- Egypt in 671 B.C.E. Taharqa had been routed by Assyrian some, virile young man or as a ram with curled horns. forces and had fled southward. Taharqa's son and heir, The rulers of the New Kingdom carried his banners every- USHANAHURU, as well as the consort, Queen Amun-dyek- where in their establishment of the empire, and the tem- 'het, and the entire court were taken by Essarhaddon to ple in Thebes received tributes from many lands. Amun his capital at NINEVEH as slaves and were never seen again was "the Greatest of Heaven, Eldest of Earth," and the in Egypt. priests of his temple wrote tender hymns in his honor.
The generosity of 'AHMOSE (r. 15501525 B.C.E.), who Amunemhet (1) (fl. 16th century B.C.E.) Infant prince made donations to the temple of Amun in thanksgiving of the Eighteenth Dynasty for his victories, set a pattern in the New Kingdom, and He was the son of AMENHOTEP I (r. 15251504 B.C.E.) and the god was showered with gifts by 'Ahmose's successors. Queen AH'HOTEP (2). His body was discovered in DEIR EL- 36 Amunemhet
BAHRI, having been rewrapped and reburied by priests of Amun's Wives A title assumed by high-ranking royal the Twentieth Dynasty, when his original tomb was plun- women who took part in religious ceremonies at KARNAK dered. The child died in the first or second year of his and LUXOR during the New Kingdom, Queens AH'HOTEP life. (1) and 'AHMOSE-NEFERTARI in the reign of 'AHMOSE
(15501525 B.C.E.) were the first such women to assume
the role, serving as patronesses for the festivals and cultic Amunemhet (2) (fl. 15th century B.C.E.) Temple official
rites. A princess of the royal house was consecrated as the of the Eighteenth Dynasty
god's spouse, served by virgins in the Harem of Amun. In Serving in the reign of AMENHOTEP II (r. 14271401
time this group became the GOD'S WIVES OF AMUN, or the B.C.E.), Amunemhet was a high priest of the god AMUN
Divine Adoratrices of Amun. but served the court in other capacities as well, as did most of the Amunite priests of that period. Amunemhet was an accomplished architect and supervised royal Amun-wosret (15th century B.C.E.) Vizier of the Eigh- building projects. He was buried in THEBES. teenth Dynasty
He served TUTHMOSIS III (r. 14791425 B.C.E.) and was
active in the latter part of Tuthmosis III's lengthy reign, Amunet (Amuniet) (fl. 21st century B.C.E.) Royal named VIZIER of Egypt. Amun-wosret served in a time of woman of the Eleventh Dynasty imperial expansion and military campaigns. His Theban She was a consort of MONTUHOTEP II (r. 20612010 tomb provides details of his office. B.C.E.), called Amuniet in some records. Amunet was buried in the royal mortuary complex at DEIR EL-BAHRI, a site located on the western shore of the Nile at THEBES.
Amyrtaios (1) (fl. fifth century B.C.E.) Rebel Egyptian
who fought against the Persian occupation of the Nile Montuhotep and his other female companions were
He is associated in some records with the revolt of entombed beside Amunet.
an individual named INAROS, who threatened the rule of
the Persian ARTAXERXES I (r. 465424 B.C.E.). When Amunnakhte's Instructions A text written by a Inaros was betrayed, captured, and executed, Amyr- scribe of the PER ANKH, the House of Life, a medical taios continued to hold sway in the western DELTA, educational institute in THEBES. Amunnakhte's Instruc- unchallenged by the Persians. No documentation is tions date to the Eighteenth Dynasty (15501070 available concerning his length of supremacy in this B.C.E.). A copy of the original was discovered in the region. Chester BEATTY PAPYRUS IV. The Instructions were See also REBELS OF EGYPT. addressed to an assistant, urging the young man to take up the noble profession of scribe, an important position Amyrtaios (2) (d. 393 B.C.E.) Founder and sole known in Egyptian society. The Egyptians revered such didac- ruler of the Twenty-eighth Dynasty of Egypt tic LITERATURE, seeking wisdom and purpose in texts Amyrtaios reigned from SAIS originally and then over that explained the roles of life and the opportunities of much of the entire nation from 404 to 393 B.C.E. He service. probably proclaimed himself pharaoh after the death of
DARIUS II in 404 B.C.E. He was possibly a descendant of
AMYRTAIOS (1), a rebel of the land. Amyrtaios was the Amun's Bark A vessel called Userhetamun, or "the Mighty Brow Is Amun," a floating temple for the god prince of Sais. No documented successors are recorded. Amun at THEBES, the bark was supposedly a gift presented One tradition states that Amyrtaios offended "the Law" by 'AHMOSE (r. 15501525 B.C.E.) in thanksgiving for his in some heinous fashion, and because of his transgres- successful military campaigns. The vessel was a divine sion could not bequeath the throne to his son. The ark, and special STATIONS OF THE GODS were erected dynasty ended with his death. Other dynasties flour- throughout Thebes to greet it on its holiday rounds. The ished in the same era on local levels. Reportedly
NEPHRITES I (r. 399393 B.C.E.) captured Amyrtaios and bark was viewed as a potent symbol of Amun's power and
executed him. was refurbished or rebuilt in almost every era of the empire period. On the feast of OPET, the Bark of Amun was moved from KARNAK to LUXOR and back. On other Amytis (fl. sixth century B.C.E.) Royal woman of the Per- feasts the floating temple sailed on the Nile or on the sian Empire sacred lake of the shrine. It was covered with gold from She was a consort of Cyrus the Great and probably the the waterline up and filled with cabins, obelisks, niches, mother of CAMBYSES (r. 525522 B.C.E.). Amytis shared and elaborate adornments. her queenly duties at the Persian court with another royal
See also BARKS OF THE GODS. woman, Kassandine. Anfushi 37
Ana (fl. 18th century B.C.E.) Royal woman of the Thir- (departed) of Ré." Shrines were erected in households in teenth Dynasty the New Kingdom Period (15501070 B.C.E.), and offer- She was a consort of SOBEKHOTEP III (r. c. 1745 B.C.E.). ings were made to the akh-iker-en-Ré. Some clay figures Ana is listed in some records as the mother of Princesses of these spirits were used in later eras, and an industry Ankhetitat and Fent-Ankhnet. The rulers and the con- emerged for their manufacture. A cache of 17,000 such sorts of this dynasty remain obscure. figures was found in KARNAK.
See also ANCESTOR WORSHIP. Anastasi Papyri This is a collection of Egyptian docu- ments collected from various sources by the Swedish con- ancestor worship A cultic tradition of Egypt, associ- sul to Egypt. This diplomat was on the Nile during the ated with the gods OSIRIS and Ré, the dead ancestors were time when extensive exploration was beginning in the called the akh-iker-en-Ré, "the excellent spirit (departed) ruins of the ancient civilized areas. Some of the papyri of Ré" and were the deceased parents of a nonroyal date to the Ramessid Period (13071070 B.C.E.) and con- family. In the New Kingdom (15501070 B.C.E.) such tain hymns to the god AMUN and accounts from that era worship ceremonies employed busts and stelae com- of Egyptian history. memorating the akh-iker-en-Ré. Some 150 red effigies
made out of stone were found in DEIR EL-MEDINA, the arti- Anath (Anat) A goddess of the Canaanites, patroness san enclave near the VALLEY OF THE KINGS at Thebes. of both love and war, Anath, always depicted as a beauti- Some 55 stelae were also recovered there. The akh- ful young woman and called "the Virgin," was the sister iker-en-Ré traveled endlessly in the bark of Ré and were of the Semitic god Baal. Anath was honored as a goddess sometimes portrayed as the rays of the sun in commemo- of war and military campaigns and was adopted by ratives. Offerings and prayers were provided for these RAMESSES II (r. 12901224 B.C.E.) as one of his patrons. In ancestors at their tombs. Egypt, Anath was portrayed nude, standing on a lion and carrying flowers. In the Ptolemaic Period (30430 B.C.E.) Andjeti He was a very ancient deity of Egypt who was Anath was merged with ASTARTE, assuming the name absorbed into the cult of OSIRIS. A shepherd god origi- Astargatis. In other eras she was given RESHEF and Baal as nally, Andjeti's symbol was the CROOK, called the AWET, consorts in rituals. and used as a royal insignia of the pharaohs, along with
the flail. Anather (d. c. 1600 B.C.E.) Ruler of the Sixteenth Dynasty, a lesser Hyksos line
Andreas (fl. 3rd century B.C.E.) Medical official of the His dynasty was contemporary with the Great HYKSOS of
Ptolemaic Period the Fifteenth Dynasty at AVARIS (c. 16401532 B.C.E.).
He served as court physician to PTOLEMY IV PHILOMETOR Anather was called "the Ruler of the Desert Lands."
(r. 221205 B.C.E.). Andreas was skilled in pharmaceuti- SCARABS bearing his name were found in the Delta region
cals and tried to direct the physicians of his era to divorce and in southern Palestine.
themselves from the magical or superstitious traditions of
the past. He wrote books on the pharmaceuticals avail- Anatolians A people living in the lands now called able and the effect of serpent bites, but these survive only Turkey, the Anatolians built many ancient cities, including in fragmented forms. Hacilar, which dates to 5400 B.C.E. By 2600 B.C.E., the See also MEDICINE. Anatolians were trading their metal wares across many lands, probably going as far south as Egypt on trade tours.
Anedjib See 'ADJIB. ancestor cult letters Messages written on clay ves- sels, strips of linen, or stelae and left in or near tombs, Anen (fl. 14th century B.C.E.) Priestly official of the these letters were of two types: friendly, or designed to Eighteenth Dynasty placate the dead to avoid hauntings. The first type of He served in the reign of AMENHOTEP III (r. 13911353 letters inquired about life "in the West," the land be- B.C.E.). Anen was the high priest of the temple of
yond the grave. They also asked for intercessions from HELIOPOLIS, now a suburb of modern Cairo, and the
the deceased, who were requested to act as patrons brother of Queen TIYE (1). YUYA and TUYA were his par- in legel procedures on earth or in the judgment ents. A statue of him in his priestly attire is in the Turin courts of the dead. The second asked the dead to rest in Museum. peace.
Some ancestors addressed by the ancestor cult letters Anfushi A necropolis on the Island of Pharos in were called the akh-iker-en-Ré, "the excellent spirit ALEXANDRIA, Egypt, the burials there date to the Ptolemaic 38 Anhai Papyrus
Period (30430 B.C.E.) and later eras. A catacomb area is sures 178 feet, three inches and contains mortuary texts also part of this burial site. from the New Kingdom (15501070 B.C.E.). The Ani
Papyrus is noted for its illustrations and its tales and leg-
ends, some of which are included in other available Anhai Papyrus This is one of the most elaborately
papyri of that nature. The LITANY OF OSIRIS and a treatise illustrated papyri of the BOOK OF THE DEAD, the ancient
on the origins of the gods and the union of RÉ and Osiris Egyptian mortuary texts that evolved over the centuries.
distinguish the papyrus as well. A feature of the Ani Discovered in THEBES, the work depicts the rites of burial
Papyrus is a section that contains the opinions of the var- and the judgments of the dead. The Anhai Papyrus mea-
ious priestly colleges in existence in the New Kingdom. sures 14 feet, six inches and is now in the British
See also MORTUARY RITUALS; TOMB TEXTS. Museum, London.
See also TOMB TEXTS.
ankh The symbol of eternal life in ancient Egypt, Anhur A god of ancient Egypt, called Onouris by the as well as the word for physical life, the ankh resembled Greeks, his name meant "the Sky-Bearer," and he was a cross with a loop at the top and represented eternity worshiped in conjunction with the god SHU, another solar when positioned in the hands of deities. The symbol deity. The lion goddess Mehit was the consort of Anhur. dates to the establishment of the cults of the deities
ISIS and OSIRIS in the Early Dynastic Period (29202575 Anhur was believed to be the warrior aspect of Ré, but he
B.C.E.). The original meaning of the symbol was lost also represented the creative aspects of humans. He was portrayed as a muscular man with an embroidered robe in later periods, but it remained a constant hiero- and a headdress of four plumes. Sometimes he had a glyphic insignia for life. The ankh was used in rituals, beard and carried a spear. He was particularly popular in especially in those involving the royal cults, and it had the New Kingdom Period (15501070 B.C.E.), when he special significance when used in various temple cere- was addressed as "the Savior" because of his martial pow- monies. ers and his solar connection. Mock battles were con- See also AMULET; ETERNITY. ducted at his festival, and he was a patron against enemies and pests. Anhur remained popular in later eras, Ankhefenmut (fl. 11th century B.C.E.) Prince of the after the fall of the New Kingdom, especially in ABYDOS. Twenty-first Dynasty He was also honored at THINIS. NECTANEBO II (r. 360343 He was the son of PSUSENNES I (r. 1040992 B.C.E.) and B.C.E.) built a temple for Anhur and in later eras the god Queen MUTNODJMET (2) but did not succeed his father, was called "the Lord of the Lance." He then was por- perhaps because he was a younger son or died early. trayed as an avenger of the god Ré. Ankhefenmut's tomb was prepared for him by Psusennes I
in southern TANIS. Ani An obscure deity of Egypt, a form of KHONS (1), the moon god, Ani was worshiped in the early periods of Ankhesenamon (Ankhesenpa'aten) (fl. 14th century the nation, following unification c. 3000 B.C.E. His con- B.C.E.) Royal woman of the Eighteenth Dynasty sort was the goddess Anit. A daughter of AKHENATEN (r. 13531335 B.C.E.) and
Queen NEFERTITI, she was born to the royal family in the Aniba The site of a New Kingdom (15501070 B.C.E.) city of 'AMARNA. Ankhesenamon was married to FORTRESS, located between the first and second cataracts TUT'ANKHAMUN and became queen when he succeeded in NUBIA, or Kush (modern Sudan), the fort was origi- SMENKHARÉ in 1333 B.C.E. The royal couple ruled only 10 nally surrounded by three walls and contained the years. Tut'ankhamun was eight years old when he took remains of a temple and storage facilities dating to the the throne and Ankhesenamon was 13. At 'Amarna she Middle Kingdom (20401640 B.C.E.). The newer struc- was called Ankhesenpa'aten. During her marriage to tures date to the Eighteenth Dynasty (15501307 B.C.E.). Tut'ankhamun, she gave birth to two stillborn babies who A necropolis near Aniba was used for New Kingdom were buried with the young pharaoh. tombs and pyramids. Rock chapels were discovered on Perhaps fearful of the priests and the growing power the western shore of the Nile, opposite the site, as well as of HOREMHAB, a general of the armies who had stirred an ancient cemetery plot. In one era, Aniba served as the opposition to 'Amarna and the worship of the god ATEN, administrative center for the region. HUY (1), the viceroy Ankhesenamon took a drastic step when Tut'ankhamun of Kush, serving TUT'ANKHAMUN (r. 13331323 B.C.E.), died. She wrote to King SUPPILULIUMAS I of the HITTITES, resided at Aniba. an emerging power on the northern Mediterranean, offer-
ing herself and the throne to one of his royal sons. A Ani Papyrus A document that is one of the surviving prince, ZANNANZA, set out for Egypt and the wedding but BOOKS OF THE DEAD, written for a man named Ani, it mea- was murdered at the border of Egypt. Ankh-tawy 39
AYA (2), a master of the horse in THEBES, was chosen her behalf. Portraits of Ankh-ma-hor and scenes, includ- to succeed Tut'ankhamun. As the royal widow, Ank- ing animals and daily activities, are also present. In some hesenamon was given to him as his bride. Some ques- records he is listed as Sheshi. tion has been raised as to the possibility that Aya was the father of Nefertiti, which would have made him Ankhnesmery-Ré (1) (fl. 23rd century B.C.E.) Royal Ankhesenamon's grandfather. The couple assumed the woman of the Sixth Dynasty throne before the burial of Tut'ankhamun, thus perform- She was a consort of PEPI I (r. 22892255 B.C.E.). The ing the required ritual that each successor had to pro- daughter of an official named Khui, and the sister of vide for the deceased pharaoh in the tomb. Aya died in Djau and ANKHNESMERY-RÉ (2), she became the mother of 1319 B.C.E., but Ankhesenamon disappeared from the MERENRÉ. Ankhnesmery-Ré is reported as having died scene before that, giving way to Aya's wife, TEY, also a giving birth to this son or dying soon afterward. She commoner. was also the mother of Princess NEITH (2) who married
PEPI II. Ankhesneferibré (fl. sixth century B.C.E.) Royal woman of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty, a God's Wife of Amun Ankhnesmery-Ré (2) (fl. 23rd century B.C.E.) Royal She was a daughter of PSAMMETICHUS II (r. 595589 woman of the Sixth Dynasty B.C.E.) and Queen TAKHAT (3) adopted by the Divine Ado- She was a consort of PEPI I (r. 22892255 B.C.E.). The ratrice Nitocris and succeeding her as the GOD'S WIFE OF daughter of an official named Khui, and the sister of Djau AMUN in Thebes. Ankhesneferibré served in the office for and ANKHNESMERY-RÉ (1), she became the mother of PEPI almost 60 years. Her SARCOPHAGUS, made of basalt, is II. When the young Pepi II succeeded his brother now in the British Museum in London. A schist statuette MERENRÉ (I), Ankhnesmery-Ré served as regent for her of her was also recovered in KARNAK. child. She was aided by Djau, her brother, who served as
VIZIER during the regency. They raised the young heir and Ankh-Hor (fl. sixth century B.C.E.) Vizier and temple kept Egypt stable until he reached his majority. The story official of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty of the two sisters Ankhnesmery-Ré was discovered on a He served PSAMMETICHUS II (r. 595589 B.C.E.) as the tablet in ABYDOS. VIZIER of Upper Egypt, the overseer of the priests of AMUN, the mayor of MEMPHIS, and the steward of the Ankhnes-Pepi (fl. 22nd century B.C.E.) Royal woman of Divine Adoratrice NITOCRIS (2). Ankh-Hor also served the Sixth Dynasty APRIES (r. 589570 B.C.E.). His tomb at DRA-ABÚ EL-NAGA She was a lesser consort of PEPI II (r. 22462152 B.C.E.). in Thebes is large. The tomb contains PYLONS, courts, pil- Ankhnes-Pepi lived to see her son or grandson, NEFER- lared halls, and subterranean burial chambers. KURÉ, become the founder of the Eighth Dynasty in 2150
B.C.E. She was buried in a storage chamber and entombed
Ankhkhaf (fl. 26th century B.C.E.) Princely vizier of the in a sarcophagus borrowed for the occasion from a family Fourth Dynasty friend who had prepared it for his own funeral. Her He was a son of SNEFRU (r. 25752551 B.C.E.), serving the remains were placed in SAQQARA, in the tomb pyramid of royal family as a VIZIER. This royal line maintained con- Queen IPUT (2). The tomb of Ankhnes-Pepi was formed trol by using only family members in high positions of by adding a FALSE DOOR to the original burial chamber trust and authority. Ankhkhaf's statue, actually a bust of area of Iput. exquisite artistry, is in the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston. He married HETEPHERES (2) and predeceased her. Ankhsheshongy (fl. first century B.C.E.) Egyptian sage His tomb was the largest MASTABA in the eastern cemetery who wrote his Instructions c. 100 B.C.E. in GIZA. Preserved on papyrus, this literary work is written in the
demotic style and discusses the moral precepts of the age.
Traditionally it is believed that Ankhsheshongy wrote his Ankh-ma-hor (Sheshi) (fl. 23rd century B.C.E.) Medi-
Instructions while in prison for some crime, c. 100 B.C.E. cal official of the Sixth Dynasty, noted for his tomb in
This didactic text was popular, as it echoed the centuries' Saqqara
old spirit of the traditional aspirations of the Egyptians in Ankh-ma-hor was a VIZIER and physician in the court of
a period of Greek dominance and Hellenic literary forms. PEPI II (r. 22462152 B.C.E.). He was buried in SAQQARA in a site called "the street of tombs," and his gravesite is called "the Doctor's Tomb" because of the medical scenes Ankh-tawy The ancient name for the city of MEMPHIS painted on its walls. The tomb has six chambers, includ- or part of its environs, meaning "Life of the Two Lands." ing a SERDAB, a room designed to allow a statue of the The city's name was changed to Men-nefer-Maré in the deceased to watch the daily rituals being offered on his or Sixth Dynasty in the reign of PEPI I (r. 22892255 B.C.E.). 40 Ankhtify
He built his pyramid nearby, called by that name. The Anti An ancient Egyptian war god, worshiped in Upper Greeks translated Men-nefer-Maré as Memphis. Egypt, having a cult center at DEIR EL-GEBRAWI, near old
ASSIUT. The deity was a patron of MERENRÉ I of the Sixth Ankhtify (fl. c. 2100 B.C.E.) Powerful aristocratic rebel Dynasty (r. 22552246 B.C.E.). Honoring Anti was proba- He was the ranking noble of HIERAKONPOLIS, who bly part of Merenré's efforts to influence supporters in the resided in el-MOALLA, south of THEBES in the Ninth southern region. His symbol was the falcon. Dynasty (2134? B.C.E.). Ankhtify led an army against THEBES and was defeated in his efforts to establish an Antigonus I Monophthalmus (Antigonus I Cy- independent southern kingdom. His tomb in el-Moalla clops) (d. 301 B.C.E.) Founder of the Antigonids and an has six chambers and is decorated with paintings enemy of Egypt depicting various activities and portraits of him and his He was a general under ALEXANDER III THE GREAT wife. (332323 B.C.E.) and a Macedonian by birth, also called
Antigonus I Cyclops (One-Eyed). Antigonus I founded Ankhu (fl. 18th century B.C.E.) Court official and a fam- the Macedonian dynasty of Antigonids (306168 B.C.E.) ily of public servants after Alexander's death. A brilliant military leader, Ankhu and his clan served during the Thirteenth Antigonus served as satrap, or provincial governor, in Dynasty (1784c. 1640 B.C.E.) at el-LISHT and at THEBES. Phrygia (now part of Turkey), establishing control over Two of his memorial statues are in the Louvre in Paris. Asia Minor and defeating other rivals of the region. He recorded extensive restorations in ABYDOS. Several PTOLEMY SOTER I (r. 304284 B.C.E.) of Egypt was a generations of the Ankhu family conducted official busi- competitor for power, and Antigonus clashed with him, ness for the crown. One Ankhu was in the service of defeating the Egyptian forces at SALAMIS in a naval battle KHENDJER (c. 1740 B.C.E.) and SOBEKHOTEP III (c. 1745 that took place in 306. Antigonus was aided in this battle B.C.E.). by his son, DEMETRIUS I POLIOCRETES. The two soon
attacked Egypt but were unable to overcome Ptolemy's Ankhwennofre (fl. second century B.C.E.) Rebel of
defenses in battle. Ptolemy I then went to the aid of the Egypt in the reign of Ptolemy V Epiphanes island of Rhodes, held by Antigonus, and was given the He ruled many areas of the Nile Valley, prompted by the title of soter, or "savior," by the grateful populace when death of PTOLEMY IV PHILOPATOR and the intervention of he freed them. Antigonus faced a coalition of his rivals at the Seleucid king ANTIOCHUS III THE GREAT. The Ptolemaic the Battle of Ipsus, in Phrygia, and he was slain there in army was defeated by Antiochus III at Panion, resulting 301 B.C.E. in the loss of Egypt's Asiatic possessions. PTOLEMY V focused on Ankhwennofre and defeated him, putting an Antigonus II Gonatas (d. 239 B.C.E.) Ruler of Macedo- end to the rebellion and to the threatened succession of nia and an enemy of Egypt Upper Egypt. He was the son of DEMETRIUS I POLIOCRETES and the
See also REBELS OF EGYPT. grandson of ANTIGONUS I, ruling from 276 to 239 B.C.E.
He forced a rival of ANTIOCHUS I, a Seleucid, to renounce Ankyronpolis See HIBA', EL-. claims on Macedonia and slowly gained control of
Greece. In 261 B.C.E., during the Chremonidean War, he
also managed to keep Egyptian forces out of the Aegean Annals of Tuthmosis III See TUTHMOSIS III'S MILITARY Sea. PTOLEMY II PHILADELPHUS (285246 B.C.E.) had CAMPAIGNS.
started the feud and saw his influences weakened as a
result. In the Second Syrian War (c. 260253 B.C.E.), Anpu See ANUBIS. Antigonus and Antiochus I allied against Ptolemy II. The
Egyptian ruler talked Antigonus into a peace treaty and Anqet See ANUKIS. then into marrying his daughter, BERENICE (2), the Egyp-
tian princess. Antefoker (fl. 20th century B.C.E.) Official of the Twelfth Dynasty Antiochus I (d. 29 B.C.E.) Ruler of Commagene involved He served SENWOSRET I (r. 19711926 B.C.E.) as VIZIER. with Marc Antony Antefoker's tomb at SHEIK ABD' EL-QURNA contains long Antiochus I came from the Seleucid line and ruled Com- corridors that lead to the burial chamber. These corridors magene, a city-state on the Euphrates River. His rule was are decorated with vibrant scenes of hunts, agricultural sanctioned by POMPEY in 63 B.C.E., making Antiochus a practices, musicians, and a pilgrimage to ABYDOS. The figurehead. During Marc ANTONY's Parthian campaign (36 tomb contained a statue and shrine for Antefoker's wife. B.C.E.), retreating Parthians sought refuge at Samosata. A FALSE DOOR was included in the design. Antony's lieutenant, Bassus Ventidius, followed them Antony, Marc 41
there but was bribed by Antiochus to delay prosecutions. a hostage of Rome as a lad, Antiochus IV was called Antony arrived and deposed Antiochus, replacing him Epiphane. Other records list him as "the Mad." Forced with Mithridates II. When AUGUSTUS (formerly Octavian) out of Egypt, he unsuccessfully attacked Jerusalem and came to the throne and sent an envoy to Mithridates, died. Antiochus slew him. Antiochus was captured, taken to Rome, and executed in 29 B.C.E. Antiochus Hierax (d. 226 B.C.E.) Prince of the Seleucid
empire of ancient Syria Antiochus I Soter (d. 262 B.C.E.) King of the Seleucid He was the brother of Seleucus II, and the son of ANTI- kingdom of ancient Syria OCHUS II and Queen Laodice. When Seleucus II was He was born in 324 B.C.E. Anointed king of the Seleucid involved in the Third Syrian War (246241 B.C.E.) with Kingdom in 292 B.C.E., he had to battle against nomads PTOLEMY II PHILADELPHUS (r. 285246 B.C.E.), Antiochus who destroyed his eastern possessions between the was sent to Asia Minor to become the ruler there. He Caspian Sea and Aral Sea and the Indian Ocean. In 299 sent an army into Syria perhaps to overthrow Seleucus. B.C.E., due to PTOLEMY II PHILADELPHUS of Egypt (r. The appearance of Antiochus's troops, however, brought 285246 B.C.E.), he lost Miletus in southwest Asia Minor, peace between Egypt and Seleucus, who invaded Asia and the Egyptians invaded northern Syria in 276. Anti- Minor instead. "The War of the Brothers" resulted, last- ochus defeated the Egyptians, however, and secured ing from 239 to 236. Antiochus allied himself with the alliances. He died in 262 B.C.E. Galatians (Celts) and others to defeat Seleucus at Ancyra
in 236. Antiochus II (Theos) (d. 246 B.C.E.) Seleucid king of He found himself thrown out of Asia Minor, how- Syrian territories ever, by an army from Pergamum (aroused by the pres- Antiochus II was born c. 287 B.C.E. He avenged his father, ence of the Galatians in their area). Antiochus tried other ANTIOCHUS I SOTER, by making war on Egypt. He then rebellions and was exiled to Thrace (modern Balkans, found an ally in ANTIGONUS I MONOPHTHALMUS and waged Greece) in 227 B.C.E. He escaped, fled into the moun- war against PTOLEMY II PHILADELPHUS (r. 285246 B.C.E.). tains, and tried to raise an army but was killed by a band Successful at first, Antiochus II regained Miletus and of the Galatian allies. Ephesus. In 253, he deposed his queen to marry Ptolemy's daughter, BERENICE (2). Antipater of Idumea (d. 43 B.C.E.) Ruler of Idumea and
ally of Egypt Antiochus III the Great (d. 187 B.C.E.) Seleucid king As an adviser to Queen Alexandra Salome, ruler of Pales- of ancient Syria tine and Judea, Antipater was responsible for bringing He was born in 242 B.C.E., becoming the ruler in 223 Romans into the region by involving King Aretas III in B.C.E. Antiochus III fought PTOLEMY IV PHILOPATOR (r. the succession dispute of the queen's sons upon her death 221205 B.C.E.) in the Fourth Syrian War and was in 67 B.C.E. Antipater became minister of the state of Hyr- defeated at RAPHIA. Advancing into India through canus, who was placed on the throne by POMPEY. Parthia, he set up new vassal states. In 192 B.C.E., he In 57 B.C.E., Antipater was given control of the king- invaded Greece but was defeated by the Romans at the dom of Idumea by Aulus GABINUS, the local Roman Battle of Magnesia. In the peace settlement, the Seleucid authority. He joined Gabinus in a campaign to restore kingdom was divided into three parts. He gave his PTOLEMY XII NEOS DIONYSIUS (r. 8058, 5551 B.C.E.) in daughter, CLEOPATRA (1), to PTOLEMY V EPIPHANES Egypt. When CAESAR fought at Pharsalus in 48 B.C.E., (205180 B.C.E.). Antipater marched to his aid in ALEXANDRIA. Named chief
minister in Judea, he was given Roman citizenship. His Antiochus IV (d. 164 B.C.E.) Seleucid king who invaded son Phaesael became governor of Jerusalem, and his Egypt other son, Herod the Great, was governor of Galilee. He attacked the Nile in 170 B.C.E., in the reign of Antipater was poisoned in 43 B.C.E. PTOLEMY VI PHILOMETER (180164, 163145 B.C.E.) and established a "protectorate" over the young king. In 169 Antony, Marc (Marcus Antonius) (c. 8330 B.C.E.) B.C.E. Antiochus's renewed invasion again put the gov- Famed Roman general, consul, and lover of CLEOPATRA VII ernment in Memphis in danger. A Roman contingent Antony was the son of Antonius Creticus, an unsuccess- under Papillius Laenas arrived and set up a display of ful admiral, and Julia. His father died early in Antony's power at Antiochus's camp. Antiochus was told to with- childhood, and P. Cornelius Lentulus raised him after draw but he asked to be allowed to consider the move. marrying Julia. In 63 B.C.E., his adoptive father was stran- Laenas drew a line in the sand around Antiochus and gled on Cicero's order for involvement in the famed Cati- told him to give his answer before he stepped outside of line Affair, an act that Antony did not forget and that the circle. Antiochus withdrew from Egypt. Having been sparked one of the most bitter feuds in the late years of 42 Anubeion
the Roman Republic. As he grew to manhood and repulsed King Phraates IV of Parthia around Phraaspa but beyond, Antony earned the reputation for being an insa- was forced to retreat because of the heat and the clever tiable womanizer. use of cavalry by the enemy. Antony thus failed to make
In 58 or 57 B.C.E., he traveled to Syria, joining the himself the military equal of the murdered Caesar. He army of Gabinius, where as a cavalry commander he subsequently proved inadequate in replacing Caesar in served in Egypt and Palestine with distinction. He was in the realm of politics as well. Gaul in 54 B.C.E. as a staff member for Julius CAESAR. This Around the same time as his ill-fated campaigns, the connection proved useful, for in 52 B.C.E., Marc Antony weakest member of the triumvirate, Marcus Lepidus, fell became a quaestor and the most ardent and determined from power, leaving mastery of the Roman world to only member of the inner circle of Caesar. In 49 B.C.E., while two combatants. Octavian in effect ruled the western half serving as Caesar's tribune in Rome, Antony vetoed the of the empire and Antony the East. The East tempted Senate decree stripping Caesar of his command and then Antony with dreams of unlimited power, and he suc- joined him in Gaul. The Senate's actions launched the cumbed completely. Roman civil war. Returning to Rome, Antony watched Key to Antony's attraction to the East was his leg- over Caesar's interests during the general's Spanish cam- endary affair with Cleopatra VII. She and the vast wealth paign and then commanded the left wing of Caesar's of Egypt became his principal allies, but as a result, forces at the famous battle of Pharsalus in 48 B.C.E. There Antony drifted further from Rome and the base of his Caesar's great enemy, POMPEY the Great, was defeated and political power. A final split with Octavian came in 33 forced to flee to what he believed to be sanctuary in B.C.E., followed by a divorce from Octavia. Sensing that Egypt. For his courage and loyalty Antony was made universal support would be crucial, Octavian swayed Caesar's coconsul in 44 B.C.E. public opinion in Rome by publishing Antony's will,
Whatever plans Caesar had for Antony died with his which left large gifts to his illegitimate children by assassination at the hands of conspirators on March 15, Cleopatra. Antony was stripped of his authority by the 44 B.C.E. Antony seized the dead general's papers, read his Senate, and war was declared upon Cleopatra. will, gave the funeral oration, and occupied Caesar's The war climaxed at the battle of ACTIUM, off the property, representing himself to the people as Caesar's west coast of Greece, on September 2, 31 B.C.E. It proved heir. a disaster for Antony, whose personal courage and deter-
In the confused and highly charged days that fol- mination were not enough to overcome the precision of lowed, Antony gained control of Cisalpine Gaul and Octavian's fleet or the halfhearted support of the Romans faced the forces of Brutus and Caesar's other assassins, who served Antony's cause. Following the battle, Antony who were joined by Cicero and the Roman Senate and joined Cleopatra in ALEXANDRIA. After a brief effort to Octavian (the future emperor AUGUSTUS), Caesar's heir. stem the Roman advance into Egypt, Antony and Cleopa- Antony was defeated in April 43 B.C.E., suffering setbacks tra killed themselves in August of 30 B.C.E. at Forum Gallorum and especially at Mutina. He retreated into Gallia Narbonensis and there gathered Anubeion A shrine in SAQQARA erected to honor ANU- assorted allies and supporters. BIS, a deity of Egypt. Anubis, normally depicted as a
The Second Triumvirate, a coalition of political lead- JACKAL, was honored as well by a necropolis for canines ers, was established in November of 43 B.C.E., comprising in the galleries of the shrine. Antony, Octavian, and Lepidus. These men and their forces faced the Republicans (Caesar's assassins) at Anubis (Anpu, Anup) The Greek rendering of the Philippi in 42 B.C.E., where the last of them fell in battle. Egyptian Anpu or Anup, called the "Opener of the Way" Antony took control of the East, with plans to carry out for the dead, Anubis was the guide of the afterlife. From Caesar's planned campaign against Parthia. He was the earliest time Anubis presided over the embalming rit- delayed by a meeting with CLEOPATRA VII of Egypt, in Tar- uals of the deceased and received many pleas in the mor- sus in 41 B.C.E. The growing rift between Antony and tuary prayers recited on behalf of souls making their way Octavian was furthered in the Perusine War when Fulvia, to TUAT, or the Underworld. Antony's wife, and Lucius, his brother, also opposed Anubis was normally depicted as a black JACKAL with Octavian in the conflict. a bushy tail or as a man with the head of a jackal or a
Fulvia's death ended the dispute, and peace was DOG. In the PYRAMID TEXTS Anubis was described as the made between Octavian and Antony in 40 B.C.E., at Brun- son of Ré and given a daughter, a goddess of freshness. In disium. As part of the political settlement, Octavian gave time he lost both of those attributes and became part of his sister OCTAVIA to Antony in marriage, receiving in the Osirian cultic tradition, the son of NEPTHYS, aban- return Cisalpine Gaul. doned by his mother, who had borne him to OSIRIS. ISIS
The long-awaited Parthian Campaign of 36 B.C.E. was raised him and when he was grown he accompanied intended to cement Antony's position in the Roman Osiris. He aided Isis when SET slew Osiris and dismem- world, but it proved less than successful. Antony bered his corpse. Anubis invented the mortuary rites at Apollonius of Rhodes 43
this time, taking on the title of "Lord of the Mummy white crescent on one side of its body or a white triangle Wrappings." He was also called Khenty-seh-netjer, "the on its forehead, signifying its unique character and its Foremost of the Divine Place" (the burial chamber). He acceptance by the gods. A flying VULTURE patch on the was called as well Neb-ta-djeser, "the Lord of the Sacred back of the animal was also considered a sign that it was Land," the necropolis. eligible for ceremonies. A black lump under its tongue
Anubis henceforth ushered in the deceased to the was enough to qualify if all other signs were absent. Each JUDGMENT HALLS OF OSIRIS. The deity remained popular in bull was believed to have been conceived in a blaze of all periods of Egyptian history and even in the time of fire, according to HERODOTUS. foreign domination. Anubis took over the cult of KHENTI- When a bull of Apis died, an immediate search was AMENTIU, an early canine deity in ABYDOS. There he was begun for another animal with at least one of the mark- addressed as Tepiy-dju-ef, "He Who Is On His Moun- ings required. Such animals were dressed in elaborate tain." Anubis guarded the scales upon which the souls of golden robes and paraded in the ceremonies of PTAH. It is the dead were weighed at judgment. He was a member of believed that the bull was born of a virgin cow, impreg- the ENNEAD of Heliopolis, in that city. nated by Ptah for a life of service in the temple. The bulls
were also used as ORACLES on festival days. In a special Anukis (Anuket, Anqet) A female deity of Egypt, chamber in Memphis the animal was turned loose to she was the goddess of the first cataract of the Nile, prob- decide which gate it would enter to seek its food. The ably Nubian (modern Sudanese) in origin. She formed a gates held symbols as to the positive or negative response triad with the gods of KHNUM and SATET and was depicted to the questions put to the animal by believers. as a woman with a plumed CROWN carrying a PAPYRUS or Each bull was cared for by the priests for a period of a SCEPTER. A daughter of the god Ré, Anukis was revered 15 to 20 years and then was drowned. Various parts of as early as the Old Kingdom (25752134 B.C.E.). Her the animal were then eaten in a sacramental meal in the entrance into the divine triad on ELEPHANTINE Island with temple, and the remains were embalmed and placed in Khnum and Satet dates to the New Kingdom (15501070 the SERAPEUM (1) or in another bull necropolis structure. B.C.E.). SEHEL ISLAND was one of her cult centers, and she An alabaster table was used there for embalming proce- had a temple there. Anukis was considered a female per- dures, and other tables were found at MIT RAHINAH and sonification of the NILE, as the inundator of the land. She Memphis. In the Eighteenth Dynasty (15501070 also had a temple at PHILAE. B.C.E.), the bulls were buried in SAQQARA in chapels,
then in a catacomb. This developed into the Serapeum.
Prince KHA'EMWESET (1), a son of RAMESSES II (r. Aoh (Yah) (fl. 21st century B.C.E.) Royal woman of the 12901224 B.C.E.), was involved in the Apis liturgies. In Eleventh Dynasty
time SERAPIS became the human form of Apis, called She was the consort of INYOTEF III (r. 20692061 B.C.E.).
Osarapis. The mother of MONTUHOTEP II (r. 20612010 B.C.E.), she is sometimes listed as Yah. Aoh was depicted in the com- pany of her royal son on a STELA from his reign. Apollonius (fl. third century B.C.E.) Treasury official of
the Ptolemaic Period
He served PTOLEMY II PHILADELPHUS (r. 285246 B.C.E.) as Apedemak A Nubian (modern Sudanese) deity wor-
the finance minister for the throne. He also maintained a shiped at MEROË and in some Upper Egypt sites, Apede-
vast estate at a site in the FAIYUM region. A document mak was depicted as a lion. The inscriptions at the deity's
concerning a complex irrigation system in use in this area shrine on the sixth cataract of the Nile are in Egyptian
has survived. Dikes and canals provided water to the hieroglyphs.
Apepi See APOPHIS (1).
Apollonius of Rhodes (fl. third century B.C.E.) Direc-
tor of the Library of Alexandria and a noted poet Apet See TAWARET. He was born c. 295 B.C.E. and served as director of the
LIBRARY OF ALEXANDRIA, in the reign of PTOLEMY II Apis The sacred BULL of the Ptah-Sokar-Osiris cult in PHILADELPHUS (r. 285246 B.C.E.). Apollonius was famous MEMPHIS. The PALERMO STONE and other records give an for his Argonautica, "the Voyage of Argo," a four-volume account of the FESTIVALS held to honor this animal. The epic on the adventures of Jason. The character of Medea, ceremonies date to the First Dynasty (c. 2900 B.C.E.) and Jason's love, is clearly defined in the work, serving as the were normally called "The Running of Apis." The animal first epic in the classical period to employ a woman's was also garbed in the robes of the Nile god, HAPI (1). viewpoint for dramatic purposes. Apollonius succeeded The name Apis is Greek for the Egyptian term Hep or ZENODOTUS as director of the Library of Alexandria from Hapi. The sacred bull of Apis was required to have a 260 B.C.E. 44 Apophis
Apophis (1) (Apep, Apepi) A giant serpent with was found in the tomb of AMENHOTEP I (r. 15251504 mystical powers who was the enemy of the god RÉ. B.C.E.). Apophis lived in the waters of NUN, the cosmological area of chaos, or in the celestial waters of the Nile, the spiri- "appearing" An ancient Egyptian term for the dawn- tual entity envisioned in Egyptian religious texts. He ing of a god or the coronation or emergence of a ruler, as attempted each day to stop Ré from his appointed passage a manifestation of a deity. The term was considered through the sky. In some traditions, Apophis was a previ- appropriate for use in the titles of barks and buildings. ous form of Ré that had been discarded, a myth that See also HORIZON; WINDOW OF APPEARANCE. accounted for the strength of the creature. Apophis was deemed to be a legitimate threat to Ré by the Egyptians. Apries (Wa'a ibré) (d. 570 B.C.E.) Fifth ruler of the On sunless days, especially on stormy days, the people Twenty-sixth Dynasty took the lack of sunshine as a sign that Apophis had He reigned from 589 B.C.E. until his death, the son of swallowed Ré and his SOLAR BOAT. Apophis never gained a PSAMMETICHUS II and probably Queen TAKHAT (3). An lasting victory, however, because of the prayers of the active builder, he added sphinxes to the shrine at priests and the faithful. The ritual document, "the Book HELIOPOLIS and aided the revival of the cult of OSIRIS in of OVERTHROWING APOPHIS," and "the Book of Knowing ABYDOS. He also supported the Palestinian states in their How Ré Came into Being and How to Overthrow revolt against Babylon, although records indicate that at Apophis" were discovered in KARNAK, and in the Papyrus one point he withdrew his aid. NEBUCHADNEZZER was on Bremner-Rhind, and contained a list of the serpent's the throne of Babylon during Apries's reign. secret names that would wound him if recited aloud and Apries then involved Egypt in a dispute between the a selection of hymns to be sung to celebrate Ré's victories. Libyans and the Greeks. Sending an Egyptian army to aid A series of terrible assaults were committed upon the Libyans, he saw his units destroyed and faced a Apophis each time the serpent was defeated, but he rose mutiny among his native troops. Apries sent his general in strength that following morning, an image of evil AMASIS to put down the revolt. Amasis sided with the always prepared to attack the righteous. Apophis was the Egyptian troops and was declared the ruler. Apries, exiled personification of darkness and evil. as a result, went to Babylon and returned to Egypt in 567
B.C.E. to face Amasis at the battle of MOMEMPHIS, aided by
Apophis (2) ('Awoserré) (d. 1542 B.C.E.) Ruler of the Babylonian troops, a battle recorded on a massive red Fifteenth Dynasty (Hyksos), called "the Great" stela. He reigned from c. 1585 B.C.E. until his death. Apophis Having only mercenaries in his command, Apries lost ruled over the DELTA region from AVARIS while the Seven- the battle. Some records indicate that he was taken as a teenth Dynasty (c. 15851542 B.C.E.) ruled Upper Egypt prisoner to his former palace. After a time he was turned from THEBES. He was mentioned in the SALLIER PAPYRI and over to the irate Egyptian troops that he had formerly the RHIND PAPYRUS and on the KARNAK Stelae. His contem- commanded and was slain by them. Apries was given a poraries were Sekenenré TA'O II and Wadj-Kheperré solemn state funeral by Amasis (r. 570526 B.C.E.) and KAMOSE (r. 15551550 B.C.E.) in Thebes. These Theban
buried in SAIS. The tomb of Apries was vandalized by
CAMBYSES (r. 525522 B.C.E.), who dug up his body and rulers began to reclaim land during his reign, forcing the HYKSOS to retreat northward.
had it dismembered. A magnificent black granite heart-
Apophis sent word to Sekenenré Ta'o II that the snor- shaped vase, dedicated to the god THOTH by Apries, is ing hippopotami in the sacred pool at Thebes kept him now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. Apries was hon- awake at night with their unseemly noises. This was per- ored by an invitation to conduct the Olympic games in
Greece. He also had a personal bodyguard of Greeks and haps a sheer literary device used by the Thebans to justify
Carians. His sister, ANKHESNEFERIBRÉ, became a GOD'S their cause, but Sekenenré Ta'o II, receiving the message,
WIFE OF AMUN at THEBES. decreed that it was insult, because Apophis's bedchamber was more than 400 miles away. He promptly declared official war on Avaris and began the campaign to drive Apuleius, Lucius (fl. second century B.C.E.) Platonic them out of Egypt. He was slain in battle or in an philosopher and a visitor to Egypt ambush, and KAMOSE, his eldest son, took up the crusade He was also called Apuleis of Madaura, as he was born with renewed vengeance. there, c. 125 B.C.E. Apuleius visited Egypt and was a
The Hyksos gave way up and down the Nile, and devout worshiper at the ISIS festivals. Apophis died in Avaris, possibly from old age or from the stress of seeing the Thebans' victorious advance into his Arabian Desert The eastern desert of Egypt, moun- kingdom. He had ruled northern Egypt down to CUSAE. tainous and rutted with deep wadis or dry riverbeds, this Apophis usurped the colossal sphinxes of AMENEMHET III hostile region protected Egypt from invaders crossing the (r. 18441797 B.C.E.). His daughter was HERIT. Her name Red Sea or the SINAI. The sandy terrain is marked by a Arsaphes 45
chain of hills, from north to south, which rises in some Aristophanes of Byzantium (fl. third century B.C.E.) places to a height of 7,000 feet above sea level. The hills Director of the Library of Alexandria and the founder of the provided Egypt with vast quarries and mining areas that Alexandrian Canon yielded granite, diorite, and other stones. Aristophanes was born c. 257 B.C.E. and became famous
See also EGYPTIAN NATURAL RESOURCES. for his critical editions of the works of Homer and Hes-
iod. He also annotated the odes of Pindar and the come- Aramaeans A people from the Syrian desert region dies of the Athenian playwright Aristophanes. His system who built enclaves in the area and in the modern Levant, of accents is still used in modern Greek. by 1069 B.C.E., the Aramaeans were a power, blocking In c. 195 B.C.E., he was named director of the LIBRARY Assyrian advances to the Mediterranean and trading with OF ALEXANDRIA in the reign of PTOLEMY V EPIPHANES Egypt and other nations. The language of the Aramaeans (205180 B.C.E.). He established the Alexandrian Canon, was Aramaic, which remained in use until 700 C.E., when a selection in each genre of LITERATURE that set standards Arabic was adopted. In 1069 B.C.E., Adad-apla-iddina was for excellence. He also founded a grammarian school and on the throne of Babylon. The last of the true pharaohs, gained worldwide fame for arranging the Dialogues of RAMESSES XI (r. 11001070 B.C.E.), had just ended his Plato. reign on the Nile.
Arius Didymus (fl. 1st century B.C.E.) Savior of Archelaus Sisines (fl. first century B.C.E.) Last king of Alexandria after the fall of Marc Antony and Cleopatra VII Cappadocia (modern Turkey) (d. 30 B.C.E.) Archelaus was given his realm by Octavian, the future Arius was a student of Antiochus of Askalon and during Emperor AUGUSTUS of Rome, in 36 B.C.E. He had been an that scholastic period became a friend of Octavian (the ally of Marc ANTONY and had made peace with Octavian future emperor AUGUSTUS of Rome). Arius went to after recognizing that Rome would prove successful in ALEXANDRIA with Octavian after the battle of ACTIUM. A the confrontation of military might. Ruling until 17 C.E., Stoic philosopher who was enraptured by the intellectual Archelaus was removed from power by the emperor status of Alexandria, Arius convinced Octavian to keep Tiberius. his troops from harming the city.
Archimedes (d. 212 B.C.E.) Famous Greek scientist who Arkamani (d. c. 200 B.C.E.) Ruler of Meroë, the Nubian studied in Egypt cultural capital He was born c. 287 B.C.E. in Syracuse, Greece. Archimedes He ruled in his capital south of ASWAN on the Nile (in studied in ALEXANDRIA and then returned to the service of modern Sudan) from c. 218 B.C.E. until his death. Arka- King Hiero II. He was a pioneer in geometry and mechan- mani had good relations with PTOLEMY IV PHILOPATOR (r. ics, inventing the Archimedean screw and developing the 221205 B.C.E.) and conducted TRADE and building pro- principle concerning displacement of water. He also jects with Egypt. He is recorded as having sponsored con- devised war machines and discovered the relation struction at DAKKA in the period. He is also mentioned on between the volume of a sphere and its circumscribing the temple of ARSENUPHIS at Philae. cylinder. Archimedes, enthused by his discovery about water displacement, is recorded as stating: "Eureka," Armant See ERMENT. which is translated as "I have found it." He also boasted that he, "given a place to stand, could move the earth."
Archimedes was killed in 212 B.C.E. when the Ar-Megiddo See TUTHMOSIS III'S MILITARY CAMPAIGNS. Romans conquered Syracuse. He designed his own tomb, forming a sphere inside a cylinder, to demonstrate his Arsamis (fl. fifth century B.C.E.) Persian satrap of Egypt theories. in the reign of Darius II (424404 B.C.E.)
He was away from Egypt at the time when the priests of Aristarchus of Samothrace (fl. second century the god KHNUM at the ELEPHANTINE Island, at modern
ASWAN, decided to harass the Jewish community there. B.C.E.) Director of the Library of Alexandria Aristarchus was appointed to that office in 153 B.C.E. in The priests bribed the local military commander, VIDA- the reign of PTOLEMY VI PHILOMETOR (180164, 163145 RANAG, and destroyed the Jewish temple on the Elephan-
B.C.E.). He was a Greek critic and grammarian who had tine. Arsamis punished Vidaranag, but no effort was studied with ARISTOPHANES OF BYZANTIUM. After serving as made to rebuild the temple. A petition was sent to Bago- director of the famed Alexandrian institution, he retired to as, the governor of Judah, asking that the temple be Cyprus. Aristarchus was known for his critical studies of restored. That request was ultimately granted. Homer, Pindar, Sophocles, Aeschylus, and Herodotus.
See also LIBRARY OF ALEXANDRIA. Arsaphes See HARSAPHES. 46 Arsenuphis
Arsenuphis (Harsenuphis) A Nubian deity associ- cuted her two younger sons. She fled to ALEXANDRIA and ated with the goddess ISIS, Arsenuphis wore a plumed arrived c. 279 B.C.E. CROWN. He received tributes from pharaohs of the New Charges were made against Ptolemy II Philadelphus's Kingdom (15501070 B.C.E.) and had a cult center at wife, ARSINOE (1) of Thrace, and she was sent to KOPTOS MEROË. He was addressed as "the Good Companion," Iry- in Upper Egypt, in exile. Arsinoe married her brother, hemes-nefer, and was worshiped at DENDEREH. In the and he received the title "Brother Loving," Philadelphus, reign of PTOLEMY IV PHILOPATOR (221205 B.C.E.), a as a result. Arsinoe aided Ptolemy II in his war against shrine to Arsenuphis was built at the PHILAE temple of the Syrians (274271 B.C.E.). She was given many titles ISIS. The Meroë ruler, Arkamani, aided Ptolemy IV in this and honors, including the Arsinoeion, a great shrine in project. Alexandria. A part of the FAIYUM region was also dedi-
See also GODS AND GODDESSES. cated to her name. At her death she became the goddess
Philadelphus. Arses (d. 336 B.C.E.) Ruler of Persia and Egypt, who was murdered Arsinoe (3) (fl. third century B.C.E.) Royal woman of He reigned only from 338 B.C.E. until his untimely death. the Ptolemaic Period The youngest son of ARTAXERXES III OCHUS and Queen She was the consort of PTOLEMY IV PHILOPATOR (221205 Atossa, Arses came to the throne when a eunuch court B.C.E.). They were brother and sister, as she was the official, BAGOAS, murdered the king and his eldest sons. daughter of PTOLEMY III EUERGETES and Queen BERENICE Arses witnessed an invasion of Asia Minor (modern (3). In 217, Arsinoe accompanied her husband to the Turkey) by Philip of Macedonia. Alert to the treacheries Egyptian army camp in Palestine, where she encouraged of Bagoas, Arses tried to poison the eunuch but was slain the troops to win against the Seleucids in a battle there. with his children. His successor was DARIUS III. She gave birth to the heir, PTOLEMY V EPIPHANUS, in 210
B.C.E. Arsinoe (1) (fl. third century B.C.E.) Royal woman of The court under Ptolemy IV Philopator was quite the Ptolemaic Period depraved. Arsinoe tried to stem the debauchery and made She was the consort of PTOLEMY II PHILADELPHUS (r. many enemies among the courtiers. When Ptolemy IV 285246 B.C.E.). The daughter of LYSIMACHUS, the king of Philopator died in 205, these courtiers plotted to murder Thrace, she became the ranking queen of "Great Wife" of Arsinoe, accomplishing that deed in 204 B.C.E. The heir the ruler. Arsinoe bore him three children, including was protected by the courtiers who did not announce the PTOLEMY III EUERGETES, his heir. The marriage, which death of Ptolemy IV or Arsinoe until Ptolemy V took place c. 282 B.C.E., was part of an alliance between Epiphanus was crowned. Rioting resulted from word of Thrace and Egypt against Syria. her murder.
Despite producing an heir, Arsinoe was repudiated See also AGATHOCLES (2); TLEPOLEMUS. when Ptolemy Philadelphus's sister, another ARSINOE (2), came to the court. She was accused of trying to assassi- Arsinoe (4) (fl. first century B.C.E.) Royal woman of the nate Ptolemy Philadelphus and was banished to the city Ptolemaic Period of KOPTOS in Upper Egypt. Ptolemy's sister married the She was the daughter of PTOLEMY XII Neos Dionysius king and adopted Arsinoe (1)'s children. (8058, 5551 B.C.E.) and sister of the famed CLEOPATRA
VII (5130 B.C.E.). Arsinoe attempted to rouse the Egyp- Arsinoe (2) (fl. third century B.C.E.) Royal woman of tians against Cleopatra VII and Julius CAESAR. When the Ptolemaic Period Caesar rounded up the Egyptians aligned against him, She was the daughter of PTOLEMY I SOTER (r. 304284 Arsinoe escaped. Her patron, Ganymedes, aided her in B.C.E.) and Queen BERENICE (1). A sister of PTOLEMY II her flight and she joined the army led by ACHIL- PHILADELPHUS (r. 285246 B.C.E.), Arsinoe was married to LAS, intent on destroying the Romans and her sister. LYSIMACHUS, the king of Thrace. She received three cities When Achillas argued with her, Arsinoe ordered him on the Black Sea and another one in northern Greece executed. upon her marriage. To gain access to the Thracian throne In a treaty with Caesar, Ganymedes exchanged Arsi- for her own children, Arsinoe charged the heir to the noe for the captive PTOLEMY XIII. When the Romans con- throne, AGATHOCLES (1), of attempting to murder Lysi- quered the Egyptian forces, Arsinoe was taken to Rome, machus. The result of Lysimachus's decision to exe- where she was led through the streets as part of Caesar's cute his son was a war between Thrace and the Seleucid triumph. After this humiliation, Arsinoe went to Ephesus kingdom. in Asia Minor and took refuge in the temple of Artemis
Lysimachus died in 281, and Arsinoe fled to her half there. In 41 B.C.E., however, she was hunted down by brother, Ptolemy Ceraunus. When she entered Cassan- Marc ANTONY's agents and slain because she posed a dria, a city in northern Greece, Ptolemy Ceraunus exe- threat to Cleopatra VII. Her death caused a scandal in art and architecture 47
Egypt and in Rome because it involved the violation of domesticated animals, most notably at HIERAKONPOLIS, religious sanctuary. where some elements of the Mesopotamian and Saharan
styles are evident. Arsinoe (5) (fl. fourth century B.C.E.) Mother of Pto- Pottery of the Predynastic Period, as well as figures lemy I Soter fashioned out of bone and ivory, initiated the artistic She was the wife of LAGUS, a general of the army of motifs that would be influential for many centuries. Ves- ALEXANDER III THE GREAT (332323 B.C.E.). Arsinoe bore sels and palettes accompanied fine black-topped pottery, PTOLEMY I SOTER (304284 B.C.E.), who became the satrap leading to red polished ware decorated with cream-col- of Egypt under Alexander the Great and the founder of ored paint. The light on dark painting technique made the Ptolemaic Dynasty. pottery of this period distinctive. While geometric
designs were developed first, artisans began to experi- Arsinoe (6) A site erected by PTOLEMY II PHILADELPHUS ment with the human, plant, and animal forms as well. (285246 B.C.E.) near Crocodilopolis in his efforts to An excellent example is the bottom of a bowl with restore the FAIYUM region of Egypt, many papyri were dis- entwining hippopotami. Such bowls can be dated to the
NAGADA I Period (40003500 B.C.E.), also called Amratian covered in the ruins of Arsinoe.
(from el-'Amra). The ultimate achievement of this period
was the mastering of Egypt's most famous artistic Arsinoe (7) A site erected by PTOLEMY II PHILADELPHUS medium: stone. (285246 B.C.E.) near modern Ardscherud, beside Suez at
In the NAGADA II Period (35003000 B.C.E.), also the northern end of the gulf, the city was the terminal
called the Gerzean (from Girza), stone pieces were being point for a canal that dated back centuries. In time Arsi-
fashioned with regularity. Some of the most notable noe became a port for Red Sea trade wares.
examples of these were discovered in a cemetery in the
Girza district, the Thinite Nome of Upper Egypt. Ivory Artabanus (Ardahan) (fl. fifth century B.C.E.) Com- and stone figures were carved in cylindrical form, crude mander of the palace guard and the slayer of Xerxes I in detail but remarkable for their size. Reliefs in stone (486466 B.C.E.) and statuary were also used by the cult of the god Min. Also called Ardahan, he is also credited with killing Technical advances were evident in the pieces recovered Xerxes I's son Darius, either before or after killing XERXES in Hierakonpolis (both in stone and faience), and in ABY- I. Artabanus was in control of Persia for seven months DOS and HALWAN. and was recognized by Egypt as king. He was slain by Stone PALETTES and MACEHEADS appeared at the end ARTAXERXES I (465424 B.C.E.), Xerxes' son, after the Per- of the Predynastic Period but with a clarified sense of sian general MEGABYZUS turned on him in 464/465 B.C.E. composition. The Oxford palette from Hierakonpolis is
probably the earliest example of this form, along with the art and architecture Louvre fragment and the macehead of the SCORPION King. The stunning expressions of Egyptian ideals and aspira- Of primary importance in the development of composi- tions that have made the nation the focus of study and tion, of course, was the NARMER PALETTE, a green slate examination for centuries, the art and architecture of the slab from Hierakonpolis intended to serve as a tablet on ancient people of the Nile exemplify spiritual concepts which cosmetics were blended. The palette, utilitarian in that gave testimony to the various eras, illuminating the purpose, was crucial nevertheless from an artistic stand- national concern with the worship of the gods and the point. The style of later Egyptian art is also remarkably cultic beliefs in eternal life. Such images arose early in the visible in the depiction of the military campaigns in the Nile Valley and assumed new dimensions as the national Delta on these pieces. Vitality, power, and a certain sense culture developed. of drama are incorporated into the carvings. The palette
LATE PREDYNASTIC PERIOD thus was a model for later generations of artists.
(40003000 B.C.E.) Increased regulation of human representation came later
with the canon of Egyptian art.
Art The people of the Nile Valley began producing art as Architecture early as the seventh millennium B.C.E. Decorative pat- Architecture in the Predynastic Period evolved at the terns consisted of geometric designs of varying shapes same pace as reliefs, painting, and sculpture. Writing and and sizes and obscure symbols representing totems or the construction of tombs and temples were the almost cultic priorities. Direct representational drawings, immediate result of the ultimate rise of political central- mainly of animals and hunters, came at a slightly later ization in the late Nagada II (or Gerzean Period). The date. Evidence of these sorts of artistic advances among few remaining examples of architecture in this era point the Neolithic cultures in Upper Egypt and NUBIA (mod- to the use of mud brick, demonstrated in the painted ern Sudan) is provided by the drawings of boats and chamber "Decorated Tomb 100" at Hierakonpolis. Cities 48 art and architecture
were being erected with walls, projecting towers, and gates, the designs of which were preserved on the palettes of this time and thus survived to influence later historical periods.
Of particular interest architecturally are the average dwellings of the Egyptians. The earliest abodes were probably versions of tents or roofless areas protected from the wind and rain by walls or thickets. Eventually mud was utilized to make walls, thus providing the mod- els for the first actual residences. The mud, daubed at first on thatched walls, was later turned into bricks, sun dried and considerably more durable. Buildings were cir- cular or oval in design, but innovations in wall construc- tions, such as battering (the process of sloping walls to provide sturdier bases), provided artistic flair and bal- ance. Windows and doors were employed at the same time. The windows were set into walls at high levels, and both portals were trimmed with wood, a material that became scarce in later periods.
In Upper Egypt there were definite advances, but generally speaking, one of three basic plans was followed in construction. The first was a rectangular structure with paneled sides and a hooped roof. The second was a rect- angular pavilion with a vaulted roof. The third was the SEREKH (2) design. This was a large system of elaborately paneled facings and niches. Flax chalk lines (lines drawn in chalk after being measured with taut ropes) were used early for construction measurements.
THE EARLY DYNASTIC PERIOD
AND THE OLD KINGDOM (25752134 B.C.E.) A statue of the Old Kingdom Period pyramid builder Khafré
Art that displays the flowering of art in the early eras of Egypt. Although the Early Dynastic Period and the Old King- (Hulton Archive.) dom are noted for the rapid and impressive development of architecture, as evidenced in tombs, TEMPLES, and the evolving MASTABA, alongside the PYRAMID, the decora- reliefs displayed a religious orientation. As part of the tive arts flourished as well. Craftsmen produced excep- decoration of mortuary complexes they depicted architec- tional pieces of statuary, painting, furniture, jewelry, tural and hunting scenes, paradise scenes, and depictions and household instruments, which all benefited from of everyday life, with references to the Nile River and its experimentation. marshlands. One remarkable tomb at MEIDUM depicts
Sculpture in the round (freestanding statues) fulfilled uniquely beautiful paintings of geese, portrayed with a ceremonial need for display in religious matters and engaging naturalism. provided representation of the royal lines. Most statues At the close of the Fourth Dynasty (2465 B.C.E.) the were made of limestone or granite. Sometimes wood, clay, art of depicting figures and scenes in shrunken reliefs was and even bronze were used, but such materials were rare. started. The outline of the form was cut sharply into the Sculpture followed the same convention as painting and surfaces of the walls, leaving enough space to emphasize relief, displaying a stylistic similarity. Statues were com- the figure. Shadows thus emerged, accentuating line and pact and solid, notable for the air of serenity and ideal- movement while protecting the forms from wear. In this ized features that they imparted to their subjects. Such era the solar temples (designed to honor RÉ, the sun god, idealization was a key element in the art of the time, for- and to catch the sun's rays at dawn) were being erected malized into powerful conventions. Portraiture was not along the Nile, and artists began to depict the natural practiced on the elite, but realism emerged in the statues loveliness of the landscape and the changing seasons, as of the commoners or lesser known individuals. The eyes well as the heavenly bodies. of the statues were sometimes brought to life by the Wall surfaces were marked by red and black lines insertion of stones into the eye sockets. Paintings and in the first stage of painting, allowing the artists to art and architecture 49
THE CANON OF THE HUMAN FIGURE
The set of artistic regulations called the canon of the
human figure evolved in the Early Dynastic Period and was
used by the ancient Egyptians as a model for representing
the human figure in reliefs and paintings. This evolved
within the parameters of cultic traditions. The Predynastic
Period Egyptians, already deeply concerned with spiritual
matters, had a need to communicate ideas and ideals
through the representation of divine beings, human per-
sonages, and events. From the beginning, the Egyptians
understood the propagandistic aspects of art and formu-
lated ways in which artistic representations could serve a
didactic purpose. Art was meant to convey information.
The canon of the human figure was the result of such
concerns, and it was a convention by which representa-
tions could convey metaphysical concepts while at the
same time bringing a vision of the material world to the
viewer. The canon dealt mainly with paintings and reliefs
as they were used in mortuary structures and cultic
shrines, and it governed the representation of three-dimen-
sional elements on a two-dimensional surface, which
demanded anatomical knowledge, perspective, and ideal-
Early examples demonstrate an increasing sophistica-
tion in such compositions, represented by the NARMER
PALETTE of the Predynastic Period. The Narmer palette
integrated all of the earlier artistic elements while display-
ing a unique energy and vitality. With the start of the Old
Kingdom (2575 B.C.E.), artistic conventions were being
codified to provide generations of artists with formal
guidelines on the proper positioning of the human figures
within a scene or a pictorial narrative, or a framework of
hieroglyphs and cultic symbols. According to the canon,
the human figure was to be composed in a prescribed
manner. To facilitate execution in reliefs and paintings, a
surface was divided into 18 rows of squares (the 19th
reserved for the hair). In later historical periods more rows
The human figure, when sketched or traced onto a The canon of the human figure, the artistic standard
surface, was depicted from a dual perspective. The head introduced in the Old Kingdom Period and demon-
was always shown in profile, but the human eye and eye- strated in this mortuary relief of the official Hesiré.
brow were depicted in full view. The shoulders and upper (Hulton Archive.)
torso were also shown in full view, so that the arms, hands,
and fingers were visible. The abdomen from armpit to the
waist was shown in profile and the navel was normally authority, deemed critical to royal portraits. While one
placed on the side of the figure, directly on the edge. The might expect rigidity and a certain staleness to result from
legs and feet were also shown in profile, balancing the this type of regimentation, the canon provided a frame-
head, and until the mid-Eighteenth Dynasty (c. 1400 work for continual elaboration, and the teams of artists
B.C.E.) the inside of the feet was preferred over the outside who worked together to adorn the private and public
in human representations. shrines found a common ground for individual expression.
The canon was strictly observed when artists por- Artistic quality was maintained, and the needs of each
trayed the ruling class of Egypt. The formality allowed by generation were incorporated into the standards regulating
the canon and its idealized conception lent grace and fine art.
develop scope and perspective. Once the carvings hues. The figures were outlined one last time so that were completed, the walls were given a light coat of they would come to life against the neutral back- stucco, and some were touched by paints of various grounds. 50 art and architecture
Furniture from this period shows the same remark- of the consequences was a decline in both art and archi- able craftsmanship and fine details, as evidenced by the tecture. The Eleventh Dynasty (20401991 B.C.E.) re- funerary objects of Queen HETEPHERES (1), the mother of united Upper and Lower Egypt and resumed patronage of KHUFU (Cheops, r. 25512528 B.C.E.). Wooden furniture the arts and the building of monuments. The art of this inlaid with semiprecious stones graced the palaces of that new age was marked by realism and by a new degree of era and Hetepheres was buried with chairs, beds, a classical motifs that were revived from the Old Kingdom. canopy, and gold-covered boxes. She had silver bracelets An elegant and elaborate style was popular and detail and other jewelry pieces of turquoise, lapis lazuli, and became paramount, as evidenced in the head of SENWOS- carnelian. CROWNS and necklaces, all of great beauty, RET III (r. 18781841 B.C.E.) of the Twelfth Dynasty, in adorned the royal mother while she lived and were which a portrait of his age and weariness are frankly placed in her tomb to adorn her throughout eternity. depicted.
Architecture The jewelry of this period is famous in modern times
because of a cache of necklaces, bracelets, and pectorals By the time the Early Dynastic Period was established in
discovered in DASHUR, the mortuary site of the Twelfth MEMPHIS, experimentation and the demands of the mor- tuary rituals challenged the architects of Egypt to provide Dynasty. Beautifully crafted of enameled gold and semi- suitable places for the dead. The MASTABA, the rectangular precious stones, it attests to the artistic skill of the era. building erected with battered walls and subterranean Another treasure found at el-LAHUN yielded golden wire chambers and shafts, became more and more elaborate. diadems with jeweled flowers, as well as a dazzling vari- Small temples were fashioned out of stone, and one such ety of bracelets, collars, and pectorals of semiprecious place of worship, constructed at the end of the Second stones set in gold. Dynasty (2649 B.C.E.) was composed of granite. Stelae
Architecture began to appear. They were round-topped stone slabs designed to hold inscriptions commemorating great Under the nomarchs, the rulers of the nomes or events and personages, religious and secular. SAQQARA provinces in outlying districts who were able to maintain became an elaborate necropolis for MEMPHIS, and other their authority amid general unrest, architecture survived mortuary complexes were erected in ABYDOS, the city ded- the fall of the Old Kingdom, resulting in such sites as icated to the god OSIRIS. BENI HASAN, with its rock-carved tombs and large chapels,
The turning point in such complexes came in the complete with porticoes and painted walls. The Eleventh reign of DJOSER (26302611 B.C.E.) when IMHOTEP, his Dynasty, however, resumed royal sponsorship of architec- vizier, fashioned the STEP PYRAMID, on the Saqqara plain. tural projects, symbolized by the mortuary complex of This structure, composed of mastabas placed one on top MONTUHOTEP II (r. 20612010 B.C.E.), at DEIR EL-BAHRI on of the other, became the link between the original tomb the western shore of THEBES. The temple there influenced designs and the true pyramids of the next dynasty. The later architects and was the first complex set on terraces PYRAMID complexes that emerged in the Fifth Dynasty of varying height with a columned portico at the rear, (24652323 B.C.E.) consisted of VALLEY TEMPLES, cause- forming a facade of the tomb. The tomb area was recessed ways, MORTUARY TEMPLES, and accompanying subsidiary into a cliff. buildings. In time, they became the eternal symbol of During the Middle Kingdom most of the temples Egypt itself and were included in the Seven Wonders of were built with columned courts, halls, and chambers the World. for rituals. The sanctuaries of these shrines were elabo-
These pyramids reflected not only mathematical and rate, and most had small lakes within the precincts. construction skills but other aspects of Egyptian civiliza- KARNAK was begun in this era, and in time the temple tion. Rising from the plain of GIZA and at other locations, would become the largest religious complex in the his- the structures were no longer simple tombs but stages for tory of the world. The famed temple of LUXOR would be elaborate ceremonies where priests offered continual linked to Karnak with an avenue of ram-headed prayers and gifts as part of an ongoing mortuary cult.
SPHINXES. Later pharaohs were forced to reduce the size of their
Residences of the upper classes and some of the pyramids, eventually abandoning the form entirely
common abodes began to assume architectural distinc- because of a lack of resources, but the Giza monuments
tion as well. Made of sun-dried brick and wood, most remained vivid examples of Egypt's architectural glories.
villas or mansions had two or three floors, connected by
staircases. Storehouses, a separate kitchen area, high ceil-
THE MIDDLE KINGDOM
ings, and vast gardens were parts of the residential
designs. Some had air vents for circulation, and all of
Art these houses, whether owned by aristocrats or common- At the close of the Old Kingdom, the authority of Egypt's ers, had gently sloping roofs on which Egyptian families rulers had eroded, bringing about severe civil unrest. One slept in warm weather. Made of vulnerable materials, no art and architecture 51
physical examples of domestic architecture from this era Sculpture was one aspect of New Kingdom art where survive. innovations were forged freely. In painting, artists
Little is known of the palaces or royal residences of adhered to the canon set in earlier eras but incorporated this period because they too were fashioned out of brick changes in their work. Egypt's military successes, which and wood. It is clear that the palaces (PERO or per-a'a) resulted in an empire and made vassals of many Mediter- always contained two gateways, two main halls, and two ranean nations, were commemorated in pictorial narra- administrative sections to reflect the upper and lower tives of battles or in processions of tribute-bearers regions of the nation. FLAGSTAFFS were used at the gates, from other lands. A grace and quiet elegance permeated as they were placed before temples. The remains of the the works, a sureness born out of prosperity and success. Seventeenth Dynasty (16401550 B.C.E.) palace at DEIR The surviving tomb paintings of the era display banquets EL-BALLAS, on the western shore north of Thebes, indicate and other trappings of power, while the figures are somewhat luxurious surroundings and innovative deco- softer, almost lyrical. The reign of AMENHOTEP III (r. ration, following the "double" scheme. In some instances 13911353 B.C.E.) brought this new style of art to its the walls and floors were designed to portray pools of fish greatest heights. and vast tracts of flowering shrubs. 'Amarna
The Second Intermediate Period (16401532 B.C.E.) The city of Akhetaten at 'AMARNA was erected by AKHEN- and the domination of the north by the HYKSOS curtailed ATEN (r. 13531335 B.C.E.) in honor of the god ATEN, artistic endeavors along the Nile, although the arts did and it became the source of an artistic revolution that not vanish. A renaissance took place, however, with the upset many of the old conventions. The rigid grandeur arrival of the New Kingdom after the Hyksos were driven of the earlier periods was abandoned in favor of a more from the land. naturalistic style. Royal personages were no longer made
NEW KINGDOM (15501070 B.C.E.) to appear remote or godlike. In many scenes, in fact,
Akhenaten and his queen, NEFERTITI, are depicted as a The New Kingdom is recognized as a period of great
loving couple surrounded by their offspring. Physical artistic horizon, with art and architecture evolving in
deformities are frankly portrayed, or possibly imposed three separate and quite distinct eras; the Tuthmossid upon the figures, and the royal household is painted Period, from the start of the New Kingdom (1550 B.C.E.) with protruding bellies, enlarged heads, and peculiar to the end of the reign of AMENHOTEP III (1353 B.C.E.), the limbs. 'AMARNA Period (13531335 B.C.E.), and the Ramessid The famed painted bust of Nefertiti, however, de- Period (13071070 B.C.E.). monstrates a mastery that was also reflected in the mag-
Art nificent pastoral scenes adorning the palace. Only
Tuthmossid Period fragments remain, but they provide a wondrous range of With the expulsion of the Hyksos and the reunification of animals, plants, and water scenes that stand unrivaled for Upper and Lower Egypt, the pharaohs of the Eighteenth anatomical sureness, color, and vitality. The palaces and Dynasty, called the Tuthmossids, began elaborate rebuild- temples of 'Amarna were destroyed in later reigns, by ing programs in order to reflect the spirit of the new age. pharaohs such as HOREMHAB (r. 13191307 B.C.E.), who Sculpture in the round and painting bore traces of Middle razed the site in order to use the materials for personal Kingdom standards while exhibiting innovations such as projects of reign. polychromatics and the application of a simplified cubic Ramessid Period (13071070 B.C.E.) form. From the reign of RAMESSES I (13071306 B.C.E.) until the
Osiride figures, depictions of OSIRIS or of royal end of the New Kingdom, art once again followed the personages assuming the deity's divine attire of this time, established canon, but the influences from the Tuth- were discovered at DEIR EL-BAHRI in THEBES and are mossid and 'Amarna periods were evident. The terminal of painted limestone, with blue eyebrows and beards and years of the Twentieth Dynasty brought about a degenera- red or yellow skin tones. Such color was even used on tion in artistic achievement, but until that time the black granite statues in some instances. Cubic forms Ramessid accomplishments were masterful. RAMESSES II popular in the era are evidenced by the statues of the (r. 12901224 B.C.E.) embarked upon a building program chief steward SENENMUT and Princess NEFERU-RÉ, his unrivaled by any previous Egyptian ruler. charge, encased in granite cubes. These stark forms are Ramesses II and his military units were involved nonetheless touching portraits, enhanced by hieroglyphs in martial exploits, and the campaign narratives (popu- that interpret their rank, relationship, and affection for lar in the reign of Tuthmosis III; r. 14791425 B.C.E.) one another. Other statues, such as one fashioned in became the dominant subject of temple reliefs once granite as a portrait of TUTHMOSIS III (r. 14791425 again. Dramatic battle scenes were carved into the B.C.E.) demonstrated both the cubist and polychromatic temple walls and depicted in the paintings in the styles. royal tombs. Queen NEFERTARI, the consort of Ramesses 52 art and architecture
II, was buried in a tomb that offers stunning glimpses included chapels, shrines, and residences set into a man- of life on the Nile. The campaign scenes of RAMES- made lake, was a masterpiece of architectural design. This SES III (r. 11941163 B.C.E.) at MEDINET HABU are of is known as MALKATA. Karnak and Luxor, both massive in equal merit and are significant because they rank scale, reflected the enthusiasm for building of the Tuth- among the major artistic achievements of the Ramessid mossids. Although several stages of construction took period. place at the sites, the architects were able to integrate
them into powerful monuments of cultic designs.
The entire city of el-'Amarna was laid out with precision Architecture at the start of the New Kingdom reflected
and care, leading to the temple of the god ATEN. The dis- the new vitality of a unified land. Its focus shifted from
tinctive aspect of these buildings was the absence of a the tomb to the temple, especially those honoring the god
roof. The rays of the divine sun, a manifestation of Aten, AMUN and those designed as mortuary shrines. The mor-
were allowed to reach into every corner, providing light tuary temple of HATSHEPSUT (r. 14731458 B.C.E.) at DEIR
and inspiration. The WINDOW OF APPEARANCE was dis- EL-BAHRI at Thebes allowed the architects of her reign the
played there, and the actual grid layouts of the city were opportunity to erect a masterpiece. Three ascending
masterful and innovative interpretations of earlier archi- colonnades and terraces were set into the cliffs on the
tectural styles. western shore and were reached by two unusual ramps providing stunning visual impact on the site. The temples Ramessid Period of the other pharaohs of this era are less grand but The period of Ramessid architecture, which can be said to equally elegant. The great temple and recreational com- include HOREMHAB's tomb in Saqqara, was marked by plex of AMENHOTEP III (r. 13911353 B.C.E.), which construction on a gigantic scale. Three of the greatest
Figures at Abu Simbel display the Egyptian sense of sureness with stone in monumental art. (Courtesy Thierry Ailleret.) art and architecture 53
builders in Egyptian history, SETI I (r. 13061290 B.C.E.) restore the old ways to Egypt and imprint realism and a and RAMESSES II (r. 12901224 B.C.E.) of the Nineteenth new vitality on old forms. Dynasty and RAMESSES III (r. 11941163 B.C.E.) of the
ART Twentieth Dynasty, reigned during this age.
Seti began work on the second and third pylons The Twenty-sixth Dynasty (664525 B.C.E.), once again of Karnak and instituted the Great Hall, completed by composed of native Egyptians, despite its brevity, contin- his son, Ramesses II. Ramesses II also built the RAMES- ued the renaissance and added refinements and elegance. SEUM in Thebes. He left an architectural legacy as well This royal line left a deep impression in the land and at PER-RAMESSES, the new capital in the eastern Delta. restored the artistic vision. Medinet Habu, Ramesses III's mortuary temple complex, The Twenty-sixth Dynasty rulers used large-scale which included a brick palace, displays the same archi- bronze commemoratives, many inlaid. The jewelry of the tectural grandeur. This was the last great work of the period was finely done and furniture was high level in Ramessid era of the New Kingdom. design and construction. The tomb of Queen TAKHAT (3),
The most famous of the Ramessid monuments, other the consort of PSAMMETICHUS II (595589 B.C.E.), discov- than the great mortuary temples at Abydos, was ABU SIM- ered at Tell Atrib, contained many articles of exquisite BEL, completed on the 30th anniversary of Ramesses' beauty, including golden sandals. The portrait of a priest reign. The rock-carved temple was hewn out of pink of the era, called "the Green Head," has fine details and limestone. With the fall of the Ramessids in 1070 B.C.E., charm. The ATHRIBIS Treasure, which dates to this Egypt entered into a period of decline. dynasty, contained golden sheets belonging to AMASIS (r.
570526 B.C.E.). The surviving architectural innovation
THE THIRD INTERMEDIATE PERIOD of this time is associated with the high mounds of sand,
(1070712 B.C.E.) supported by bricks that formed the funerary structures The division of Egypt into two separate domains, one of the age. No significant monuments arose, however, as dominating politically in the Delta and the other held by Egypt was engaged in regional wars that drained re- the high priests of Amun in the south, resulted in a col- sources and led to an invasion by the Persians. lapse of artistic endeavors in the Third Intermediate Period. The rulers of the Twenty-first (1070945 B.C.E.) ARCHITECTURE and Twenty-second (945712 B.C.E.) Dynasties had few The temple of MENDES, built in this dynastic era, and the resources for advanced monumental construction. At additions made at Karnak, the temple complex in Thebes, times they had even less approval or cooperation from and at Medinet Habu demonstrate the revival of art and the Egyptian people. architecture.
ART AND ARCHITECTURE The Persians, led by CAMBYSES (r. 525522 B.C.E.),
ruled Egypt as the Twenty-seventh Dynasty (525404 The modest royal tombs of this period, mostly con- B.C.E.). While recorded by contemporary Egyptians as a structed at Tanis, were built in the courtyards of existing royal line that was cruel, even insane and criminal in temples. They are not elaborately built and have some instances, the Persians erected a temple to Amun at mediocre decorations. The funerary regalias used to KHARGA OASIS. bury the rulers of these royal lines were often usurped The final renaissance of architecture before the Ptole- from the previous burial sites of older pharaonic com- maic Period came in the Thirtieth Dynasty. The rulers of plexes. Gold was scarce, and silver became the dominant this royal line revived the Saite form and engaged in mas- metal used. sive building projects, led by NECTANEBO I (r. 380362
The Twenty-third Dynasty (828712 B.C.E.) and B.C.E.). All of the arts of Egypt were revived in his reign. Twenty-fourth Dynasty were even less capable of restor- Nectanebo I built in Philae, Karnak, Bubastis, Dendereh, ing artistic horizons in the nation. No monuments of and throughout the Delta. He also added an avenue of note resulted from these rulers, who governed limited finely carved sphinxes at Luxor. In Dendereh he erected a areas and were contemporaries. They barely maintained mammisi, or birth house. Much of the architectural work existing structures and did not advance the artistic accomplished in this dynastic era reflected the growing endeavors to a notable level. Greek presence in Egypt, but the traditional canon was
THE LATE PERIOD (712332 B.C.E.) respected and used in reliefs and portraits. The artistic horizons of Egypt would be revived by the
THE PTOLEMAIC PERIOD (33230 B.C.E.) Twenty-fifth Dynasty (712657 B.C.E.), whose rulers came from Napata at the fourth cataract of the Nile in Art Nubia (modern Sudan). Their own cultural advances at Ptolemaic artists continued the Egyptian styles but added Napata and other sites in Nubia were based on the cultic fluidity and Hellenic influences in statuary, jewelry, and traditions of ancient Egypt. They moved north, in fact, to crafts. In ALEXANDRIA, such art was transformed into 54 art and architecture
COLUMNS IN EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE
One of the most appealing and awe-inspiring aspects of ural entity. In one royal tomb built in GIZA in the reign
Egyptian temple architecture are the spectacular columns, of KHUFU (25512465 B.C.E.) limestone columns were
resembling groves of stone trees. These columns, espe- used effectively. In the tomb of SAHURÉ (24582446
cially at Karnak and Luxor, dwarf human beings and bear B.C.E.) of the Fifth Dynasty, the columns were made
inscriptions, carved reliefs, and a weighty majesty of granite, evincing a more assured style and level of
unequaled anywhere else in the world. skill.
Columns held special significance for the Egyptians, Wooden columns graced a site in the reign of KAKAI
representing as they did the expanses of nature. Columns (24462426 B.C.E.) in that same dynasty, and another king
alluded to the times when vast forests dotted the land, of the royal line, NIUSERRÉ (24162392 B.C.E.), had lime-
forests that disappeared as the climate changed and civiliza- stone columns installed in his ABUSIR necropolis complex.
tion took its toll upon the Egyptian environment. They also At BENI HASAN in the Eleventh Dynasty (21342140 B.C.E.)
represented the Nile reed marshes. The columns were intro- local nomarchs, or provincial chiefs, built their own tombs
duced in order to simulate nature, and to identify man again with wooden columns. The same type of columns was
with the earth. The first tentative columns are still visible in installed in tombs in the Twelfth Dynasty (19911773
the STEP PYRAMID of SAQQARA, but they are engaged B.C.E.), but they were made of wood set into stone bases.
columns, attached to walls for support and unable to stand With the coming of the New Kingdom (15501070 B.C.E.)
on their own. Imhotep designed rows of such pillars at the the columns become part of the architectural splendor that
entrance to various buildings and incorporated them into marked the capital at Thebes and at the later capital of
corridors for DJOSER's shrine (2600 B.C.E.). PER-RAMESSES in the eastern Delta. Extensive colonnades
In the Fourth Dynasty (25752465 B.C.E.) masons stood on terraces, or in the recesses of temples, opening
experimented with columns as a separate architect- onto courts and shrines.
Greek designs. In Egyptian territories outside of the capi- Hellenic. The artistic projects conducted throughout tal, the old jewelry, amulets, pendants, and wares Egypt were based solely upon the traditional canon and remained traditional. the cultic imperatives of the past.
Alexandria was intended to serve as a crowning
Architecture achievement of architecture, with the LIBRARY OF ALEXAN- The arrival of ALEXANDER III THE GREAT (r. 332323 DRIA and the Pharos (the LIGHTHOUSE) demonstrating the B.C.E.) and the subsequent Ptolemaic Period (30430
skills of the finest Greek architects. Even the tombs, such B.C.E.) changed Egyptian architecture forever. The Pto-
as the famed site erected for Petosiris, combined Egyptian lemies, however, conducted a dual approach to their
and Greek designs. Outside of Alexandria, however, the architectural aspirations. The artistic endeavors of the
Ptolemaic rulers used the traditional centuries old styles. city of Alexandria, the new capital, were purely Greek or
At PHILAE, Dendereh, ESNA, KOM OMBO, and throughout
the Nile Valley, the canon reverberated once again in new
temples and in designs for statues, stelae, and other mon-
umental commemoratives. The temple at Esna, dedicated
to Khnum-Horus, was erected by PTOLEMY III EUERGETES
(r. 246221 B.C.E.) and completed by PTOLEMY XII NEOS
DIONYSIUS (r. 8058, 5551 B.C.E.). The Dendereh temple,
dedicated to Hathor, used the traditional column forms
but added a carved screen. Reliefs in these houses of cul-
tic worship were traditional, but Greek anatomical cor-
rections, softer forms, and draped garments displayed the
Hellenic advances. The Egyptian form had survived over
the centuries on the Nile, as it triumphed in the restored
monuments displayed in modern times.
Suggested Readings: Aldred, Cyril. Egyptian Art in the
Days of the Pharaohs, 3100320 B.C. New York: Thames & The massive temple columns, supports used at a shrine of Hudson, 1985; Arnold, Dorothea, Christiane Ziegler, and Horus, displaying different capital designs and architectural James P Allen, eds. Egyptian Art in the Age of the Pyra-
. innovations. (Courtesy Steve Beikirch.) mids. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1999; Aryandes 55
Fazzini, Richard, James F Romano, and Madeleine E.
. ous native groups. He completed a vast memorial throne Cody. Art for Eternity: Masterworks from Ancient Egypt. chamber in Persepolis, his capital, before he died at Susa. New York: Scala Books, 1999; Malek, J. Egyptian Art. New He was buried in Nagh-e-Rostam. York: Phaidon Press, 1999; Robins, Gay. The Art of Ancient Egypt. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, Artaxerxes II (c. 358 B.C.E.) Persian ruler who tried to 2000; Smith, William Stevenson, and William Kelly regain Egypt Simpson. The Art and Architecture of Ancient Egypt. New He made this attempt in the reign of NECTANEBO II Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1999; Stevenson (360343 B.C.E.). Artaxerxes II was the successor of DAR- Smith, W., rev. by W. Simpson. Art and Architecture of IUS II and the father of ARTAXERXES III OCHUS. He led two Ancient Egypt. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, expeditions against Egypt but could not reclaim the 1998; Tierney, Tom. Ancient Egyptian Fashions. Mineola, region because of Nectanebo II's strong defenses. Artax- N.Y.: Dover, 1999; Wilkinson, Richard H., and Richard erxes ruled Persia from 404 to 359/358 B.C.E. Wilk. Symbol & Magic in Egyptian Art. New York: Thames & Hudson, 1999.
Artaxerxes III Ochus (d. 338 B.C.E.) Persian ruler who
subjugated Egypt and started the Second Persian War Artatama (fl. 14th century B.C.E.) Mitanni ruler allied to (343332 B.C.E.) Egypt He attacked the Nile Valley originally in the reign of He was the head of the MITANNI state during the reign of NECTANEBO II (360343 B.C.E.). The successor of ARTAX- TUTHMOSIS IV (14011391 B.C.E.), living in Washukanni,
ERXES II, he put relatives to death when he inherited the the capital, in northern Syria. Tuthmosis IV wrote to throne and was described by contemporaries as cruel and Artatama seven times, asking for the hand of his daughter. energetic. His first attempt at regaining Egypt took place Such a marriage would cement relations and strengthen in 351 B.C.E., but Egyptian defenses held, and Phoenicia the alliance in the face of the growing HITTITE empire. and Cyprus distracted him by rebelling. Tuthmosis IV's pact with Artatama would have serious Artaxerxes III met Nectanebo II on the Nile in 343, repercussions in the Ramessid Period because the Hittites winning the Battle of PELUSIUM. He ravaged the northern overcame the Mittanis and viewed Egypt as an enemy. part of the land and killed the sacred APIS bull with his
own hands in vengeance against Egyptian resistance. Artavasdes III (d. 34 B.C.E.) King of Armenia executed Artaxerxes III returned to Persia and was poisoned with by Cleopatra VII most of his children by the eunuch official of the court, The son and successor of Tigranes the Great, Artavasdes BAGOAS, in 338 B.C.E. His wife, Atossa, survived, and her was an ally of Rome. He had supported Marc ANTONY son, ARSES, inherited the throne. until the Parthians, enemies of Rome under Orodes I, invaded Armenia. Artavasdes then gave his sister to
Artemidorus (fl. first century B.C.E.) Greek geographer Pacorus, Orodes' son. In 36 B.C.E., Marc Antony invaded
who was in Alexandria in the Ptolemaic Period Armenia and captured Artavasdes. The king was sent to
He wrote 11 books describing voyages to Spain, France, ALEXANDRIA, where CLEOPATRA VII (5130 B.C.E.) ordered
and Mediterranean coastal areas. Artemidorus also tried his death.
to measure the inhabited areas of the world but was
unaware of longitudinal designations and other geo- Artaxerxes I (Macrocheir) (d. 424 B.C.E.) Fourth ruler graphic data. of the Twenty-seventh Dynasty A Persian of the royal Achaemenid line, he reigned from 465 B.C.E. until his death. Called "the Long Handed," Artystone (fl. fifth century B.C.E.) Royal woman of Persia Artaxerxes was the son of XERXES I and Queen AMESTRIS. She was the queen of DARIUS I (521486 B.C.E.), the ruler He was raised to the throne when ARTABANUS murdered of Egypt in the Twenty-seventh Dynasty. Artystone, Xerxes I. To revenge his father, Artaxerxes slew Artabanus reportedly Darius I's favorite wife, entertained him at the in hand-to-hand combat. A brother rebelled against festival of the New Year in 503 B.C.E. She was provided Artaxerxes and was defeated just before an Egyptian, with 200 sheep and 2,000 gallons of wine for the occa- INAROS, rose up on the Nile and killed General sion. Artystone bore Darius I two sons. ACHAEMENES, Artaxerxes I's uncle and a beloved Persian general. Aryandes (fl. sixth century B.C.E.) Persian satrap, or
General MEGABYZUS was sent to Egypt to halt Inaros's governor, of Egypt revolt and to restore Persian control. Inaros was executed He was appointed to this office by the Persian ruler CAM- and Megabyzus protested this punishment as a blot on BYSES (525522 B.C.E.). Aryandes followed the advice of his personal code of honor. Artaxerxes I, however, was one Ujahoresne, a priest of the goddess NEITH (1) who not unpopular in Egypt because he was generous to vari- became a counselor and a chief of protocol in Egypt. 56 Arzawa
Arzawa (1) (fl. 14th century B.C.E.) Hittite ruler whose He was a contemporary of OSORKON II (r. 883855 B.C.E.) correspondence is in the 'Amarna Letters and assumed the Assyrian throne in Kalakh, now Nimrod He communicated with AMENHOTEP III (13911353 (near modern Mosul) in Iran. After conquering northern B.C.E.) and AKHENATEN (13531335 B.C.E.). He resided in Mesopotamia, Syria, and the Orontes Valley, he stood Hattusas (modern Bogazkoy) in Anatolia (Turkey) in "the poised before Egypt and Osorkon's defenses, but he did lake district." not attack.
See also 'AMARNA LETTERS.
Ashur-uballit I (d. c. 1330 B.C.E.) Assyrian ruler who Arzawa (2) These were an Anatolian people living in created the First Assyrian Empire the Turkish lake district. Ashur-uballit I created the first Assyrian empire, threaten-
ing the Hittites and Hurrians of the era as he ruled all of Asar See OSIRIS. Babylonia. He also aided the HITTITES in destroying the
MITANNI Empire. Ashur-uballit I served as an ally of Egypt
in the reign of AKHENATEN (13351353 B.C.E.). He sent Asasif This is a depression on the western shore of the AMENHOTEP III, Akhenaten's father, a statue of Ishtar. Nile near DEIR EL-BAHRI, across from the city of THEBES. Located near the KHOKHA hills, the area was used as a necropolis. Tombs of the Saite or Twenty-sixth Dynasty Asiatics See HYKSOS. (664525 B.C.E.) were discovered in the region, as well as mortuary complexes from the Eleventh Dynasty Assiut (Lykopolis, Lyconpolis, Zawty, Syut) A (21341991 B.C.E.). RAMESSES IV (11631156 B.C.E.) also city located south of HERMOPOLIS MAGNA on the eastern started a temple on the site. side of the Nile, Assiut was dedicated to the god WEP-
WAWET, the wolf deity. The city was important because it aser The ancient Egyptian name for the tamarisk tree was the terminus of the caravan route from the KHARGA connected to cultic traditions and to several deities who OASIS and the lands below the first cataract. Assiut also recorded personages and events. served as a center for a trade route, called "the FORTY DAY
See also PERSEA TREE. ROUTE," from Darfur to the Libyan OASES. The nomarchs
of Assiut were famous in many eras of Egyptian history Ashait (fl. 21st century B.C.E.) Royal woman of the for their military prowess and were enlisted to aid some Eleventh Dynasty rulers during periods of unrest. She was a lesser ranked consort of MONTUHOTEP II (r. Inscriptions carved into the tombs of the necropolis 20612010 B.C.E.). Ashait was buried in the elaborate that was hewn out of the cliffs overlooking Assiut indi- mortuary complex at DEIR EL-BAHRI, on the western shore cate the power and independent status of these locals. of the Nile at THEBES. Her tomb reliefs supposedly identi- Most of the tombs date from the period of the Ninth (c. fied her as an Ethiopian or Nubian. Ashait's coffin con- 2134 B.C.E.) and Tenth (2134 B.C.E.) Dynasties when the tained an enchanting hymn about the four winds, Herakleopolitan kings looked to the Assiut warriors to delineating the sort of weather and abundance that came defend the land against the encroaching Thebans. One from the four cardinal points of the earth, all brought to interesting relief among those discovered in the tombs is Egypt by mythical beings. that of a female nomarch named Sitré, who served as
regent and kept the hereditary land intact until her son
reached his majority. Two Ramessid (13071070 B.C.E.) Ashmunien, el See HERMOPOLIS MAGNA. tombs were also found there.
Ashoka (Asoka) (d. c. 238 B.C.E.) Emperor of India Assurbanipal (d. c. 627 B.C.E.) Ruler of Assyria who A vigorous patron of the Buddhist religion, Ashoka sent attacked Egypt an embassy to ALEXANDRIA and received one from He reigned from 669 B.C.E. until his death and succeeded PTOLEMY II PHILADELPHUS (r. 285246 B.C.E.). He invited
his father, ESSARHADDON. Upon gaining the throne, Assur- Ptolemy to become a Buddhist. Buddhist monks lived in banipal renewed his campaign against Egypt. He used the Alexandria, and there was a great procession in the city in ruler of SAIS, NECHO I (r. 672664 B.C.E.), and then PSAM- 270 B.C.E. of Indian women, pets, and cattle, all religious METICHUS I (r. 664610 B.C.E.), to gain an Assyrian and social symbols of India at the time. Ashoka sent Bud- foothold on the Nile. In 663, he led a campaign against dhist books to the LIBRARY OF ALEXANDRIA as well. TANUTAMUN (r. 664657 B.C.E.), the successor to TAHARQA
(r. 690664 B.C.E.), but Babylonian affairs caused him to Ashurnasirpal II (d. c. 859 B.C.E.) Assyrian king who halt his Egyptian efforts. His wife was Anhursharrat, and established an empire he ruled from NINEVEH (opposite modern Mosul, in Iraq). astronomy 57
Assyrians The people living on the right bank of the The true horoscope arrived on the Nile with the Tigris River at Assur, modern Kileh Shergat, in northern Ptolemaic Period (30430 B.C.E.). The Babylonian zodiac Iraq. The Assyrian Empire began at Assur, possibly by a and Greek interpretations replaced the Egyptian concept ruler called Nemrod, spread into the mountains of of the heavens. The dekans associated with astrological Niphates c. 1270 B.C.E., and lasted until 740 B.C.E. Baby- computations, however, had been depicted in the tomb of lon fell to the Assyrians c. 1260 B.C.E., and northern Syria SENENMUT in the reign of HATSHEPSUT (14731458 B.C.E.) felt the Assyrian presence. The first known true king was but had not been universally regarded. Bel-bani. About 1450 B.C.E., after Egyptian supremacy, Assyria began a second period of advancement, entering Astronomical Room See RAMESSEUM. Zagros and Armenia. Syria fell to their advance, as well as Phoenicia, Damascus, and Israel. The third period, c.
astronomy The ancient Egyptian science of the stars 1100 B.C.E., was a time of further expansion. The Assyri-
was prompted in the early eras by the demands of agricul- ans conquered Egypt, Susiana, Cyprus, and the Mediter-
ture. Because the harvest seasons and the fertilization of ranean and Persian Gulf regions. The expansion was
the fields and orchards depended upon the annual inunda- halted by the Scythian invasion, by Median resistance,
tion of the Nile, the priests of the formative years of Egypt's and by the power of Babylon. Nineveh, the last Assyrian
history began to chart the heavenly bodies and to incorpo- capital, fell c. 612 B.C.E.
rate them into a religious tradition that would provide
information about the Nile and its patterns of inundation. Astarte This was a goddess originating in Syria and There was a fascination with celestial activities, as brought into Egypt in the New Kingdom (15501070 evidenced by tomb inscriptions of the Old Kingdom B.C.E.). AMENHOTEP II (r. 14271401 B.C.E.) erected a (25752134 B.C.E.) and the First Intermediate Period STELA honoring her in GIZA. She was given the rank of a (21342040 B.C.E.), which continued into later eras and daughter of the god RÉ and was made a consort of SET. was elaborated in the Ptolemaic time. These inscriptions Astarte served as the patroness of the pharaoh's chariots contained lists of the divisions of the sky, called dekans in military campaigns. She was depicted as a naked by the Greeks. The dekans were the so-called 12 hours of woman wearing the atef, or bull's horns. She had served the night, represented by pictures. Each dekan was per- as a war goddess in Syria. sonified and given a divine attribute. NUT, an important
sky goddess of Egypt, was associated with the inscrip-
tions and their depictions. As the goddess of the heavens, Asten (Astes) A deity who served as a companion of
the celestial bodies were incorporated into her body. the god THOTH, the patron of wisdom, in some lists he is
Certain priests, designated as the "Keepers of Time," addressed as Astes.
watched the nightly movement of the stars. They were
required to memorize the order of the fixed stars, the astrology A practice attributed to the ancient Egyp- movements of the moon and the planets, the rising of the tians, highly dramatized in the modern world. The Egyp- moon and the sun, as well as their setting times, and the tians practiced a form of astrology, but it had little in orbits of the various celestial bodies. Such learned indi- common with that of later eras. The Egyptians practiced viduals were then ready to recite this information in "astral-theology," a form of divination that responded to counsel and to provide details about the changes taking the astronomical observances of their day but held no place in the sky in any given season. independent value. One set of stars known to the temple astronomers
The Egyptians were always anxious to equate human was called the Ikhemu-Seku, the "Stars That Never Fail." endeavors with cosmic events as observed in the night These were the polar stars that remained fixed in the sky, and much of their writings and teachings about the night sky and were much venerated as special souls hav- spirit of MA'AT were concerned with a need to mirror the ing attained true bliss. The second set of stars, actually divine order demonstrated by the heavenly bodies. Horo- planets, were the Ikhemu-Weredu, the "Never Resting scopes, in the modern sense of the word, were not known Stars," which followed distinct orbits in the night sky. by the Egyptians before the fall of the New Kingdom. There is no information as to whether the Egyptians They did not have the traditional signs of the zodiac or made a true distinction between the planets or the stars. the concept of planetary houses. When the Egyptians did Both sets of "stars" were believed to accompany the learn about horoscopes and the attendant lore, it was SOLAR BOAT on its nightly voyage. from Mesopotamian and Hellenistic sources late in the The stars noted were Sirius the Dogstar, called SOPDU Ptolemaic Period. The Egyptians had other methods of or Sopdet, considered the true symbol of the coming divination and fortune-telling, such as the mythological inundation of the Nile, signaling the rising of the river; CALENDARS that dealt with lucky and unlucky days, espe- Orion, called Sah, the "Fleet-Footed, Long-Strider"; Ursa cially as they pertained to births. Major (Great Bear or Big Dipper), called Meskhetiu. Also 58 Aswan
noted were Cygnus, Cassiopeia, the Dragon, Scorpio, and York: Columbia University Press, 1999; Siliotti, Albert. the Ram. There is no evidence that the Egyptians charted Aswan. American University in Cairo Press, 2001. the Pleiades until the Ptolemaic Period (30430 B.C.E.).
The planets noted were Hor-tash-tawy (Jupiter),
Aswan Nilometer A station in the temple of the god- called "Horus Who Binds the Two Lands"; Hor-ka-Pet
dess SATET on the ELEPHANTINE Island that served as an (Saturn), called "Horus the Bull of Heaven"; Horus-
observation point for the rise and fall of the Nile each Desher (Mars), the "Red Horus"; Sebeg (Mercury), mean-
year, the nilometer was actually a tubular structure with ing unknown; Seba-Djai (Venus), the "Star that Crosses."
90 steps, steeply graded and marked to allow the mea- The sun was preeminent in Egyptian religion from predy-
surement of the river's inundation each year. nastic times, represented as the SCARAB beetle, Khepri, rising in the morning, RE' at noon (overhead), and ATUM at night. The sun became important to Egyptian astron- Atbara (Astaboras) This is a tributary of the Nile omy in the Twenty-sixth Dynasty. The Egyptians had no River that enters the Nile at the fifth cataract, in NUBIA (in special interest in the stars and planets in themselves. It modern Sudan), bringing vast quantities of alluvium and was enough for them to recognize the astral bodies as red mud to the Nile Valley. The Greeks called the tribu- part of the cosmic harmony that had to be maintained by tary the Astaboras. mankind so that the world could prosper and survive.
Aten A deity introduced into Egypt during the New Aswan This was the most southern city of ancient Kingdom (15501070 B.C.E.), Aten was also known as Egypt, located at the first cataract of the Nile. Called "the "Aten of the Day," the SOLAR DISK that shone upon the Southern Gate," or swenet, which is translated as "con- river, possibly a form of Ré-Harakhte. AKHENATEN (r. ducting business," Aswan became Syrene in the Greek 13531335 B.C.E.), upon ascending the throne in THEBES, eras. The city also served as a provincial headquarters for proclaimed a great religious reformation and decreed the territories below the cataract, as viceroys of NUBIA worship of Aten as the only true religion of the land. (modern Sudan) used the ELEPHANTINE Island at Aswan Aten was not an invention of Akhenaten, having been as a residence in some reigns. The area is famous for red known in the reigns of his predecessors TUTHMOSIS IV and granite, called syrenite. AMENHOTEP III.
Settlements at Aswan date to predynastic times, He established a new capital in honor of the god, a before the unification c. 3000 B.C.E. The tombs at Aswan site called Akhetaten, "the Horizon of Aten," now known include Sixth Dynasty (23232150 B.C.E.) sites. Of partic- as el-'AMARNA, north of Thebes. Vast temple complexes ular note are the tombs of Mekhu and SABNI. Mekhu died arose on the shore of the Nile, but there were no statues south of Aswan, and his son, Sabni, recovered the body of the god. This deity was represented by a great red disk, and brought it to Egypt for burial. PEPI II (r. 22462152 from which long rays, complete with hands, extended to B.C.E.) gave mortuary gifts for the tomb, which contains the faithful. Akhenaten and his queen, NEFERTITI, accom- rock pillared chambers and frescoes. HARKHUF, the faithful panied by their daughters, conducted cultic ceremonies servant of Pepi II, is also buried there. The Middle King- of the god. Until the last years of his reign, Akhenaten dom (20401640 B.C.E.) tombs of local nomarchs are also was the only priest of the cult. in the Aswan necropolis, most designated with long pas- Ceremonies to Aten consisted mainly of the offering sages and ornamented with frescoes and reliefs. of cakes and fruit and the recitation of lovely hymns
The temple of KHNUM at Aswan and SATET's temple composed in his honor. Aten was lauded as the creator demonstrate the ongoing concern of Egypt's rulers for the of man and the nurturing spirit of the world. He was a city. The goddess Satet's temple was erected by HATSHEP- solar god, possibly a form of RÉ. A distinct strain of SUT (r. 14731458 B.C.E.), who had reliefs and a granite brotherhood and equality of all races and peoples was niche installed. The temple of Khnum has additions expressed in the hymns. Aten's worship was a modified made by RAMESSES II (r. 12901224 B.C.E.) and NEC- form of monotheism, and as long as Akhenaten was TANEBO II (r. 360343 B.C.E.). PHILAE's temple, which was alive the deity was the official god of Egypt. Akhenaten moved to the island of Agilkia to save it from the inunda- associated himself to Aten, however, sharing feasts as a tion caused by the High Aswan Dam, was supervised being united to Aten. Stern measures were taken against from the city. In cultic terms, Aswan was the abode of the the temple of AMUN in particular and against the venera- deities Khnum, Satet, and ANUKIS. The Nile god, HAPI (1), tion of most other deities as well. Even the cartouche of resided in a cave in the region, and one site was reserved Akhenaten's father, Amenhotep III, was damaged as the grave of OSIRIS. because the name of the god Amun was part of it. When
Akhenaten died in 1335 B.C.E., 'Amarna fell victim to the Suggested Readings: Kamil, Jill, and Michael Stock, pho- many enemies of the new deity and Aten was banished tographer. Aswan and Abu Simbel: History and Guide. New forever. Augustus 59
Atet (Itet) (fl. 26th century B.C.E.) Royal woman of the Atika This was a region in the SINAI Peninsula, possibly Fourth Dynasty a people as well, mentioned in the Great HARRIS PAPYRUS. She was a wife of Prince NEFERMA'AT, son of SNEFRU The copper mines in the area were exploited by Egyp- (25752551 B.C.E.) and Princess NEFERKAU. She was pos- tians, and in the reign of RAMESSES III (11941163 B.C.E.) sibly related to Neferma'at by birth. Their son, HEMIUNU, bars of copper in "the tens of thousands" were loaded was vizier for KHUFU (Cheops, r. 25512528 B.C.E.). She onto a royal galley for delivery to Egypt. was buried with Prince Neferma'at in MEIDUM. The See also EGYPTIAN NATURAL RESOURCES. famous beautiful reliefs depicting geese were discovered in Atet's tomb. Other paintings portrayed pets, sacred Atum (Tem, Tum) One of the earliest deities in birds, and children. In some lists she is called Itet. Egypt, an earth god also called Tem and Tum, Atum
existed alone in the beginning of time, floating inert in Athenaeus (fl. fourth century B.C.E.) General in the the watery chaos of NUN or Nu. A self-generating deity, army of Antigonus I Monophthalmus who opposed Egypt capable also of self-impregnation, his name meant "Com- He was a rival of PTOLEMY I SOTER (304284 B.C.E.) and pleted One." Atum rose alone on the site of his temple at competed with him for domination after the death of HELIOPOLIS.
ALEXANDER III THE GREAT. In 312 B.C.E., Athenaeus led A Twentieth Dynasty (11961070 B.C.E.) papyrus 4,600 men into the region of the Nabataeans to impose that was copied in the Ptolemaic Period (33230 B.C.E.) an economic blockade against Egypt and to halt their states that Atum evolved alone, coming out of the chaos flow of bitumen, used in mummification. Athenaeus of Nun. He sired the deities SHU and TEFNUT. They cre- raided Nabataea during a festival in which the men gath- ated GEB and NUT, who begat OSIRIS, ISIS, SET, and NEPH- ered at a place called "the Rock," believed to be Petra. He THYS. These gods formed the ENNEAD of Heliopolis,
captured or killed many attending the festival and made joined by HORUS or RÉ. For this reason Atum was called off with hundreds of camels, silver, frankincense, and "the plural of the plural." myrrh. The Greeks, however, were attacked by the During the Old Kingdom (25752134 B.C.E.), Atum Nabataeans soon after, and Athenaeus lost his infantry was associated with the cult of Ré, worshiped as Atum- and several cavalry units. When the Nabataeans wrote Ré. He was depicted as a man wearing the double crown ANTIGONUS I MONOPHTHALMUS to protest the Greek inva- of Egypt and carrying a royal scepter and the ANKH. Atum sion, he declared that General Athenaeus had acted on was a form of the god Ré as the setting sun, and he also his own. appeared as a mongoose. The creator of all of the Nile
deities, Atum was later associated with cults of PTAH and
then Osiris. Athribis (Sohag, Tell Atrib) A site in the western Delta, northeast of BENHA on the Damietta branch of the
Augustus (Octavian) (d. 14 C.E.) First emperor of the Nile, now Tell Atrib, the Egyptians called the city Hut-
Roman Empire and the first to rule over Egypt hery-ib, the cult center of Kem-wer, "the Great Black
He held Egypt as a special province from 30 B.C.E. until One," a BULL deity. Khenti-kheti, or Horus-Khentikheti,
his death. He was born Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus in was worshiped at Athribis. The city was probably
63 B.C.E. and was the great nephew and adopted son and founded in the Fourth Dynasty (25752465 B.C.E.) and
heir of Julius CAESAR. When Caesar was assassinated in maintained by later royal lines. Monuments from the
44 B.C.E., Octavian, as he was called then, allied himself Twelfth Dynasty (19911783 B.C.E.) are at Athribis, as
with Marc ANTONY and Lepidus in the ensuing civil war well as a temple erected by AMENHOTEP III (r. 13911353
against his uncle's murderers, Brutus, Cassius, and the so- B.C.E.) and another by AMASIS (r. 570526 B.C.E.). The
called Liberators. tomb of Queen TAKHAT (3), consort of PSAMMETICHUS II (r.
The political alliance between Octavian and Antony 595589 B.C.E.), was also discovered at the site. One of
collapsed in 31 B.C.E., and Octavian, aided by Marcus the city's priests, AMENHOTEP, SON OF HAPU, achieved last-
AGRIPPA and others, set out to destroy Marc Antony and ing fame in Egypt.
CLEOPATRA VII (5130 B.C.E.). Winning the battle of
ACTIUM, Octavian occupied ALEXANDRIA and watched the Athribis Stela A monument erected in the reign of suicides of Egypt's last queen-pharaoh, Cleopatra VII, and MERENPTAH (12241214 B.C.E.), the son and heir of Marc Antony. He refused to honor the APIS BULL in RAMESSES II, this stela, along with the Cairo Column and SAQQARA and the mummies of ancient pharaohs. Report- an inscription discovered in KARNAK, recounts the mili- edly he did touch the body of ALEXANDER III THE GREAT, tary challenges facing Merenptah when he took the causing a piece of the preserved nose to fall off the body. throne of Egypt. The Libyans and their allies, who hoped Augustus did tour the Nile Valley, and he started pro- to invade Egypt, were defeated by Merenptah at Per-yer grams of repair on the irrigation system, using Roman in the Delta. troops to make the necessary changes. 60 Auibre
Khem or Khenty-Irty. Monuments honoring Horus were
erected at Ausim by NECHO II (r. 610596 B.C.E.), PSAM-
METICHUS II (r. 595589 B.C.E.), HAKORIS (r. 393380
B.C.E.), and NECTANEBO I (r. 380362 B.C.E.).
aut This was the ancient Egyptian name for the funerary
offerings for the deceased, when such offerings could be
afforded by the family, or contracted before death. The
priesthood maintained special groups of trained officials
who offered goods to the deceased as part of MORTUARY
auta The ancient Egyptian name for the cobra, the god-
dess WADJET, in a striking position with a full hood dis-
played, this symbol was represented on the crowns of the
kings in the form of the URAEUS. A silver denarius struck to celebrate the victory of Octavian (Augustus) and his conquest of Egypt in 30 B.C.E. (Courtesy Historical Coins, Inc.) Avaris (Hut-Waret) A site located in the eastern
Delta, northeast of BUBASTIS, in the region of Khatana and
Qantir, the site of the PER-RAMESSES, the residence of the
Augustus made Egypt an imperial estate of Rome and Nineteenth Dynasty (13071196 B.C.E.) rulers. Avaris set out to rule the largest empire in that historical period. dates to ancient times and was considered a shrine city of He brought peace and prosperity to Rome and main- the god OSIRIS; a piece of the god's body was supposed to tained the provinces securely. The Altar of Peace, erected be buried there as a holy relic. The city was called Hut- in 13 B.C.E. in Rome's Campus Martius, and the Monu- Waret by the Egyptians. Avaris became the capital of the ment Ancyranum, erected in Ankara (modern Turkey), HYKSOS, the Asiatics, who dominated northern territories provide evidence of his robust vision and his careful during the Second Intermediate Period (16401532 rebuilding and administration of the empire. Octavian, as B.C.E.) and was probably founded c. 17201700 B.C.E. Augustus, died in Rome in 14 C.E. They used distinctly Canaanite architecture and displayed
Augustus's annexation of Egypt was a necessary alien cultural symbols. move, and he handled the Roman occupation of the Nile The Hyksos provided the city with walls, causeways, Valley with tact and with an awareness of the land's his- and various defenses to protect the inhabitants against tory and potential prosperity. Giving Egypt the status of sieges and missile attacks. KAMOSE tried to reach Avaris an imperial estate, a personal possession of the reigning with his southern army in c. 1500 B.C.E. in order to expel emperor, he applied a prefect to govern in his name. This the Hyksos, but the task fell to his brother, 'AHMOSE (r. prefecture was open only to members of the Equestrian 15501525 B.C.E.), founder of the Eighteenth Dynasty. He Knighthood. He also decreed that no Roman of the Sena- used both land and sea forces to assault the capital. Avaris torial or Equestrian classes could enter Egypt without the endured the siege, and the withdrawal of the Hyksos emperor's personal permission. The Egyptians reconciled appears to have been the result of negotiations, although themselves to the political changes and turned inward the Egyptian army pursued them even beyond the border. again, forming stable NOMES and leaders that endured the The surrender of Avaris in 1532 B.C.E. ended the Hyksos Roman presence, the taxes, and the obligations. domination and the division of Egypt.
In the Ramessid Period the site would become a Auibre (fl. 26th century B.C.E.) Prince of the Fourth spectacular metropolis again. Avaris appears to have been Dynasty the home of the first RAMESSES (r. 13071306 B.C.E.), and He was the son of Prince DJEDEFHOR (c. 2530 B.C.E.). The his successors transformed the city into a vast complex of Instructions of Djedefhor was addressed to him. Auibre was temples, palaces, shrines, and military encampments. the grandson of KHUFU (Cheops). Prince Auibre was coun- seled to marry and to raise up "stout sons" for Egypt. awet The ancient CROOK and FLAIL, the royal symbol of
the pharaohs, adopted from the god OSIRIS and the Ausim (Hem, Letopolis) A site north of modern ancient shepherd deity ANDJETI. The crook denoted the Cairo in Egypt's Delta territory, called Hem by the Egyp- pharaoh's role as the guardian of the people of the Nile. tians and Letopolis by the Greeks. The site was a cult The crook and the flail were used in all royal ceremonies center for the falcon deity, HORUS, in the forms of Khenty- and were part of the mortuary regalia of all rulers. Aziru 61
Awibré Hor (fl. 19th century B.C.E.) Mysterious royal He reigned from 1323 B.C.E. until his death. Aya personage of Egypt in the Twelfth Dynasty ascended the throne upon the death of TUT'ANKHAMUN He was possibly the son and heir, perhaps even coregent, and apparently married ANKHESENAMON, the boy king's of AMENEMHET III (r. 18441797 B.C.E.). No records of his widow. She does not appear after the initial succession coregency survive, but his tomb, located in the funerary of Aya, however. The queen who is shown in all surviv- complex of Amenemhet III at DASHUR, contained royal ing texts is TEY, a commoner who had served as a nurse insignias. A rare wooden statue of this young man was to NEFERTITI and had married Aya before his accession to discovered there, as well as a gilded mask and a sarcopha- the throne. gus, made out of a single square of sandstone. The tomb Aya, also a commoner, had been the "Master of the of a princess, NWEBHOTEP-KHRED, is located beside that of Horse" and Fan Bearer and then vizier and chancellor for Awibré Hor. She was possibly his consort, as she was AKHENATEN (r. 13531335 B.C.E.) at 'AMARNA, but he fol- buried wearing a silver crown and a golden URAEUS, the lowed the process of reorganizing the government and symbol of the rulers of Egypt. The wooden statues of Hor the aggrandizement of the god AMUN during his brief depict him as a KA, an astral being that rises at death. He reign. His portraits depict a man with a narrow, bony face possibly served as coregent for only seven months. and a long, slender nose. Aya erected KARNAK's colonnade
and a rock-cut shrine at AKHMIN. He built a mortuary Axe of Ah'hotep A New Kingdom military emblem temple at MEDINET HABU in western Thebes but did not discovered in the tomb of Queen AH'HOTEP (1), the provide himself with a tomb there. In the VALLEY OF THE mother of 'AHMOSE (r. 15501525 B.C.E.). The axe sym- KINGS a tomb was decorated for him and for Tey, but his bolized the emblem of honor in MILITARY events. A com- remains have never been found. His tomb is long and mon form of the axe was used in all parades. The blade of straight in design, with four corridors. An elaborate pas- the weapon displays the SPHINX, the Nile, and various sage leads to a burial chamber, which was decorated with goddesses and is made of copper, gold, semiprecious the text of the AM DUAT. Aya's burial site included a red stones, and glass paste. This blade was secured to the granite sarcophagus. He also had an unfinished tomb in handle with leather thongs. 'Amarna. Aya designated NAKHTMIN (1), possibly a rela-
tive and a military commander, as his heir, but HOREMHAB Aya (1) (Merneferré) (d. 1690 B.C.E.) Ruler of the put him aside and became the last pharaoh of the Thirteenth Dynasty dynasty. He reigned from 1704 B.C.E. until his death. His throne name meant "Beautiful Is The Desire of Ré." This ruler is Aziru (fl. 14th century B.C.E.) Ruler of Amurru, successor believed to have been a native of AVARIS and a vassal of of Abdiashirta the HYKSOS, the Asiatics who dominated the northern ter- He had political dealings with AKHENATEN (r. 13531335 ritories at the time. A diorite capstone from his tomb was B.C.E.) and TUT'ANKHAMUN (r. 13331323 B.C.E.). Aziru found in the eastern Delta, and other monuments were maintained an alliance with the HITTITES and began found throughout the Nile Valley. His tomb, however, is seizing the prosperous port cities on the Mediterran- unidentified. The eastern Delta rebelled at the end of ean coast, claiming that his actions were based on Egyp- Aya's reign. tian needs. In time, however, Aziru lost the support of
Egypt and became a vassal of SUPPILULIUMAS I and the Aya (2) (Kheperkhepruré) (d. 1319 B.C.E.) Ruler of Hittites. the Eighteenth Dynasty See also PAWARE.
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