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Chapter 1 Study Guide Topology

172.16.0.0/16

172.17.0.0/16

172.18.0.0/16

Fa0/0

Fa0/0

PC1

S0/0/0

PC2

S0/0/0

Switch1

R1

R2

DCE

12

Routing Protocols and Concepts, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Table 1-1

Addressing Table for Chapter 1 Topology

Device

Interface

IP Address

Subnet Mask

Default Gateway

R1

Fa0/0

172.16.0.1

255.255.0.0

S0/0/0

172.17.0.1

255.255.0.0

R2

Fa0/0

172.18.0.1

255.255.0.0

S0/0/0

172.17.0.2

255.255.0.0

PC1

NIC

172.16.0.10

255.255.0.0

172.16.0.1

PC2

NIC

172.18.0.10

255.255.0.0

172.18.0.1

Basic Router Configuration Exercise

When configuring a router, there are certain basic tasks that are performed, including

Naming the router

Setting passwords

Configuring interfaces

Configuring a banner

Saving changes on a router

Verifying basic configuration and router operations

The first prompt is at user mode and will allow you to view the state of the router. What major limitation does this mode have?

User mode will not allow you to modify the router configuration.

What is the router prompt for this mode?

Router>

The enable command is used to enter the privileged mode. What is the major difference between this mode and the previous mode?

Privileged mode allows the user to make configuration changes on the router.

What is the router prompt for this mode?

Router#

Basic Configuration Tasks

Table 1-2 lists the basic router configuration tasks in the left column. Fill in the right column with the correct command syntax for each of the tasks.

Chapter 1: Introduction to Routing and Packet Fowarding 13

Table 1-2

Basic Router Configuration Command Syntax

Configuration Task

Command Syntax

Naming the router

Router(config)# hostname name

Setting passwords

Router(config)# enable secret password

Router(config)# line console 0

Router(config-line)# password password

Router(config-line)# login

Router(config)# line vty 0 4

Router(config-line)# password password

Router(config-line)# login

Configuring a message-of-the-day banner

Router(config)# banner motd # message #

Configuring an interface

Router(config)# interface type number

Router(config-if)# ip address address mask Router(config-if)# description description Router(config-if)# no shutdown

Saving changes on a router

Router# copy running-config startup-config

Examining the output of show commands

Router# show running-config

Router# show ip route

Router# show ip interface brief

Router# show interfaces

Applying a Basic Configuration

The following exercise will walk you through a basic configuration.

First, enter global configuration mode.

Router# config t

Next, apply a unique host name to the router. Use R1 for this example.

Router(config)# hostname R1

Now, configure the password that is to be used to enter privileged EXEC mode. Use class as the password.

Router(config)# enable secret class

Next, configure the console and Telnet lines with the password cisco. The console commands follow: R1(config)# line console 0

R1(config-line)# password cisco

R1(config-line)# login

The Telnet lines use similar commands:

R1(config)# line vty 0 4

R1(config-line)# password cisco

R1(config-line)# login

14

Routing Protocols and Concepts, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide From global configuration mode, configure the message-of-the-day banner. Use the following text: Authorized Access Only. A delimiting character, such as a #, is used at the beginning and at the end of the message.

R1(config)# banner motd # Authorized Access Only #

What is the purpose of the message of the day?

At a minimum, a banner should warn against unauthorized access. Never configure a banner that

“welcomes” an unauthorized user.

Refer to Figure 1-5 for the correct interface designations. What is the command to enter interface configuration mode for R1’s serial interface?

R1(config)# interface Serial0/0/0

Enter the command to configure the IP address using the address you specified in Table 1-1.

R1(config-if)# ip address 172.17.0.1 255.255.255.0

Describe the interface with the following text: Link to R2.

R1(config-if)# description Link to R2

Because R1 is on the data communications equipment (DCE) side, set the clocking signal to 64000.

R1(config-if)# clock rate 64000

Activate the interface.

Router(config-if)# no shutdown

Now enter the commands to configure and activate the Fast Ethernet interface on R1. Use the following description text: R1 LAN.

R1(config)# interface FastEthernet0/0

R1(config-if)# ip address 172.16.0.1 255.255.255.0

R1(config-if)# description R1 LAN

R1(config-if)# no shutdown

What command will save the current configuration?

Router# copy running-config startup-config

Verifying Basic Router Configuration

Basic configurations can be verified using four basic show commands. In Table 1-3, list the command in the left column that fits the description in the right column.

Table 1-3

Basic Router Configuration Verification Commands

Command

Description

show running-config

Displays the current running configuration that is stored in RAM

show startup-config

Displays the startup configuration file stored in NVRAM

show ip route

Displays the routing table that the IOS is currently using to choose the best path to its destination networks

Chapter 1: Introduction to Routing and Packet Fowarding 15

Command

Description

show interfaces

Displays all the interface configuration parameters and statistics show ip interface brief

Displays abbreviated interface configuration information, including IP

address and interface status

Packet Tracer

Packet Tracer Exercise 1-1: Basic Router

Activity

Configuration

Now you are ready to use Packet Tracer to apply your documented addressing scheme. Open file LSG02-0101.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer.

Note: The following instructions are also contained within the Packet Tracer Exercise.

Learning Objectives

Add Devices and Connect Cables

Configure PCs

Configure R1

Configure R2

Save the Packet Tracer file

Scenario

In this exercise, you will practice configuring the Chapter 1 Study Guide Topology (Figure 1-1). Use the Addressing Table (Table 1-1) you completed in the section “Implementing Basic Addressing Schemes Exercise.”

Task 1: Add Devices and Connect Cables

Step 1.

Add two PCs: PC1 and PC2. Make sure that you name both PCs. Attach PC1 to S1 and PC2 to R2.

Step 2.

Connect the devices. Attach R1 to S1. Attach R1 to R2. Make sure that R1 is the DCE side of the connection.

Step 3.

Your completion percentage should be 11%. If not, click Check Results to see which required components are not yet completed.

Task 2: Configure PCs

Step 1.

Configure PC1 and PC2 according to the addressing table you filled out in the section

“Implementing Basic Addressing Schemes Exercise.” If you have not completed that exercise, do so now.

Step 2.

Check results. Both PCs should now be configured. Your completion percentage should be 21%. If not, click Check Results to see which required components are not yet completed.

16

Routing Protocols and Concepts, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Task 3: Configure R1

Step 1.

Configure the host name, banner, enable secret password, console and Telnet lines according to the following guidelines:

To avoid incorrect grading, make sure that all names and text strings are case sensitive, with no spacing before or after the name or text string.

Use the host name R1.

Use the following text for the banner: Authorized Access Only.

For the secret password, use class. (Note: The activity does not grade this configuration.)

For the console and Telnet lines, configure login access with the password cisco.

Your completion percentage should be 46%. If not, click Check Results to see which required components are not yet completed.

Step 2.

Configure the Fast Ethernet interface.

Use the IP address and subnet mask according to the addressing table in the section

“Implementing Basic Addressing Schemes Exercise.”

Describe the link as R1 LAN.

Activate the interface.

Your completion percentage should be 53%. If not, click Check Results to see which required components are not yet completed.

Step 3.

Configure the serial interface.

Use the IP address and subnet mask according to the addressing table in the section

“Implementing Basic Addressing Schemes Exercise.”

Describe the link as Link to R2.

R1 provides clocking at 64,000 bps.

Activate the interface.

R1 is now configured. Your completion percentage should be 61%. If not, click Check Results to see which required components are not yet completed.

Step 4.

Save the configuration to R1.

Task 4: Configure R2

Step 1.

Configure the host name, banner, enable secret password, and console and Telnet lines according to the following guidelines:

To avoid incorrect grading, make sure that all names and text strings are case sensitive, with no spacing before or after the name or text string.

Use the host name R2.

Use the following text for the banner: Authorized Access Only.

For the secret password, use class. (Note: The activity does not grade this configuration.) Chapter 1: Introduction to Routing and Packet Fowarding 17

For the console and Telnet lines, configure login access with the password cisco.

Your completion percentage should be 86%. If not, click Check Results to see which required components are not yet completed.

Step 2.

Configure the Fast Ethernet interface.

Use the IP address and subnet mask according to the addressing table in the section

“Implementing Basic Addressing Schemes Exercise.”

Describe the link as R2 LAN.

Activate the interface.

Your completion percentage should be 93%. If not, click Check Results to see which required components are not yet completed.

Step 3.

Configure the serial interface.

Use the IP address and subnet mask according to the addressing table in the section

“Implementing Basic Addressing Schemes Exercise.”

Describe the link as Link to R1.

Activate the interface.

R1 is now configured. Your completion percentage should be 100%. All the connectivity tests should show a status of “successful.” If not, click Check Results to see which required components are not yet completed.

Step 4.

Save the configuration to R2.

Task 5: Save the Packet Tracer File

Save your Packet Tracer file as LSG02-0101-end.pka. You will use this file to complete some of the remaining exercises in this chapter.

Building the Routing Table

The primary function of a router is to forward packets toward the destination network, the destination IP address of the packet. To do this, a router needs to search the routing information stored in its routing table. In this section, you will learn how a router builds the routing table. Then, you will learn the three basic routing principles.

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion

Complete the paragraphs that follow by filling in appropriate words and phrases.

Introducing the Routing Table

A routing table is a data file stored in RAM that is used to store route information about directly connected and remote networks.

There are two major types of routes in the routing table:

A directly connected network: When a router’s interface is configured with an IP address and subnet mask, the interface becomes a host on that attached network.

18

Routing Protocols and Concepts, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

A remote network: This is a network that can only be reached by sending the packet to another router. These networks are added to the routing table by using a dynamic routing protocol or by configuring static routes. Dynamic routes are routes to remote networks that were learned automatically by the router. Static routes are routes to networks that a network administrator manually configured.

show ip route Command

Describe the meaning of each part of the following route entry: C 172.16.0.0/16 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0

C: The information in this column denotes the source of the route information, directly connected network, static route, or a dynamic routing protocol. The C represents a directly connected route.

172.16.0.0/24: This is the network address and subnet mask of the directly connected or remote network.

FastEthernet 0/0: The information at the end of the route entry represents the exit interface and/or the IP address of the next-hop router. In this example, both FastEthernet 0/0 and Serial 0/0/0 are the exit interfaces used to reach these networks.

Static Routing

When the IOS learns about a remote network and the interface it will use to reach that network, it adds that route to the routing table, as long as the exit interface is enabled.

Static routes are denoted with the code S in the routing table.

List and describe three situations in which static routes should be used.

A network consists of only a few routers. Using a dynamic routing protocol in such a case does not present any substantial benefit. On the contrary, dynamic routing can add more administrative overhead.

A network is connected to the Internet only through a single ISP. There is no need to use a dynamic routing protocol across this link because the ISP represents the only exit point to the Internet.

A large network is configured in a hub-and-spoke topology. A hub-and-spoke topology consists of a central location (the hub) and multiple branch locations (spokes), with each spoke having only one connection to the hub. Using a dynamic routing protocol would be unnecessary because each branch only has one path to a given destination—through the central location.

Dynamic Routing

Dynamic routing protocols are used by routers to share information about the reachability and status of remote networks. Dynamic routing protocols perform several activities, including

Network discovery, which is a routing protocol’s ability to share information about the networks it knows about with other routers that are also using the same routing protocol

Maintain routing tables, which is a routing protocol’s ability to compensate for any topology changes without involving the network administrator

Chapter 1: Introduction to Routing and Packet Fowarding 19

IP Routing Protocols

List the acronym and full name of the dynamic routing protocols for IP.

RIP (Routing Information Protocol)

IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol)

EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol)

OSPF (Open Shortest Path First)

IS-IS (Intermediate System–to–Intermediate System)

BGP (Border Gateway Protocol)

Routing Table Principles Exercise

In your own words, describe the three routing table principles according to Alex Zinin in his book Cisco IP Routing.1

Instructor note: The student should restate the principles. The following answers are examples.

Principle #1: Each router makes a routing decision solely based on information in its own routing table.

Principle #2: Just because the local router has a route in its table does not mean that other routers have the same route.

Principle #3: Even though a router can route to the destination does not mean that the same router can route a response back to the originating source.

Refer to Figure 1-6. R2 received a packet from R1 destined for PC2. R2 did not have a route for the network that PC2 belongs to, so R2 discarded the packet. Which routing principle does this illustrate?

Routing Principle #2

Figure 1-6

Routing Principles: Example 1

PC1

PC2

R1

R2

R3

Packet

Discarded

Refer to Figure 1-7. R3 received a packet from R2 destined for PC2. R3 sent the packet on to R2. But when R2 sent a response to PC1, R3 discarded the packet. Which routing principle does this illustrate?

Routing Principle #3

Figure 1-7

Routing Principles: Example 2

PC1

PC2

R1

R2

R3

Packet

Discarded

20

Routing Protocols and Concepts, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Refer to Figure 1-8. R1 received a packet from PC1 destined for PC2. R1 forwarded the packet to R2.

Which routing principle does this illustrate?

Routing Principle #1

Figure 1-8

Routing Principles: Example 3

PC1

PC2

R1

R2

R3

Packet

Forwarded

Path Determination and Switching Functions

The following sections use exercises to focus your attention on exactly what happens to data as it moves from source to destination. First, we review the packet and frame field specifications. Then, we discuss in detail how the frame fields change from hop to hop, whereas the packet fields remain unchanged.

Internet Protocol (IP) Packet Format Exercise

Figure 1-9 shows the structure of fields for the packet header. Fill in the missing field names.

Figure 1-9

Field Specification for the IP Header

Byte 1

Byte 2

Byte 3

Byte 4

Version

IHL

Type of Service

Packet Length

Identification

Flags

Fragment Offset

Time to Live

Protocol

Header Checksum

Source IP Address

Destination IP Address

Options

Padding

MAC Layer Frame Format Exercise

Figure 1-10 shows the two compatible version of Ethernet. Fill in the missing field names.

Figure 1-10

Field Specification for Ethernet Frames

Ethernet

Field Length in Bytes

8

6

6

2

46-1500

4

Destination

Source

Preamble

Type

Data

FCS

Address

Address

IEEE 802.3

Field Length in Bytes

7

1

6

6

2

46-1500

4

S

Destination

Source

802.2 Header

Preamble

O

Length

FCS

Address

Address

and Data

F

Chapter 1: Introduction to Routing and Packet Fowarding 21

Best Path and Metrics: Completion and Short Answer Exercise Complete the paragraphs that follow by filling in appropriate words and phrases.

Best Path

The best path is selected by a routing protocol based on the value or metric it uses to determine the distance to reach a network. Some routing protocols, such as RIP, use simple hop count, which is simply the number of routers between a router and the destination network. Other routing protocols, such as OSPF, determine the shortest path by examining the bandwidth of the links.

A metric is the quantitative value used to measure the distance to a given route. The best path to a network is the path with the lowest metric.

The primary objective of the routing protocol is to determine the best paths for each route to include in the routing table. The routing algorithm generates a value, a metric for each path through the network. The smaller the value of the metric, the better the path.

Provide a short answer for the following questions.

Comparing Hop Count and Bandwidth

When hop count is used as the metric, the resulting path can sometimes be suboptimal. Explain why this might happen.

Answers can vary but should include the following concept: Hop count does not consider the bandwidth or speed on the links between source and destination, nor does it consider the current load on a link. Hop count will choose a path that only has two hops as opposed to a path that has three hops—

even though the three-hop path might be faster.

Equal-Cost Load Balancing

What happens if a routing table has two or more paths with the same metric to the same destination network?

The router will perform equal-cost load balancing using both paths (or multiple paths) to route to the same destination. The routing table will contain the single destination network but will have multiple exit interfaces, one for each equal-cost path.

Path Determination and Switching Function Exercise Can you describe the exact details of what happens to a packet at Layer 2 and Layer 3 as it travels from source to destination? Use the topology and Figure 1-11, the addressing table in Table 1-4, and the routing tables in Example 1-1 to fill in the blanks in the steps that follow.

Figure 1-11

Path Determination and Switching Function Topology 192.168.1.0/24

192.168.2.0/24

192.168.3.0/24

192.168.4.0/24

S0/0/0

S0/0/1

Switch1

Fa0/0

S0/0/0

S0/0/1

Fa0/0

R1

R2

R3

Switch3

DCE

DCE

PC1

PC3

22

Routing Protocols and Concepts, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Table 1-4

Addressing Table for Figure 1-11

Device

Interface

IP Address

Subnet Mask

Default Gateway

R1

Fa0/0

192.168.1.1

255.255.255.0

S0/0/0

192.168.2.1

255.255.255.0

R2

S0/0/0

192.168.2.2

255.255.255.0

S0/0/1

192.168.3.1

255.255.255.0

R3

S0/0/1

192.168.3.2

255.255.255.0

Fa0/0

192.168.4.1

255.255.255.0

PC1

NIC

192.168.1.10

255.255.255.0

192.168.1.1

PC3

NIC

192.168.4.10

255.255.255.0

192.168.4.1

Example 1-1

Routing Tables for Figure 1-11

R1# show ip route

<output omitted>

Gateway of last resort is not set

C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0

C 192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, Serial0/0/0

R 192.168.3.0/24 [120/1] via 192.168.2.2, 00:00:04, Serial0/0/0

R 192.168.4.0/24 [120/2] via 192.168.2.2, 00:00:04, Serial0/0/0

R2# show ip route

<output omitted>

Gateway of last resort is not set

R 192.168.1.0/24 [120/1] via 192.168.2.1, 00:00:06, Serial0/0/0

C 192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, Serial0/0/0

C 192.168.3.0/24 is directly connected, Serial0/0/1

R 192.168.4.0/24 [120/1] via 192.168.3.2, 00:00:06, Serial0/0/1

R3# show ip route

<output omitted>

Gateway of last resort is not set

R 192.168.1.0/24 [120/2] via 192.168.3.1, 00:00:07, Serial0/0/1

R 192.168.2.0/24 [120/1] via 192.168.3.1, 00:00:07, Serial0/0/1

C 192.168.3.0/24 is directly connected, Serial0/0/1

C 192.168.4.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0

Chapter 1: Introduction to Routing and Packet Fowarding 23

1.

The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) process on PC1 formulates a ping request to PC3 and sends the reply to the IP process.

2.

The IP process on PC1 encapsulates the ping packet with a source IP address of 192.168.1.10

and destination IP address of 192.168.4.10.

3.

PC1 then frames the packet with the source MAC address of (indicate device name) PC1 and the destination MAC address of (indicate device name) R1.

4.

Next, PC1 sends the frame out on the media as an encoded stream of bits.

5.

R1 receives the bit stream on its FastEthernet 0/0 interface. Because the destination MAC

address matches the receiving interface’s MAC address, R1 strips off the Ethernet header.

6.

R1 looks up the destination network address 192.168.4.0/24 in its routing table. This destination has a next-hop IP address of 192.168.2.2. The next-hop IP address is reachable out interface Serial 0/0/0.

7.

R1 encapsulates the packet in a High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) frame and forwards the frame out the correct interface. (Because this is a point-to-point link, no address is needed.

However, the address field in the HDLC packet contains the value 0x8F.) 8.

R2 receives the frame on the Serial 0/0/0 interface. Because the frame is HDLC, R2 strips off the header and looks up the network address 192.168.4.0/24 in its routing table. This destination has a next-hop IP address of 192.168.3.2. The next-hop IP address is reachable out interface Serial 0/0/1.

9.

R2 encapsulates the packet in an HDLC frame and forwards the frame out the correct interface.

10.

R3 receives the frame on the Serial 0/0/1 interface. R3 strips off the header and looks up the network address 192.168.4.0/24 in its routing table. This destination address is directly connected to the FastEthernet 0/0 interface.

11.

R3 encapsulates the ping request in a frame with the source MAC address of (indicated device name) R3 and the destination MAC address of (indicate device name) PC3.

12.

R3 then sends the frame out on the media as an encoded bit stream.

13.

PC3 receives the bit stream on its Fast Ethernet interface. Because the destination MAC address matches the MAC address of PC3, PC3 strips off the Ethernet header.

14.

The IP process on PC3 examines the 192.168.4.10 IP address to make sure that it matches its own IP address. Then PC3 passes the data to the ICMP process.

15.

The ICMP process on PC3 formulates a ping reply to PC1 and sends the reply to the IP

process.

16.

The IP process on PC3 encapsulates the ping packet with a source IP address of 192.168.4.10

and destination IP address of 192.168.1.10.

17.

PC3 then frames the packet with the source MAC address of (indicate device name) PC3 and the destination MAC address of (indicate device name) R3.

18.

PC3 then sends the frame out on the media as an encoded bit stream.

19.

R3 receives the bit stream on its FastEthernet 0/0 interface. Because the destination MAC

address matches the receiving interface’s MAC address, R3 strips off the Ethernet header.

20.

R3 looks up the destination network address 192.168.1.0/24 in its routing table. This destination has a next-hop IP address of 192.168.3.1. The next-hop IP address is reachable out interface Serial 0/0/1.

24

Routing Protocols and Concepts, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide 21.

R3 encapsulates the packet in an HDLC frame and forwards the frame out the correct interface.

22.

R2 receives the frame on the Serial 0/0/1 interface. R2 strips off the header and looks up the network address 192.168.1.0/24 in its routing table. This destination has a next-hop IP address of 192.168.2.1. The next-hop IP address is reachable out interface Serial 0/0/0.

23.

R2 encapsulates the packet in an HDLC frame and forwards the frame out the correct interface.

24.

R1 receives the frame on the Serial 0/0/0 interface. R1 strips off the header and looks up the destination network address 192.168.1.0/24 in its routing table. This destination address is directly connected to the FastEthernet 0/0 interface.

25.

R1 encapsulates the ping request in a frame with the source MAC address of (indicated device name) R1 and the destination MAC address of (indicate device name) PC1.

26.

R1 then sends the frame out on the media as an encoded bit stream.

27.

PC1 receives the bit stream on its Ethernet (NIC) interface. Because the destination MAC

address matches the MAC address of PC1, PC1 strips off the Ethernet header.

28.

The IP process on PC1 examines the 192.168.1.10 IP address to make sure that it matches its own IP address. Then PC1 passes the data to the ICMP process.

29.

ICMP sends a “success” message to the requesting application.

Chapter 1: Introduction to Routing and Packet Fowarding 25

Labs and Activities

Command Reference

In Table 1-5, record the command, including the correct router prompt, that fits the description. Fill in any blanks with the appropriate missing information.

Table 1-5

Commands for Basic Router Configuration

Command

Description

Router# configure terminal

Moves into global configuration mode

Router(config)# hostname CISCO

Names the router with the name CISCO; name

can be anything you want

Router(config)# enable secret class

Sets the enable password to class and encrypts it Router(config)# banner motd

Configures a message-of-the-day banner that

#Authorized Access Only#

uses # as the delimiting character and displays

the following when users attempt to log in:

Authorized Access Only

Router(config)# line console 0

Enters console line configuration mode

Router(config-line)# password cisco

Sets the console password to cisco

Router(config-line)# login

Enables password checking when users log in

Router(config)# line vty 0 4

Enters vty line configuration mode for five

vty lines

Router(config)# interface fa 0/0

Enters interface configuration mode for Fa0/0

Router(config-if)# ip address

Sets an interface address as 192.168.1.1/24

192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0

Router(config-if)# description Link to ISP

Configures an interface with the text Link to

ISP, which is used to describe the purpose of the link

Router(config-if)# clock rate 64000

Configures the DCE side of the link to clock bits

at 64,000 bps

Router(config-if)# no shutdown

Activates an interface

Router# show interfaces

Displays detailed information and statistics about

all interfaces

Router# show ip interface brief

Displays a summary of all interfaces, including

status and IP address assigned

Router# show ip route

Displays the routing table

Router# show version

Displays the version of the software currently

running on the router

continues

26

Routing Protocols and Concepts, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Table 1-5

Commands for Basic Router Configuration

continued

Command

Description

Router# copy running-config startup-config

Saves the current configuration to NVRAM

Router# show running-config

Displays the current configuration in RAM

Router# show startup-config

Displays the configuration saved in NVRAM

Lab 1-1: Cabling a Network and Basic Router

Configuration (1.5.1)

Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to

Cable devices and establish console connections

Erase and reload the routers

Perform basic IOS command-line interface operations

Perform basic router configuration

Verify and test configurations using show commands, ping, and traceroute

Create a startup configuration file

Reload a startup configuration file

Install a terminal emulation program

Scenario

Instructor Note: This lab replaces “Lab 1-2: Basic Router Configuration (1.5.2)” and should be used if the student needs extensive review of prior skills.

In this lab activity, you will review previously learned skills, including cabling devices, establishing a console connection, and executing basic IOS command-line interface operation and configuration commands. You will also learn to save configuration files and capture your configurations to a text file. The skills presented in this lab are essential to completing the rest of the labs in this course.

However, you can substitute the shorter version, “Lab 1-2: Basic Router Configuration (1.5.2),” if your instructor determines that you are proficient in the essential skills reviewed in this lab.

Figure 1-12 shows the topology for this lab, and Table 1-6 shows the IP addressing, subnet, and default gateway information for the devices in the topology.

Figure 1-12

Topology Diagram for Lab 1-1

192.168.1.0/24

192.168.2.0/24

192.168.3.0/24

Fa0/0

Fa0/0

PC1

S0/0/0

PC2

S0/0/0

Switch1

R1

R2

DCE

Chapter 1: Introduction to Routing and Packet Fowarding 27

Table 1-6

Addressing Table for Lab 1-1

Device

Interface

IP Address

Subnet Mask

Default Gateway

R1

Fa0/0

192.168.1.1

255.255.255.0

S0/0/0

192.168.2.1

255.255.255.0

R2

Fa0/0

192.168.3.1

255.255.255.0

S0/0/0

192.168.2.2

255.255.255.0

PC1

NIC

192.168.1.10

255.255.255.0

192.168.1.1

PC2

NIC

192.168.3.10

255.255.255.0

192.168.3.1

Task 1: Cable the Ethernet Links of the Network

Cable the Ethernet links for a network that is similar to the one in the topology diagram. The output used in this lab is from Cisco 1841 routers. However, you can use any current router in your lab as long as it has the required interfaces as shown in the topology. A simple way to identify the available interfaces on a router is by entering the show ip interface brief command.

Which of the devices in the topology diagram require an Ethernet cable between them?

PC1 to S1, S1 to R1, and R2 to PC2

Step 1.

Connect the R1 router to the S1 switch.

Use a straight-through Ethernet cable to connect the FastEthernet 0/0 interface of the R1

router to the FastEthernet 0/1 interface on the S1 switch.

What color is the link status light next to the FastEthernet 0/0 interface on R1? green What color is the link status light next to the FastEthernet 0/1 interface on S1? green Step 2.

Connect PC1 to the S1 switch.

Use a straight-through Ethernet cable to connect the NIC of PC1 to the FastEthernet 0/2

interface of the S1 switch.

What color is the link status light next to the NIC interface on PC1? green What color is the link status light next to the FastEthernet 0/2 interface on S1? green If the link status lights are not green, wait a few moments for the link between the two devices to become established. If the lights do not turn green after a few moments, check that you are using a straight-through Ethernet cable and that the power is on for the S1

switch and PC1.

Step 3.

Connect PC2 to the R2 router.

Use a crossover Ethernet cable to connect the FastEthernet 0/0 interface of the R2 router to the NIC of PC2. Because there is no switch between PC2 and the R2 router, a crossover cable is required for a direct link between the PC and the router.

What color is the link status light next to the NIC interface on PC2? green What color is the link status light next to the FastEthernet 0/0 interface on R2? green 28

Routing Protocols and Concepts, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Task 2: Cable the Serial Link Between the R1 and R2 Routers In a real-world WAN connection, the customer premises equipment (CPE), which is often a router, is the data terminal equipment (DTE). This equipment is connected to the service provider through a data communications equipment (DCE) device, which is commonly a modem or channel service unit (CSU)/data service unit (DSU). This device is used to convert the data from the DTE into a form acceptable to the WAN service provider.

Unlike the cables in the academy lab setup, the serial cables in the real world are not connected back to back. In a real-world situation, one router might be in New York, while another router might be in Sydney, Australia. An administrator located in Sydney would have to connect to the router in New York through the WAN cloud to troubleshoot the New York router.

In the academy labs, devices that make up the WAN cloud are simulated by the connection between the back-to-back DTE-DCE cables. The connection from one router serial interface to another router serial interface simulates the entire WAN cloud.

Step 1.

Create a null serial cable to connect the R1 router to the R2 router.

In the academy labs, the WAN connection between routers uses one DCE cable and one DTE cable. The DCE-DTE connection between routers is referred to as a null serial cable.

The labs will use one V.35 DCE cable and one V.35 DTE cable to simulate the WAN connection. The V.35 DCE connector is usually a female V.35 (34-pin) connector. The DTE

cable has a male V.35 connector. The cables are also labeled as DCE or DTE on the router end of the cable.

The DTE and DCE V.35 cables must be joined. Holding one of the V.35 ends in each hand, examine the pins and sockets as well as the threaded connectors. Note that there is only one proper way for the cables to fit together. Align the pins on the male cable with the sockets on the female cable and gently couple them. Very little effort should be required to accomplish this. When they are joined, turn the thumbscrews clockwise and secure the connectors.

Step 2.

Connect the DCE end of the null serial cable to the Serial 0/0/0 interface of the R1 router, and the DTE end of the null serial cable to the Serial 0/0/0 interface of the R2 router.

Review the following information before making these connections.

Before making the connection to one of the routers, examine the connector on the router and the cable. Note that the connectors are tapered to help prevent improper connection.

Holding the connector in one hand, orient the cable and router connecters so that the tapers match. Now push the cable connector partially into the router connector. It probably will not go in all the way because the threaded connectors need to be tightened for the cable to be inserted completely. While holding the cable in one hand and gently pushing the cable toward the router, turn one of the thumbscrews clockwise, 3 or 4 rounds, to start the screws. Now turn the other thumbscrew clockwise, 3 or 4 rounds, to get it started. At this point, the cable should be attached sufficiently to free both hands to advance each thumbscrew at the same rate until the cable is fully inserted. Do not overtighten these connectors.

Chapter 1: Introduction to Routing and Packet Fowarding 29

Task 3: Establish a Console Connection to the R1 Router The console port is a management port used to provide out-of-band access to a router. It is used to set up the initial configuration of a router and to monitor it.

A rollover cable and an RJ-45–to–DB-9 adapter are used to connect a PC to the console port. As you know from your previous studies, terminal emulation software is used to configure the router over the console connection. The Cisco Networking Academy Program recommends using Tera Term.

However, you can also use HyperTerminal, which is part of the Windows operating system.

At the end of this lab, the following three appendices are available for your reference concerning these two terminal emulation programs:

Appendix 1A: Installing and Configuring Tera Term for Use in Windows XP

Appendix 1B: Configuring Tera Term as the Default Telnet Client in Windows XP

Appendix 1C: Accessing and Configuring HyperTerminal

Step 1.

Examine the router and locate the RJ-45 connector labeled Console.

Step 2.

Examine PC1 and locate a 9-pin male connector serial port.

It might—or might not—be labeled as COM1 or COM2.

Step 3.

Locate the console cable.

Some console cables have an RJ-45–to–DB-9 adapter built into one end. Others do not.

Locate either a console cable with a built-in adapter or a console cable with a separate RJ-45–to–DB-9 adapter attached to one end.

Step 4.

Connect the console cable to the router and PC.

First, connect the console cable to the router console port, an RJ-45 connector. Next, connect the DB-9 end of the console cable to the serial port of PC1.

Step 5.

Test router connection:

a.

Open your terminal emulation software (HyperTerminal, Tera Term, or other software specified by your instructor).

b.

Configure the software parameters specific to your applications (see the appendices for help).

c.

When the terminal window is open, press Enter. There should be a response from the router. If there is, the connection has been successfully completed. If there is no connection, troubleshoot as necessary. For example, verify that the router has power.

Check the connection to the serial port on the PC and the console port on the router.

Task 4: Erase and Reload the Routers

Step 1.

Using the HyperTerminal session established in Task 3, enter privileged EXEC mode on R1.

Router> enable

Router#

Step 2.

Erase the configuration.

30

Routing Protocols and Concepts, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide To clear the configuration, issue the erase startup-config command. Press Enter when prompted to [confirm] that you really do want to erase the configuration currently stored in NVRAM. The result should look something like this: Router# erase startup-config

Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all files! Continue? [confirm]

[OK]

Erase of nvram: complete

Router#

Step 3.

Reload the configuration.

When the prompt returns, issue the reload command. Answer no if asked to save changes.

After the router finishes the boot process, choose not to use the AutoInstall facility, as shown:

Would you like to enter the initial configuration dialog? [yes/no]: no Would you like to terminate autoinstall? [yes]:

Press Enter to accept default.

Press RETURN to get started!

Step 4.

Establish a HyperTerminal session to R2.

Repeat Steps 1 through 3 to remove any startup configuration files that might be present.

Task 5: Understand Command-Line Basics

Step 1.

Establish a HyperTerminal session to router R1.

Step 2.

Enter privileged EXEC mode.

Router> enable

Router#

Step 3.

Enter an incorrect command and observe the router response.

Router# comfigure terminal

^

% Invalid input detected at ‘^’ marker.

Router#

Command-line errors occur primarily from typing mistakes. If a command keyword is incorrectly typed, the user interface uses the caret symbol (^) to identify and isolate the error. The ^ appears at or near the point in the command string where an incorrect command, keyword, or argument was entered.

Step 4.

Correct the previous command.

If a command is entered incorrectly, and the Enter key is pressed, the Up Arrow key can be pressed to repeat the last command. Use the Right Arrow and Left Arrow keys to move the cursor to the location where the mistake was made. Then make the correction. If something needs to be deleted, use the Backspace key. Use the directional keys and the Backspace key to correct the command to configure terminal, and then press Enter: Chapter 1: Introduction to Routing and Packet Fowarding 31

Router# configure terminal

Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

Router(config)#

Step 5.

Return to privileged EXEC mode with the exit command.

Router(config)# exit

%SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console

Router#

Step 6.

Examine the commands that are available for privileged EXEC mode.

A question mark (?) can be entered at the prompt to display a list of available commands: Router# ?

Exec commands:

<1-99> Session number to resume

clear Reset functions

clock Manage the system clock

configure Enter configuration mode

connect Open a terminal connection

copy Copy from one file to another

debug Debugging functions (see also ‘undebug’)

delete Delete a file

dir List files on a filesystem

disable Turn off privileged commands

disconnect Disconnect an existing network connection enable Turn on privileged commands

erase Erase a filesystem

exit Exit from the EXEC

logout Exit from the EXEC

no Disable debugging informations

ping Send echo messages

reload Halt and perform a cold restart

resume Resume an active network connection

setup Run the SETUP command facility

show Show running system information

--More--

Notice the --More-- at the bottom of the command output. The --More-- prompt indicates that there are multiple screens of output. When a --More-- prompt appears, press the Spacebar to view the next available screen. To display only the next line, press Enter.

Press any other key to return to the prompt.

Step 7.

View the output.

View the rest of the command output by pressing the Spacebar. The remainder of the output will appear where the --More-- prompt appeared previously: telnet Open a telnet connection

traceroute Trace route to destination

32

Routing Protocols and Concepts, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide undebug Disable debugging functions (see also ‘debug’) vlan Configure VLAN parameters

write Write running configuration to memory, network, or terminal Step 8.

Exit privileged EXEC mode with the exit command.

Router# exit

The following output should be displayed:

Router con0 is now available

Press RETURN to get started.

Step 9.

Press Enter to enter user EXEC mode.

The Router> prompt should be visible.

Step 10.

Type an abbreviated IOS command.

IOS commands can be abbreviated, as long as enough characters are typed for the IOS to recognize the unique command.

Enter only the character e at the command prompt and observe the results: Router> e

% Ambiguous command: “e”

Router>

Enter en at the command prompt and observe the results: Router> en

Router#

The abbreviated command en contains enough characters for the IOS to distinguish the enable command from the exit command.

Step 11.

Press Tab after an abbreviated command to use autocomplete.

Typing an abbreviated command, such as conf, followed by the Tab key completes a partial command name. This functionality of the IOS is called autocomplete. Type the abbreviated command conf, press the Tab key, and observe the results: Router# conf

Router# configure

This autocomplete feature can be used as long as enough characters are typed for the IOS

to recognize the unique command.

Step 12.

Enter IOS commands in the correct mode.

IOS commands must be entered in the correct mode. For example, configuration changes cannot be made while in privileged EXEC mode. Attempt to enter the command hostname R1 at the privileged EXEC prompt and observe the results: Router# hostname R1

^

% Invalid input detected at ‘^’ marker.

Router#

Chapter 1: Introduction to Routing and Packet Fowarding 33

Task 6: Perform Basic Configuration of Router R1

Step 1.

Establish a HyperTerminal session to router R1.

Step 2.

Enter privileged EXEC mode.

Router> enable

Router#

Step 3.

Enter global configuration mode.

Router# configure terminal

Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

Router(config)#

Step 4.

Configure the router name as R1.

Enter the command hostname R1 at the prompt:

Router(config)# hostname R1

R1(config)#

Step 5.

Disable DNS lookup with the no ip domain-lookup command.

R1(config)# no ip domain-lookup

R1(config)#

Why would you want to disable DNS lookup in a lab environment?

So that the router does not attempt to look up a DNS entry for a name that is really only a typing error.

What would happen if you disabled DNS lookup in a production environment?

A router would not be able to resolve names, causing potential problems when the router needs an IP address to address a packet.

Step 6.

Configure an EXEC mode password.

Configure an EXEC mode password using the enable secret password command. Use class for the password argument:

R1(config)# enable secret class

R1(config)#

The enable secret command is used to provide an additional layer of security over the enable password command. The enable secret command provides better security by storing the enable secret password using a nonreversible cryptographic function. The added layer of security encryption is useful in environments where the password crosses the network or is stored on a TFTP server. When both the enable password and enable secret passwords are configured, the enable password is overridden by enable secret and therefore has no meaning in the configuration. To avoid confusion, simply avoid using enable password when enable secret is used.

34

Routing Protocols and Concepts, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Step 7.

Remove the enable password.

Because the enable secret is configured, the enable password is no longer necessary. IOS

commands can be removed from the configuration using the no form of the command: R1(config)# no enable password

R1(config)#

Step 8.

Configure a message-of-the-day banner using the banner motd command.

R1(config)# banner motd &

Enter TEXT message. End with the character ‘&’.

********************************

!!!AUTHORIZED ACCESS ONLY!!!

********************************

&

R1(config)#

When does this banner display?

When a user logs in to the router either through Telnet or the console connection.

Why should every router have a message-of-the-day banner?

To provide a warning against intentional or unintentional unauthorized access.

Step 9.

Configure the console password on the router.

Use cisco as the password. When you are finished, exit from line configuration mode: R1(config)# line console 0

R1(config-line)# password cisco

R1(config-line)# login

R1(config-line)# exit

R1(config)#

Step 10.

Configure the password for the virtual terminal lines.

Use cisco as the password. When you are finished, exit from line configuration mode: R1(config)# line vty 0 4

R1(config-line)# password cisco

R1(config-line)# login

R1(config-line)# exit

R1(config)#

Step 11.

Configure the FastEthernet 0/0 interface with the IP address 192.168.1.1/24.

R1(config)# interface fastethernet 0/0

R1(config-if)# ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0

R1(config-if)# no shutdown

%LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface FastEthernet0/0, changed state to up

%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/0, changed state to up

R1(config-if)#

Chapter 1: Introduction to Routing and Packet Fowarding 35

Step 12.

Use the description command to provide a description for this interface.

R1(config-if)# description R1 LAN

R1(config-if)#

Step 13.

Configure the Serial 0/0/0 interface with the IP address 192.168.2.1/24.

Set the clock rate to 64,000.

Note: Because the routers in the labs will not be connected to a live leased line, one of the routers will need to provide the clocking for the circuit. This is normally provided to each of the routers by the service provider. To provide this clocking signal in the lab, one of the routers will need to act as the DCE on the connection. This function is achieved by applying the clock rate 64,000 command on the Serial 0/0/0 interface, where the DCE

end of the null modem cable has been connected. The purpose of the clock rate command is discussed further in Chapter 2, “Static Routing.”

R1(config-if)# interface serial 0/0/0

R1(config-if)# ip address 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0

R1(config-if)# clock rate 64000

R1(config-if)# no shutdown

R1(config-if)#

Note: The interface will not be activated until the serial interface on R2 is configured and activated.

Step 14.

Use the description command to provide a description for this interface.

R1(config-if)# description Link to R2

R1(config-if)#

Step 15.

Use the end command to return to privileged EXEC mode.

R1(config-if)# end

R1#

Step 16.

Save the R1 configuration.

Save the R1 configuration using the copy running-config startup-config command: R1# copy running-config startup-config

Building configuration...

[OK]

R1#

Task 7: Perform Basic Configuration of Router R2

Step 1.

For R2, repeat Steps 1 through 10 from Task 6.

Step 2.

Configure the Serial 0/0/0 interface with the IP address 192.168.2.2/24.

R2(config)# interface serial 0/0/0

R2(config-if)# ip address 192.168.2.2 255.255.255.0

R2(config-if)# no shutdown

%LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface Serial0/0/0, changed state to up

%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Serial0/0/0, changed state to up

R2(config-if)#

36

Routing Protocols and Concepts, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Step 3.

Use the description command to provide a description for this interface.

R1(config-if)# description Link to R1

R1(config-if)#

Step 4.

Configure the FastEthernet 0/0 interface with the IP address 192.168.3.1/24.

R2(config-if)# interface fastethernet 0/0

R2(config-if)# ip address 192.168.3.1 255.255.255.0

R2(config-if)# no shutdown

%LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface FastEthernet0/0, changed state to up

%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/0, changed state to up

R2(config-if)#

Step 5.

Use the description command to provide a description for this interface.

R1(config-if)# description R2 LAN

R1(config-if)#

Step 6.

Use the end command to return to privileged EXEC mode.

R2(config-if)# end

R2#

Step 7.

Save the R2 configuration.

Save the R2 configuration using the copy running-config startup-config command: R2# copy running-config startup-config

Building configuration...

[OK]

R2#

Task 8: Configure IP Addressing on the Host PCs

Step 1.

Configure the host PC1.

Configure the host PC1 that is attached to R1 with an IP address of 192.168.1.10/24 and a default gateway of 192.168.1.1.

Step 2.

Configure the host PC2.

Configure the host PC2 that is attached to R2 with an IP address of 192.168.3.10/24 and a default gateway of 192.168.3.1.

Chapter 1: Introduction to Routing and Packet Fowarding 37

Task 9: Examine Router show Commands

There are many show commands that you can use to examine the operation of the router. In both privileged EXEC and user EXEC modes, the command show ? provides a list of available show commands. The list is considerably longer in privileged EXEC mode than it is in user EXEC mode.

Step 1.

Examine the show running-config command.

The show running-config command is used to display the contents of the currently running configuration file. From privileged EXEC mode on the R1 router, examine the output of the show running-config command. If the --More-- prompt appears, press the Spacebar to view the remainder of the command output: R1# show running-config

!

version 12.3

!

hostname R1

!

!

enable secret 5 $1$AFDd$0HCi0iYHkEWR4cegQdTQu/

!

no ip domain-lookup

!

interface FastEthernet0/0

description R1 LAN

mac-address 0007.eca7.1511

ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0

duplex auto

speed auto

!

interface FastEthernet0/1

mac-address 0001.42dd.a220

no ip address

duplex auto

speed auto

shutdown

!

interface Serial0/0/0

description Link to R2

ip address 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0

clock rate 64000

!

interface Serial0/0/1

no ip address

38

Routing Protocols and Concepts, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide shutdown

!

interface Vlan1

no ip address

shutdown

!

ip classless

!

!

!

!

line con 0

password cisco

login

line vty 0 4

password cisco

login

!

end

Step 2.

Examine the show startup-config command.

The show startup-config command displays the startup configuration file contained in NVRAM. From privileged EXEC mode on the R1 router, examine the output of the show startup-config command. If the --More-- prompt appears, press the Spacebar to view the remainder of the command output:

R1# show startup-config

Using 583 bytes

!

version 12.3

!

hostname R1

!

!

no ip domain-lookup

!

interface FastEthernet0/0

description R1 LAN

mac-address 0007.eca7.1511

ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0

duplex auto

speed auto

!

interface FastEthernet0/1

mac-address 0001.42dd.a220

no ip address

duplex auto

speed auto

shutdown

Chapter 1: Introduction to Routing and Packet Fowarding 39

!

interface Serial0/0/0

description Link to R2

ip address 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0

clock rate 64000

!

interface Serial0/0/1

no ip address

shutdown

!

interface Vlan1

no ip address

shutdown

!

ip classless

!

!

!

!

line con 0

password cisco

login

line vty 0 4

password cisco

login

!

end

Step 3.

Examine the show interfaces command.

The show interfaces command displays statistics for all interfaces configured on the router. A specific interface can be added to the end of this command to display the statistics for only that interface. From privileged EXEC mode on the R1 router, examine the output of the show interfaces fastEthernet0/0 command. If the --More-- prompt appears, press the Spacebar to view the remainder of the command output: R1# show interfaces fastEthernet 0/0

FastEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up (connected) Hardware is Lance, address is 0007.eca7.1511 (bia 0002.1625.lbea) Description: R1 LAN

Internet address is 192.168.1.1/24

MTU 1500 bytes, BW 100000 Kbit, DLY 100 usec, rely 255/255, load 1/255

Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set

ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00,

Last input 00:00:08, output 00:00:05, output hang never Last clearing of “show interface” counters never

Queueing strategy: fifo

Output queue :0/40 (size/max)

5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec

5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec

40

Routing Protocols and Concepts, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide 0 packets input, 0 bytes, 0 no buffer

Received 0 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles 0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort 0 input packets with dribble condition detected

0 packets output, 0 bytes, 0 underruns

0 output errors, 0 collisions, 1 interface resets

0 babbles, 0 late collision, 0 deferred

0 lost carrier, 0 no carrier

0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out R1#

Step 4.

Examine the show version command.

The show version command displays information about the currently loaded software version along with hardware and device information. From privileged EXEC mode on the R1

router, examine the output of the show version command. If the --More-- prompt appears, press the Spacebar to view the remainder of the command output: R1# show version

Cisco IOS Software, 1841 Software (C1841-IPBASE-M), Version 12.3(14)T7, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc2)

Technical Support: http://www.cisco.com/techsupport

Copyright (c) 1986-2006 by Cisco Systems, Inc.

Compiled Mon 15-May-06 14:54 by pt_team

ROM: System Bootstrap, Version 12.3(8r)T8, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1) System returned to ROM by power-on

System image file is “flash:c1841-ipbase-mz.123-14.T7.bin” This product contains cryptographic features and is subject to United States and local country laws governing import, export, transfer and use. Delivery of Cisco cryptographic products does not imply third-party authority to import, export, distribute or use encryption.

Importers, exporters, distributors and users are responsible for compliance with U.S. and local country laws. By using this product you agree to comply with applicable laws and regulations. If you are unable to comply with U.S. and local laws, return this product immediately.

A summary of U.S. laws governing Cisco cryptographic products may be found at:

http://www.cisco.com/wwl/export/crypto/tool/stqrg.html If you require further assistance please contact us by sending email to export@cisco.com.

Cisco 1841 (revision 5.0) with 114688K/16384K bytes of memory.

Processor board ID FTX0947Z18E

Chapter 1: Introduction to Routing and Packet Fowarding 41

M860 processor: part number 0, mask 49

2 FastEthernet/IEEE 802.3 interface(s)

2 Low-speed serial(sync/async) network interface(s)

191K bytes of NVRAM.

31360K bytes of ATA CompactFlash (Read/Write)

Configuration register is 0x2102

R1#

Step 5.

Examine the show ip interface brief command.

The show ip interface brief command displays a summary of the usability status information for each interface. From privileged EXEC mode on the R1 router, examine the output of the show ip interface brief command.

R1# show ip interface brief

Interface

IP-Address

OK?

Method Status

Protocol

FastEthernet0/0

192.168.1.1

YES

manual up

up

FastEthernet0/1

unassigned

YES

manual administratively down

down

Serial0/0/0

192.168.2.1

YES

manual up

up

Serial0/0/1

unassigned

YES

manual administratively down

down

Vlan1

unassigned

YES

manual administratively down

down

Task 10: Use the ping Command

The ping command is a useful tool for troubleshooting Layers 1 though 3 of the OSI model and diagnosing basic network connectivity. This operation can be performed at either the user or privileged EXEC modes. Using ping sends an ICMP packet to the specified device and then waits for a reply.

Pings can be sent from a router or a host PC.

Step 1.

Use the ping command to test connectivity between the R1 router and PC1.

R1# ping 192.168.1.10

Type escape sequence to abort.

Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.1.10, timeout is 2 seconds:

.!!!!

Success rate is 80 percent (4/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 72/79/91 ms Each exclamation point (!) indicates a successful echo. Each period (.) on the display indicates that the application on the router timed out while it waited for a packet echo from a target. The first ping packet failed because the router did not have an ARP table entry for the destination address of the IP packet. Because there is no ARP table entry, the packet is dropped. The router then sends an ARP request, receives a response, and adds the MAC

address to the ARP table. When the next ping packet arrives, it will be forwarded and be successful.

42

Routing Protocols and Concepts, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Step 2.

Repeat the ping command from R1 to PC1.

R1# ping 192.168.1.10

Type escape sequence to abort.

Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.1.10, timeout is 2 seconds:

!!!!!

Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 72/83/93 ms R1#

All the pings are successful this time because the router has an entry for the destination IP

address in the ARP table.

Step 3.

Send an extended ping from R1 to PC1.

To accomplish this, type ping at the privileged EXEC prompt and press Enter. Fill out the rest of the prompts as shown:

R1# ping

Protocol [ip]:

Target IP address: 192.168.1.10

Repeat count [5]: 10

Datagram size [100]:

Timeout in seconds [2]:

Extended commands [n]:

Sweep range of sizes [n]:

Type escape sequence to abort.

Sending 10, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.1.10, timeout is 2 seconds:

!!!!!!!!!!

Success rate is 100 percent (10/10), round-trip min/avg/max = 53/77/94 ms R1#

Step 4.

Send a ping from PC1 to R1.

In Windows, choose Start > Programs > Accessories > Command Prompt. In the Command Prompt window that opens, ping R1 by issuing the following command: C:\> ping 192.168.1.1

The ping should respond with successful results.

Step 5.

Send an extended ping from PC1 to R1.

To accomplish this, enter the following command at the Windows command prompt: C:\> ping 192.168.1.1 –n 10

There should be ten successful responses from the command.

Task 11: Use the traceroute Command

The traceroute command is an excellent utility for troubleshooting the path that a packet takes through an internetwork of routers. It can help to isolate problem links and routers along the way. The traceroute command uses ICMP packets and the error message generated by routers when the packet Chapter 1: Introduction to Routing and Packet Fowarding 43

exceeds its Time to Live (TTL). This operation can be performed at either the user or privileged EXEC modes. The Windows version of this command is tracert.

Step 1.

Use the traceroute command at the R1 privileged EXEC prompt to discover the path that a packet will take from the R1 router to PC1.

R1# traceroute 192.168.1.10

Type escape sequence to abort.

Tracing the route to 192.168.1.10

1 192.168.1.10 103 msec 81 msec 70 msec

R1#

Step 2.

Use the tracert command at the Windows command prompt to discover the path that a packet will take from the R1 router to PC1.

C:\> tracert 192.168.1.1

Tracing route to 192.168.1.1 over a maximum of 30 hops: 1 71 ms 70 ms 73 ms 192.168.1.1

Trace complete.

C:\>

Task 12: Create a start.txt File

Router configurations can be captured to a text (.txt) file and saved for later use. The configuration can be copied back to the router so that the commands do not have to be entered one at a time.

Step 1.

View the running configuration of the router using the show running-config command.

R1# show running-config

!

version 12.3

!

hostname R1

!

!

enable secret 5 $1$J.hq$Ds72Qz86tvpcuW2X3FqBS.

!

no ip domain-lookup

!

interface FastEthernet0/0

description R1 LAN

mac-address 0007.eca7.1511

ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0

duplex auto

speed auto

!

interface FastEthernet0/1

44

Routing Protocols and Concepts, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide mac-address 0001.42dd.a220

no ip address

duplex auto

speed auto

shutdown

!

interface Serial0/0/0

description Link to R2

ip address 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0

clock rate 64000

!

interface Serial0/0/1

no ip address

shutdown

!

interface Vlan1

no ip address

shutdown

!

ip classless

!

!

!

!

line con 0

password cisco

login

line vty 0 4

password cisco

login

!

end

R1#

Step 2.

Copy the command output.

Select the command output. From the HyperTerminal Edit menu, choose the Copy command.

Step 3.

Paste the output in Notepad.

Open Notepad. Notepad is typically found on the Start menu under Programs > Accessories. From the Notepad Edit menu, choose Paste.

Step 4.

Edit commands.

Some commands will have to be edited or added before the startup script can be applied to a router. Some of these changes are as follows:

Adding a no shutdown command to Fast Ethernet and serial interfaces that are being used

Replacing the encrypted text in the enable secret command with the appropriate password Chapter 1: Introduction to Routing and Packet Fowarding 45

Removing the mac-address command from the interfaces

Removing the ip classless command

Removing unused interfaces

Edit the text in the Notepad file as follows:

hostname R1

!

!

enable secret class

!

no ip domain-lookup

!

interface FastEthernet0/0

description R1 LAN

ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0

no shutdown

duplex auto

speed auto

!

interface Serial0/0/0

description Link to R2

ip address 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0

clock rate 64000

no shutdown

!

!

!

!

line con 0

password cisco

login

line vty 0 4

password cisco

login

!

end

Step 5.

Save the open file in Notepad to start.txt.

Task 13: Load the start.txt File onto the R1 Router Step 1.

Erase the current startup configuration of R1.

To clear the configuration, issue the erase startup-config command. Press Enter when prompted to [confirm] that you really do want to erase the configuration currently stored in NVRAM. The result should look something like this: 46

Routing Protocols and Concepts, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide R1# erase startup-config

Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all files! Continue? [confirm]

[OK]

Erase of nvram: complete

Router#

Step 2.

When the prompt returns, issue the reload command.

Answer no if asked to save changes. After the router finishes the boot process, choose not to use the AutoInstall facility, as shown:

Would you like to enter the initial configuration dialog? [yes/no]: no Would you like to terminate autoinstall? [yes]:

Press Enter to accept default.

Press RETURN to get started!

Step 3.

Enter global configuration mode.

Router# configure terminal

Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

Router(config)#

Step 4.

Copy the commands.

In the start.txt file that was created in Notepad, select all the lines, and then choose Edit > Copy.

Step 5.

From the HyperTerminal Edit menu, choose Paste to Host.

Step 6.

Verify the running configuration.

After all the pasted commands have been applied, use the show running-config command to verify that the running configuration appears as expected.

Step 7.

Save the running configuration.

Save the running configuration to NVRAM using the copy running-config startup-config command:

R1# copy running-config startup-config

Building configuration...

[OK]

R1#

Packet Tracer Companion

Packet Tracer

Companion

You can now open the file LSG02-Lab151.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Remember, however, that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. Use the Lab PDF for more details.

Chapter 1: Introduction to Routing and Packet Fowarding 47

Appendix 1A: Installing and Configuring Tera Term for Use in Windows XP

Tera Term is a free terminal emulation program for Windows. It can be used in the lab environment in place of Windows HyperTerminal. Tera Term can be obtained at the following URL: http://hp.vector.co.jp/authors/VA002416/teraterm.html Download the ttermp23.zip file, unzip it, and install Tera Term.

Step 1.

Open the Tera Terminal program.

Step 2.

Assign the serial port.

To use Tera Term to connect to the router console, open the New Connection dialog box and select the Serial port.

Step 3.

Set serial port parameters.

Set appropriate parameters for Port in the Serial section of the Tera Term: New Connection dialog box, as shown in Figure 1-13. Normally, your connection is through COM1. If you are unsure what port to use, ask your instructor for assistance.

Figure 1-13

Tera Term: New Connection Dialog Box

Step 4.

Configure settings.

Tera Term has some settings that can be changed to make it more convenient to use. From the Setup > Terminal menu, select the Term size = win size check box, as shown in Figure 1-14. This setting allows command output to remain visible when the Tera Term window is resized.

Figure 1-14

Tera Term: Terminal Setup Dialog Box

48

Routing Protocols and Concepts, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Step 5.

Change scroll buffer number.

From the Setup > Window menu, as shown in Figure 1-15, change the scroll buffer number to a number higher than 100. This setting allows you to scroll up and view previous commands and outputs. If there are only 100 lines available in the buffer, only the last 100

lines of output are visible. For example, set the scroll buffer to 1000 lines.

Figure 1-15

Tera Term: Window Setup Dialog Box

Appendix 1B: Configuring Tera Term as the Default Telnet Client in Windows XP

By default, Windows can be set to use HyperTerminal as the Telnet client. Windows can also be set to use the DOS version of Telnet. In the NetLab environment, you can change the Telnet client to Local Telnet Client, which means that NetLab will open the current Windows default Telnet client. This can be set to HyperTerminal or to the DOS-like version of Telnet embedded in the Windows operating system.

Complete the following steps to change your default Telnet client to Tera Term (or any other Telnet client):

Step 1.

Go to Folder Options.

Double-click My Computer, and then choose Tools > Folder Options.

Step 2.

Go to (NONE) URL:Telnet Protocol.

Click the File Types tab and scroll down in the list of Registered file types: until you find the (NONE) URL:Telnet Protocol entry, as shown in Figure 1-16. Select it and then click the Advanced button.

Chapter 1: Introduction to Routing and Packet Fowarding 49

Figure 1-16

Folder Options Dialog Box

Step 3.

Edit the open action.

In the Edit File Type dialog box, click Edit to edit the open action, as shown in Figure 1-17.

Figure 1-17

Edit File Type Dialog Box

Step 4.

Change the application.

In the Editing action for type: URL: Telnet Protocol dialog box, the Application used to perform action is currently set to HyperTerminal, as shown in Figure 1-18. Click Browse to change the application.

50

Routing Protocols and Concepts, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Figure 1-18

Editing Action for Type Dialog Box

Step 5.

Open ttermpro.exe.

Browse to the Tera Term installation folder shown in Figure 1-19. Click the ttermpro.exe file to specify this program for the open action, and then click Open.

Figure 1-19

Open With Dialog Box

Step 6.

Confirm ttermpro.exe and close.

From the window shown in Figure 1-20, click OK twice and then Close to close the Folder Options dialog box. The Windows default Telnet client is now set to Tera Term.

Chapter 1: Introduction to Routing and Packet Fowarding 51

Figure 1-20

Editing Action for Type Dialog Box

Appendix 1C: Accessing and Configuring HyperTerminal In most versions of Windows, HyperTerminal can be found by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal.

Step 1.

Create a new connection.

Open HyperTerminal to create a new connection to the router. Enter an appropriate description in the Connection Description dialog box shown in Figure 1-21 and then click OK.

Figure 1-21

Connection Description Dialog Box

Step 2.

Assign COM1 port.

In the Connect To dialog box, shown in Figure 1-22, make sure that the correct serial port is selected in the Connect using field. Some PCs have more than one COM port.

Click OK.

52

Routing Protocols and Concepts, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Figure 1-22

Connect To Dialog Box

Step 3.

Set COM1 properties.

In the COM1 Properties dialog box under Port Setting, clicking Restore Defaults normally sets the correct properties. If not, set the properties to the values shown in Figure 1-23, and then click OK.

Figure 1-23

COM1 Properties Dialog Box

Step 4.

Verify connection.

You should now have a console connection to the router. Press Enter to get a router prompt.

Lab 1-2: Basic Router Configuration (1.5.2)

Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to

Cable a network according to the topology diagram

Erase the startup configuration and reload a router to the default state

Perform basic configuration tasks on a router

Configure and activate Ethernet interfaces

Chapter 1: Introduction to Routing and Packet Fowarding 53

Test and verify configurations

Reflect upon and document the network implementation

Scenario

Instructor note: Skip this lab if the student is required to complete “Lab 1-1: Cabling a Network and Basic Router Configuration (1.5.1).”

In this lab activity, you will create a network that is similar to the one shown in the topology diagram in Figure 1-24. Begin by cabling the network as shown in Figure 1-24. You will then perform the initial router configurations required for connectivity. Use the IP addresses that are provided in the topology diagram to apply an addressing scheme to the network devices. When the network configuration is complete, examine the routing tables to verify that the network is operating properly. This lab is a shorter version of “Lab 1-1: Cabling a Network and Basic Router Configuration (1.5.1)” and assumes that you are proficient in basic cabling and configuration file management.

Table 1-7 shows the IP addressing, subnet, and default gateway information for the devices in the topology.

Figure 1-24

Topology Diagram for Lab 1-2

192.168.1.0/24

192.168.2.0/24

192.168.3.0/24

Fa0/0

Fa0/0

PC1

S0/0/0

PC2

S0/0/0

Switch1

R1

R2

DCE

Table 1-7

Addressing Table for Lab 1-2

Device

Interface

IP Address

Subnet Mask

Def. Gateway

R1

Fa0/0

192.168.1.1

255.255.255.0

S0/0/0

192.168.2.1

255.255.255.0

R2

Fa0/0

192.168.3.1

255.255.255.0

S0/0/0

192.168.2.2

255.255.255.0

PC1

N/A

192.168.1.10

255.255.255.0

192.168.1.1

PC2

N/A

192.168.3.10

255.255.255.0

192.168.3.1

Task 1: Cable the Network

Cable a network that is similar to the one in Figure 1-24. The output used in this lab is from Cisco 1841 routers. You can use any current router in your lab as long as it has the required interfaces as shown in the topology. Be sure to use the appropriate type of Ethernet cable to connect from host to switch, switch to router, and host to router. Refer to “Lab 1-1: Cabling a Network and Basic Router Configuration (1.5.1),” if you have any trouble connecting the devices. Be sure to connect the serial DCE cable to router R1 and the serial DTE cable to router R2.

Answer the following questions:

What type of cable is used to connect the Ethernet interface on a host PC to the Ethernet interface on a switch? Straight-through (patch) cable

54

Routing Protocols and Concepts, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide What type of cable is used to connect the Ethernet interface on a switch to the Ethernet interface on a router? Straight-through (patch) cable

What type of cable is used to connect the Ethernet interface on a router to the Ethernet interface on a host PC? Crossover cable

Task 2: Erase and Reload the Routers

Step 1.

Establish a terminal session to router R1.

Refer to Lab 1-1 for a review of terminal emulation and connecting to a router.

Step 2.

Enter privileged EXEC mode:

Router> enable

Router#

Step 3.

Clear the configuration.

To clear the configuration, issue the erase startup-config command. Press Enter when prompted to [confirm] that you really do want to erase the configuration currently stored in NVRAM:

Router# erase startup-config

Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all files! Continue? [confirm]

[OK]

Erase of nvram: complete

Router#

Step 4.

Reload the configuration.

When the prompt returns, issue the reload command. Answer no if asked to save changes.

What would happen if you answered yes to the question, “System configuration has been modified. Save?”

The current running configuration would be saved to NVRAM, negating the entire purpose of erasing the startup configuration. The router would boot up with a configuration.

The result should look something like this:

Router# reload

System configuration has been modified. Save? [yes/no]: no Proceed with reload? [confirm]

Press Enter when prompted to [confirm] that you really do want to reload the router.

After the router finishes the boot process, choose not to use the AutoInstall facility, as shown:

Would you like to enter the initial configuration dialog? [yes/no]: no Would you like to terminate autoinstall? [yes]: [Press Return]

Press Enter to accept default.

Press RETURN to get started!

Chapter 1: Introduction to Routing and Packet Fowarding 55

Step 5.

Repeat Steps 1 through 4 on router R2 to remove any startup configuration file that might be present.

Task 3: Perform Basic Configuration of Router R1

Step 1.

Establish a HyperTerminal session to router R1.

Step 2.

Enter privileged EXEC mode.

Router> enable

Router#

Step 3.

Enter global configuration mode.

Router# configure terminal

Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

Router(config)#

Step 4.

Configure the router name as R1.

Enter the command hostname R1 at the prompt:

Router(config)# hostname R1

R1(config)#

Step 5.

Disable DNS lookup.

Disable DNS lookup with the no ip domain-lookup command: R1(config)# no ip domain-lookup

R1(config)#

Why would you want to disable DNS lookup in a lab environment?

So that the router does not attempt to look up a DNS entry for a name that is really only a typing error.

What would happen if you disabled DNS lookup in a production environment?

A router would not be able to resolve names, causing potential problems when the router needs an IP address to address a packet.

Step 6.

Configure the EXEC mode password.

Configure the EXEC mode password using the enable secret password command. Use class for the password:

R1(config)# enable secret class

R1(config)#

Why is it not necessary to use the enable password password command?

Although both passwords are listed in the configuration, the enable secret command overrides the enable password command.

56

Routing Protocols and Concepts, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Step 7.

Configure a message-of-the-day banner.

Configure a message-of-the-day banner using the banner motd command: R1(config)# banner motd &

Enter TEXT message. End with the character ‘&’.

********************************

!!!AUTHORIZED ACCESS ONLY!!!

********************************

&

R1(config)#

When does this banner display?

When a user logs in to the router either through Telnet or the console connection.

Why should every router have a message-of-the-day banner?

To provide a warning against intentional or unintentional unauthorized access.

Step 8.

Configure the console password on the router.

Use cisco as the password. When you are finished, exit from line configuration mode: R1(config)# line console 0

R1(config-line)# password cisco

R1(config-line)# login

R1(config-line)# exit

R1(config)#

Step 9.

Configure the password for the virtual terminal lines.

Use cisco as the password. When you are finished, exit from line configuration mode.

R1(config)# line vty 0 4

R1(config-line)# password cisco

R1(config-line)# login

R1(config-line)# exit

R1(config)#

Step 10.

Configure the FastEthernet 0/0 interface.

Configure the FastEthernet 0/0 interface with the IP address 192.168.1.1/24: R1(config)# interface fastethernet 0/0

R1(config-if)# ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0

R1(config-if)# no shutdown

%LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface FastEthernet0/0, changed state to up

%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/0, changed state to up

R1(config-if)#

Step 11.

Configure the Serial 0/0/0 interface.

Configure the Serial 0/0/0 interface with the IP address 192.168.2.1/24. Set the clock rate to 64,000:

Chapter 1: Introduction to Routing and Packet Fowarding 57

Note: The purpose of the clock rate command is explained in Chapter 2.

R1(config-if)# interface serial 0/0/0

R1(config-if)# ip address 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0

R1(config-if)# clock rate 64000

R1(config-if)# no shutdown

R1(config-if)#

Note: The interface will be not activated until the serial interface on R2 is configured and activated.

Step 12.

Return to privileged EXEC mode.

Use the end command to return to privileged EXEC mode: R1(config-if)# end

R1#

Step 13.

Save the R1 configuration.

Save the R1 configuration using the copy running-config startup-config command: R1# copy running-config startup-config

Building configuration...

[OK]

R1#

What is a shorter version of this command? copy run start Task 4: Perform Basic Configuration of Router R2

Step 1.

For R2, repeat Steps 1 through 9 from Task 3.

Step 2.

Configure the Serial 0/0/0 interface.

Configure the Serial 0/0/0 interface with the IP address 192.168.2.2/24: R2(config)# interface serial 0/0/0

R2(config-if)# ip address 192.168.2.2 255.255.255.0

R2(config-if)# no shutdown

%LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface Serial0/0/0, changed state to up

%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Serial0/0/0, changed state to up

R2(config-if)#

Step 3.

Configure the FastEthernet 0/0 interface.

Configure the FastEthernet 0/0 interface with the IP address 192.168.3.1/24: R2(config-if)# interface fastethernet 0/0

R2(config-if)# ip address 192.168.3.1 255.255.255.0

R2(config-if)# no shutdown

58

Routing Protocols and Concepts, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

%LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface FastEthernet0/0, changed state to up

%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/0, changed state to up

R2(config-if)#

Step 4.

Return to privileged EXEC mode.

Use the end command to return to privileged EXEC mode: R2(config-if)# end

R2#

Step 5.

Save the R2 configuration.

Save the R2 configuration using the copy running-config startup-config command: R2# copy running-config startup-config

Building configuration...

[OK]

R2#

Task 5: Configure IP Addressing on the Host PCs

Step 1.

Configure the host PC1.

Configure the host PC1 that is attached to R1 with an IP address of 192.168.1.10/24 and a default gateway of 192.168.1.1.

Step 2.

Configure the host PC2.

Configure the host PC2 that is attached to R2 with an IP address of 192.168.3.10/24 and a default gateway of 192.168.3.1.

Task 6: Verify and Test the Configurations

Step 1.

Verify that routing tables have the following routes using the show ip route command.

The show ip route command and output will be thoroughly explored in upcoming chapters. For now, you are interested in seeing that both R1 and R2 have two routes. Both routes are designated with a C. These are the directly connected networks that were activated when you configured the interfaces on each router. If you do not see two routes for each router as shown in the following output, proceed to Step 2: R1# show ip route

Codes: C - connected, S - static, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP

D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2

E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2

i - IS-IS, su - IS-IS summary, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS

level-2

ia - IS-IS inter area, * - candidate default, U - per-user static route

o - ODR, P - periodic downloaded static route

Gateway of last resort is not set

Chapter 1: Introduction to Routing and Packet Fowarding 59

C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0

C 192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, Serial0/0/0

R1#

R2# show ip route

Codes: C - connected, S - static, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP

D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2

E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2

i - IS-IS, su - IS-IS summary, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS

level-2

ia - IS-IS inter area, * - candidate default, U - per-user static route

o - ODR, P - periodic downloaded static route

Gateway of last resort is not set

C 192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, Serial0/0/0

C 192.168.3.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0

R2#

Step 2.

Verify interface configurations.

Another common problem is router interfaces that are not configured correctly or not activated. Use the show ip interface brief command to quickly verify the configuration of each router’s interfaces. Your output should look similar to the following: R1# show ip interface brief

Interface

IP-Address

OK? Method Status

Protocol

FastEthernet0/0

192.168.1.1

YES manual up

up

FastEthernet0/1

unassigned

YES unset administratively down

down

Serial0/0/0

192.168.2.1

YES manual up

up

Serial0/0/1

unassigned

YES unset administratively down

down

Vlan1

unassigned

YES manual administratively down

down

R2# show ip interface brief

Interface

IP-Address

OK? Method Status

Protocol

FastEthernet0/0

192.168.3.1

YES manual up

up

FastEthernet0/1

unassigned

YES unset administratively down

down

Serial0/0/0

192.168.2.2

YES manual up

up

Serial0/0/1

unassigned

YES unset down

down

Vlan1

unassigned

YES manual administratively down

down

If both interfaces are up and up, both routes will be in the routing table. Verify this again by using the show ip route command.

Step 3.

Test connectivity.

Test connectivity by pinging from each host to the default gateway that has been configured for that host.

From the host attached to R1, is it possible to ping the default gateway? Yes From the host attached to R2, is it possible to ping the default gateway? Yes If the answer is no for either of the preceding questions, troubleshoot the configurations to find the error using the following systematic process: 60

Routing Protocols and Concepts, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide 1.

Check the PCs.

Are they physically connected to the correct router? (Connection could be through a switch or directly.) Yes

Are link lights blinking on all relevant ports? Yes

2.

Check the PC configurations.

Do they match the topology diagram? Yes

3.

Check the router interfaces using the show ip interface brief command.

Are the interfaces up and up? Yes

If your answer to all three steps is yes, you should be able to successfully ping the default gateway.

Step 4.

Test connectivity between router R1 and R2.

From router R1, is it possible to ping R2 using the ping 192.168.2.2 command? Yes From router R2, is it possible to ping R1 using the ping 192.168.2.1 command? Yes If the answer is no for either of the preceding questions, troubleshoot the configurations to find the error using the following systematic process: 1.

Check the cabling.

Are the routers physically connected? Yes

Are link lights blinking on all relevant ports? Yes

2.

Check the router configurations.

Do they match the topology diagram? Yes

Did you configure the clock rate command on the DCE side of the link? Yes 3.

Check the router interfaces using the show ip interface brief command.

Are the interfaces up and up? Yes

If your answer to all three steps is yes, you should be able to successfully ping from R2 to R1 and from R2 to R3.

Task 7: Reflection

Step 1.

Attempt to ping from the host connected to R1 to the host connected to R2.

This ping should be unsuccessful.

Step 2.

Attempt to ping from the host connected to R1 to router R2.

This ping should be unsuccessful.

Step 3.

Attempt to ping from the host connected to R2 to router R1.

This ping should be unsuccessful.

What is missing from the network that is preventing communication between these devices?

After reading the chapter text, the student should be able to state that this network is missing either static or dynamic routing (or both!).

Chapter 1: Introduction to Routing and Packet Fowarding 61

Task 8: Documentation

On each router, capture the command output from the following commands to a text (.txt) file and save for future reference.

show running-config

show ip route

show ip interface brief

If you need to review the procedures for capturing command output, refer to “Lab 1-1: Cabling a Network and Basic Router Configuration (1.5.1).”

Task 9: Clean Up

Erase the configurations and reload the routers. Disconnect and store the cabling. For PC hosts that are normally connected to other networks (such as the school LAN or to the Internet), reconnect the appropriate cabling and restore the TCP/IP settings.

Packet Tracer

Packet Tracer Companion

Companion

You can now open the file LSG02-Lab152.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Remember, however, that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. Use the Lab PDF for more details.

Lab 1-3: Challenge Router Configuration (1.5.3)

Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to

Subnet an address space given requirements

Assign appropriate addresses to interfaces and document

Cable a network according to the topology diagram

Erase the startup configuration and reload a router to the default state

Perform basic configuration tasks on a router

Configure and activate serial and Ethernet interfaces

Test and verify configurations

Reflect on and document the network implementation

Scenario

In this lab activity, you will design and apply an IP addressing scheme for the topology shown in the topology diagram in Figure 1-25. You will be given one Class C address that you must subnet to provide a logical addressing scheme for the network. You must first cable the network as shown before the configuration can begin. When the network is cabled, configure each device with the appropriate basic configuration commands. The routers will then be ready for interface address configuration according to your IP addressing scheme. When the configuration is complete, use the appropriate IOS

commands to verify that the network is working properly.

62

Routing Protocols and Concepts, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Figure 1-25

Topology Diagram for Lab 1-3 (Answer)

192.168.1.32/27

192.168.1.64/27

192.168.1.96/27

Fa0/0

Fa0/0

PC1

S0/0/0

PC2

S0/0/0

R1

R2

DCE

Task 1: Subnet the Address Space

Step 1.

Examine the network requirements.

You have been given the 192.168.1.0/24 address space to use in your network design. The network consists of the following segments:

The network connected to router R1 will require enough IP addresses to support 20

hosts.

The network connected to router R2 will require enough IP addresses to support 20

hosts.

The link between router R1 and router R2 will require IP addresses at each end of the link.

Step 2.

Consider the following questions when creating your network design: How many subnets are needed for this network? 3

What is the subnet mask for this network in dotted decimal format? 255.255.255.224

What is the subnet mask for the network in slash format? /27

How many usable hosts are there per subnet? 30

Step 3.

Assign subnetwork addresses to the topology diagram.

a.

Assign subnet 1 to the network attached to R1.

b.

Assign subnet 2 to the link between R1 and R2.

c.

Assign subnet 3 to the network attached to R2.

Task 2: Determine Interface Addresses

Step 1.

Assign appropriate addresses to the device interfaces.

a.

Assign the first valid host address in subnet 1 to the LAN interface on R1.

b.

Assign the last valid host address in subnet 1 to PC1.

c.

Assign the first valid host address in subnet 2 to the WAN interface on R1.

d.

Assign the last valid host address in subnet 2 to the WAN interface on R2.

e.

Assign the first valid host address in subnet 3 to the LAN interface of R2.

f.

Assign the last valid host address in subnet 3 to PC2.

Step 2.

Document the addresses to be used in Table 1-8.

Chapter 1: Introduction to Routing and Packet Fowarding 63

Table 1-8

Addressing Table for Lab 1-3

Device

Interface

IP Address

Subnet Mask

Default Gateway

R1

Fa0/0

192.168.1.33

255.255.255.224

S0/0/0

192.168.1.65

255.255.255.224

R2

Fa0/0

192.168.1.97

255.255.255.224

S0/0/0

192.168.1.94

255.255.255.224

PC1

NIC

192.168.1.62

255.255.255.224

192.168.1.33

PC2

NIC

192.168.1.126

255.255.255.224

192.168.1.97

Task 3: Prepare the Network

Step 1.

Cable a network that is similar to the one in the topology diagram.

You can use any current router in your lab as long as it has the required interfaces as shown in the topology.

Step 2.

Clear any existing configurations on the routers.

Task 4: Perform Basic Router Configurations

Perform basic configuration of the R1 and R2 routers according to the following guidelines: 1.

Configure the router host name.

2.

Disable DNS lookup.

3.

Configure an EXEC mode password.

4.

Configure a message-of-the-day banner.

5.

Configure a password for console connections.

6.

Configure a password for vty connections.

Task 5: Configure and Activate Serial and Ethernet Addresses

Step 1.

Configure the router interfaces.

Configure the interfaces on the R1 and R2 routers with the IP addresses from your network design. When you have finished, be sure to save the running configuration to the NVRAM of the router.

Step 2.

Configure the PC interfaces.

Configure the Ethernet interfaces of PC1 and PC2 with the IP addresses and default gateways from your network design.

64

Routing Protocols and Concepts, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Task 6: Verify the Configurations

Answer the following questions to verify that the network is operating as expected.

From the host attached to R1, is it possible to ping the default gateway? Yes From the host attached to R2, is it possible to ping the default gateway? Yes From router R1, is it possible to ping the Serial 0/0/0 interface of R2? Yes From router R2, is it possible to ping the Serial 0/0/0 interface of R1? Yes The answer to the above questions should be yes. If any of the above pings failed, check your physical connections and configurations. If necessary, refer to “Lab 1-2: Basic Router Configuration (1.5.2).” What is the status of the FastEthernet 0/0 interface of R1? up and up What is the status of the Serial 0/0/0 interface of R1? up and up What is the status of the FastEthernet 0/0 interface of R2? up and up What is the status of the Serial 0/0/0 interface of R2? up and up What routes are present in the routing table of R1?

C 192.168.1.64 is directly connected, Serial0/1/0

C 192.168.1.32 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0

What routes are present in the routing table of R2?

C 192.168.1.96 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0

C 192.168.1.64 is directly connected, Serial0/0/0

Task 7: Reflection

Are there any devices on the network that cannot ping each other?

R1 cannot ping the Fast Ethernet interface on R2. R2 cannot ping the Fast Ethernet interface on R1.

PC1 cannot ping PC2. PC2 cannot ping PC1.

What is missing from the network that is preventing communication between these devices?

After reading the chapter text, the student should be able to state that this network is missing either static or dynamic routing (or both!).

Task 8: Document the Router Configurations

On each router, capture the following command output to a text (.txt) file and save for future reference:

Running configuration

Routing table

Summary of status information for each interface

Chapter 1: Introduction to Routing and Packet Fowarding 65

Packet Tracer

Packet Tracer Companion

Companion

You can now open the file LSG02-Lab153.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Remember, however, that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. Use the Lab PDF for more details.

Packet Tracer

Packet Tracer Skills Integration Challenge

Challenge

This activity integrates all the knowledge and skills you acquired in previous courses and the first chapter of this course. You build a network from the ground up. Starting with an addressing space and network requirements, you must implement a network design that satisfies the specifications. You are responsible for configuring the routers with basic configurations and assigning IP addresses to all devices. Routing has already been configured, so you can verify full connectivity between all devices.

Finally, you investigate the Layer 2 and Layer 3 addresses used as a ping packet traverses the network you built. Open the file LSG02-PTSkills1.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book. Use the topology in Figure 1-26 and the addressing tables in Table 1-9 to document your design.

Upon completion of this challenge activity, you will be able to

Design and document an addressing scheme based on requirements

Select appropriate equipment and cable the devices

Apply a basic configuration to the devices

Verify full connectivity between all devices in the topology

Identify Layer 2 and Layer 3 addresses used to switch packets Open the file LSG02-PTSkills1.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book. You will use the topology in Figure 1-26 and the addressing table in Table 1-9 to document your design.

Figure 1-26

Topology Diagram Packet Tracer Challenge (Answer)

40 Hosts

192.168.1.128/26

PC2

Address Space

192.168.1.0/24

Fa0/0

HQ

S0/0/1

S0/0/0

DCE

192.168.1.224/30

2 Hosts

2 Hosts

192.168.1.228/30

192.168.1.0/25

192.168.1.192/27/25

S0/0/0

S0/0/1

DCE

Fa0/0

Fa0/0

B1

B2

PC1

PC3

80 Hosts

20 Hosts

66

Routing Protocols and Concepts, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Table 1-9

Addressing Table for Packet Tracer Challenge

Device

Interface

IP Address

Subnet Mask

Default Gateway

HQ

Fa0/0

192.168.1.129

255.255.255.192

S0/0/0

192.168.1.225

255.255.255.252

S0/0/1

192.168.1.229

255.255.255.252

B1

Fa0/0

192.168.1.1

255.255.255.128

S0/0/0

192.168.1.226

255.255.255.252

B2

Fa0/0

192.168.1.193

255.255.255.224

S0/0/1

192.168.1.230

255.255.255.252

PC1

NIC

192.168.1.126

255.255.255.128

192.168.1.1

PC2

NIC

192.168.1.190

255.255.255.192

192.168.1.129

PC3

NIC

192.168.1.222

255.255.255.224

192.168.1.193

Task 1: Design and Document an Addressing Scheme

Step 1.

Design an addressing scheme.

Based on the network requirements shown in the topology, design an appropriate addressing scheme given block 192.168.1.0/24:

Starting with the largest LAN, determine the size of subnet you will need for the given host requirement.Then, assign subnets starting with the largest LAN moving to the smallest.

After the LAN subnets are determined, assign the first available address space to the WAN link between B1 and HQ.

Assign the second available address space to the WAN link between HQ and B2.

Step 2.

Document the addressing scheme.

Record the network addresses in dotted-decimal/slash format.

Document the IP addresses, subnet masks, and default gateway addresses.

— For the LANs, assign the first IP address to the router interface. Assign the last IP

address to the PC.

— For the WAN links, assign the first IP address to HQ.

Task 2: Cable Devices

Step 1.

Cable the networks according to the topology.

B1 S0/0/0 (DCE) to HQ S0/0/0 (DTE)

HQ S0/0/1 (DCE) to B2 S0/0/1 (DTE)

B1 Fa0/0 to S1 Fa0/1

S1 Fa0/2 to PC1

Chapter 1: Introduction to Routing and Packet Fowarding 67

HQ Fa0/0 to S2 Fa0/1

S2 Fa0/2 to PC2

B2 Fa0/0 to S3 Fa0/1

S3 Fa0/2 to PC3

Task 3: Apply a Basic Configuration

Step 1.

Configure the routers.

Using your documentation, configure the routers with basic configurations including addressing. Use cisco as the line passwords and class as the secret password. Use 64000 as the clock rate.

Step 2.

Configure the PCs.

Using your documentation, configure the PCs with an IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway.

Task 4: Identify Layer 2 and Layer 3 Addresses Used to Switch Packets

Step 1.

Create a PDU ping packet.

RIP routing has already been configured for you. Therefore, you should have end-to-end connectivity.

Enter Simulation Mode.

Use the Add Simple PDU button to create a ping from PC1 to PC3.

Change Edit Filters so that only ICMP is simulated.

Record the Layer 2 and Layer 3 addresses for the packet at PC1.

Record the Layer 2 and Layer 3 addresses for the packet at B1.

Record the Layer 2 and Layer 3 addresses for the packet at HQ.

Record the Layer 2 and Layer 3 addresses for the packet at B2

Reflection

Which addresses changed as the packet progressed through the network? Which addresses did not?

Why?

68

Routing Protocols and Concepts, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide End Notes

1Zinin, A. Cisco IP Routing: Packet Forwarding and Intra-domain Routing Protocols. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley; 2002.



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