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JOSSEY-BASS TEACHER       GRADES   5­12


The Grammar
            Teacher's
 ACTIVITY-A-DAY
           180 Ready-to-Use Lessons to
             Teach Grammar and Usage
                       JACK UMSTATTER




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 180 Reproducible Activities to Teach Spelling, Phonics,
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   THE GRAMMAR TEACHER'S ACTIVITY-A-DAY, GRADES 5-12
    Over 180 Ready-to-Use Lessons to Teach Grammar
                        and Usage
          Jack Umstatter · ISBN 978-0-470-54315-3

    THE ALGEBRA TEACHER'S ACTIVITY-A-DAY, GRADES 5-12
   Over 180 Quick Challenges for Developing Math and
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                JOSSEY-BASS TEACHER
                 JOSSEY-BASS TEACHER

Jossey-Bass Teacher provides educators with practical knowledge and
tools to create a positive and lifelong impact on student learning. We
offer classroom-tested and research-based teaching resources for a variety
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                           DEDICATION
                           DEDICATION

To my teacher, colleague, and friend, Ira Finkel. I sat in your classroom
and learned so much from your words and dedication to your profession.
Then I learned even more about teaching from you as your Dowling College
colleague. You were the best--the teacher that all students should have at least
once in their lives, the fellow educator that we all truly admired. Thanks for
your inspiration . . .
The GRAMMAR
Teacher's
Activity-a-Day
180 Ready-to-Use Lessons to Teach
Grammar and Usage

Grades 5­12




                             Jack Umstatter
Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. All rights reserved.

Published by Jossey-Bass
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ISBN 978-0-470-54315-3
Printed in the United States of America
FIRST EDITION

PB Printing      10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
                         THE AUTHOR
                         THE AUTHOR

Jack Umstatter taught English on both the middle school and senior
high school levels for thirty-five years. He also taught at Dowling College
and Suffolk County Community College (New York). In 2006, he retired
from the Cold Spring Harbor School District where he had co-chaired the
English department.
Mr. Umstatter graduated from Manhattan College with a B.A. in English
and completed his M.A. degree in English at Stony Brook University. He
earned his educational administration degree at Long Island University.
Jack has been selected Teacher of the Year several times in his school
district, was elected to Who's Who Among America's Teachers, and has
also appeared in Contemporary Authors. A contributing writer for the
Biography Channel, he now conducts teacher training workshops and
performs demonstration lessons in classrooms across the country.
Mr. Umstatter's publications include Hooked on Literature (1994), 201
Ready-to-Use Word Games for the English Classroom (1994), Brain Games!
(1996), Hooked On English! (1997), the six-volume Writing Skills Curriculum
Library (1999), Grammar Grabbers! (2000), English Brainstormers! (2002),
Words, Words, Words (2003), Readers at Risk (2005), and Got Grammar?
(2007), all published by Jossey-Bass/Wiley.




                                                                              vii
                         ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
                         ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

       I would like to thank the folks at Jossey-Bass, especially vice-president
       and publisher, Paul Foster, and editor, Margie McAneny, for their
       continued support, confidence, and guidance. Their assistance and
       friendship over the years has been invaluable.
       I applaud and thank Diane Turso, my proofreader, for her meticulous
       work and careful review of this and other books that I have written.
       Thanks to all my students, past and present, for making my teaching
       experiences both memorable and fulfilling.
       As always, thanks to my wife, Chris, and my two daughters, Maureen and
       Kate, for their perpetual love and inspiration that mean so much.




viii
                    ABOUT THIS BOOK
                    ABOUT THIS BOOK

Contrary to what some out there are touting, grammar is not a lost
art--nor should it be! Like the planet and the people who live on it,
the English language is constantly evolving and changing. Some argue
that this is for the better; some feel that it is not so healthy a change.
Yet, the grammatical structure of the English language remains pretty
much the same and has certainly not lost its importance. In fact, the
constructors of local, state, national, college entrance exams, including
the SAT Reasoning Test, the ACT, and even the Graduate Record Exam
(used for graduate school admissions), have placed more emphasis on
grammar and its components, as evidenced by the questions and tasks
currently found on these highly regarded assessments.
Acknowledging the importance of grammar, usage, and mechanics
on not only a student's academic profile, but also, and perhaps more
significantly, on a student's ability to use language to communicate
effectively and intelligently, The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day: 180
Ready-to-Use Lessons to Teach Grammar and Usage was created to assist
students to learn, exercise, and appreciate the many intriguing aspects of
the English language. Though each of the 180 reproducible, ready-to-use
lessons and activities that cover a wide range of grammatical components
and more can be done within a short window of time, the long-lasting
effects of these minutes will reap benefits for all of your students. These
learners will speak more cogently, listen more astutely, and write more
powerfully. Grammar will no longer be a foe, a force to be feared;
instead, it will be an ally, a powerful friend who furnishes comfort and
inspires confidence.




                                                                              ix
                                   CONTENTS
                                   CONTENTS

    How to Use this Book · xv

    Section One Grammar · 1
      1.   the noun                       15. the coordinating
      2.   types of nouns                     conjunction
      3.   the pronoun                    16. the correlative conjunction
      4.   personal pronouns              17. the subordinating
      5.   Do you know your personal          conjunction
           pronouns?                      18. combining ideas with
      6.   reflexive, demonstrative,          the subordinating
           and interrogative pronouns         conjunction
      7.   singular and plural nouns      19. the interjection
           and pronouns                   20. parts-of-speech review
      8.   the adjective                      (part one)
      9.   the noun-adjective-pronoun     21. parts-of-speech review
           question                           (part two)
     10.   the verb                       22. parts-of-speech parade
     11.   Is it an action, linking, or   23. filling in the parts of
           helping verb?                      speech
     12.   the adverb                     24. What's missing?
     13.   the preposition                    (parts-of-speech review)
     14.   compound prepositions          25. fun with literary titles
           and the preposition-adverb         (parts-of-speech review)
           question                       26. parts-of-speech matching




x
Section Two Usage · 29

 27. complete and simple             47. the gerund and gerund
     subjects                            phrase
 28. complete and simple             48. Gerund or not?
     predicates                      49. the infinitive and infinitive
 29. compound subject and                phrase
     compound predicate              50. the many uses of the
 30. the direct object                   infinitive phrase
 31. the indirect object             51. verbal phrase review
 32. the object of the preposition   52. matching the phrases in
 33. objects and 8­7­5                   context
 34. subject complements--           53. showing what you know
     predicate nominatives and           about phrases
     predicate adjectives            54. happy in ten different ways
 35. Predicate nominative,           55. writing with variety
     predicate adjective, or         56. phrases finale
     neither?                        57. introducing clauses
 36. introducing phrases             58. the adverb clause
 37. the verb phrase                 59. nailing down the adverb
 38. the prepositional phrase            clause
 39. the adjective phrase            60. the adjective clause
 40. the adverb phrase               61. recognizing adjective
 41. adjective and adverb                clauses
     phrases review                  62. the noun clause
 42. prepositional phrases           63. the many uses of the noun
     review                              clause
 43. the appositive                  64. adjective, adverb, and noun
 44. Appositive, verb, or                clauses
     prepositional phrase?           65. identifying phrases and
 45. the participle and                  clauses
     participial phrase              66. Do you know your phrases
 46. Participial phrase or not?          and clauses?


                                                              Contents   xi
      67.   putting clauses into action    86. showing what you know
      68.   what good writers do               about pronouns and their
                                               antecedents
      69.   starting the sentence
                                           87. indefinite pronouns
      70.   it's all about form
                                           88. indefinite pronouns and
      71.   sentences, fragments, and
                                               agreement
            run-on sentences
                                           89. writing with indefinite
      72.   What's what? sentences,
                                               pronouns
            fragments, and run-on
            sentences                      90. compound subjects
                                               (part one)
      73.   making sense (and
            sentences)                     91. compound subjects
                                               (part two)
      74.   types of sentences by
            purpose                        92. working with compound
                                               subjects
      75.   ``purposeful'' sentences
                                           93. subject-verb agreement
      76.   sentences by design
                                               situations
            (or construction)
                                           94. more subject-verb
      77.   simple and compound
                                               agreement situations
            sentences
                                           95. making the wrong
      78.   complex sentences
                                               right
      79.   compound-complex
                                           96. knowing your subject-verb
            sentences
                                               agreement
      80.   Know the sentence's
                                           97. subject-verb agreement
            structure?
                                               parade
      81.   subject and verb
                                           98. practicing agreement
            agreement
                                           99. How well do you know
      82.   agreement involving
                                               agreement?
            prepositional phrases
                                          100. regular verb tenses
      83.   knowing your prepositional
            phrases and agreement         101. selecting the correct verb
                                               tense
      84.   pronouns and their
            antecedents                   102. irregular verbs (part one)
      85.   agreement between             103. working with irregular verbs
            indefinite pronouns and            from part one
            their antecedents             104. irregular verbs (part two)


xii     Contents
105. working with irregular verbs   124. confusing usage words
     from part two                       (part eight)
106. irregular verbs in context     125. matching up the confusing
107. Correct or incorrect?               words
108. helping out with irregular     126. Which is the correct word?
     verbs                          127. select the correct word
109. the verb ``be''                128. double negatives
110. busy with the verb ``be''      129. misplaced and dangling
111. the nominative case                 modifiers
112. the objective case             130. revising sentences that have
113. the possessive case                 misplaced and dangling
                                         modifiers
114. the possessive case and
     pronouns                       131. transitive and intransitive
                                         verbs
115. indefinite pronouns and the
                                    132. Do you know your transitive
     possessive case
                                         and intransitive verbs?
116. using the possessive case
                                    133. active and passive voices
117. confusing usage words
                                    134. sound-alike words
     (part one)
                                         (part one)
118. confusing usage words
                                    135. sound-alike words
     (part two)                          (part two)
119. confusing usage words          136. sound-alike words
     (part three)                        (part three)
120. confusing usage words          137. sound-alike words
     (part four)                         (part four)
121. confusing usage words          138. making your mark with
     (part five)                         sound-alike words
122. confusing usage words          139. regular comparison of
     (part six)                          adjectives and adverbs
123. confusing usage words          140. irregular comparison of
     (part seven)                        adjectives and adverbs

Section Three Mechanics · 145
141. periods, question              142. working with periods,
     marks, and exclamation              question marks, and
     marks                               exclamation marks

                                                             Contents   xiii
      143.   commas (part one)               159. quotation marks (part
      144.   commas (part two)                    three)
      145.   commas (part three)             160. italics, hyphens, and
      146.   commas (part four)                   brackets
      147.   commas (part five)              161. parentheses, ellipsis marks,
      148.   commas in action                     and dashes
      149.   some more commas in             162. all sorts of punctuation
             action                               problems
      150.   comma matching contest          163. All the punctuation is
      151.   the apostrophe                       missing!
      152.   more apostrophe situations      164. first capitalization list
      153.   working with apostrophes        165. second capitalization list
      154.   the colon                       166. using capital letters
      155.   the semicolon                   167. capitalize these (part one)
      156.   colons and semicolons in        168. capitalize these (part two)
             context                         169. challenging spelling words
      157.   quotation marks (part one)      170. spell it right--and win the
      158.   quotation marks (part two)           battle

      Section Four   Show What You Know · 177
      171. Where did all the letters go?     177. five questions in five minutes
      172. grammar and Twenty                     (sentences and usage)
           Thousand Leagues Under            178. five questions in five minutes
           the Sea                                (mechanics)
      173. grammar, mechanics, and           179. five questions in five minutes
           Alice in Wonderland                    (verbals and subject
      174. phrases, clauses, and                  complements)
           sentences found in ``One          180. five questions in five minutes
           Thousand Dollars''                     (confusing and sound-alike
      175. find the mistake                       words)
      176. five questions in five minutes    Answer Key                          188
           (parts of speech, prepositional
           phrases, and clauses)


xiv      Contents
               HOW TO USE THIS BOOK
               HOW TO USE THIS BOOK

The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day: 180 Ready-to-Use Lessons to Teach
Grammar and Usage is divided into four sections of reproducible grammar,
usage, and mechanics pages.
The first section, Grammar, features 26 lessons and activities that cover
the eight parts of speech in detail.
Usage, the second section, includes 114 lessons and activities. Here
students will study important topics including sentence parts, phrases,
clauses, sentence design and purpose, agreement, cases, and confusing
and sound-alike words.
The 30 lessons and activities in the last major section, Mechanics, focus
on punctuation, capitalization, and spelling, three essential elements of
effective writing.
Show What You Know, the short, final section, serves as a check on what
the students have studied. These 10 activities allow students to display
their knowledge of all the topics covered within the book's pages.
Each of the 180 reproducible lessons and activities will take up only a few
minutes of time in the already crowded curriculum that you and your
students will cover during the year. If the pages inspire greater interest
and discussion, go with it, for that is the desired teachable moment.
Use these pages as needed. They do not have to be done sequentially.
So, if you need a lesson or an activity on commas, use the Table of Con-
tents to select your specific need. Simply flip to the page(s), and you are
ready to go.
You can use these pages for introduction, warm-up, review, reinforce-
ment, remediation, or assessment. They are appropriate for whole class,
small-group, or individualized instruction. Select what is most appropri-
ate and beneficial for your students. An added plus is the Answer Key that
will save you valuable time, a teacher's dream!




                                                                              xv
      In short, the ready-to-use lessons and activities in The Grammar Teacher's
      Activity-a-Day will help your students improve their grammatical skills,
      enjoy learning about the English language, and gain confidence in the
      process. Isn't that what we all want for our students?

      Jack Umstatter




xvi       How to Use This Book
SECTION ONE
Grammar
Grammar
    1 the noun
    A noun, the first of the eight parts of speech, is the name of a person, place, thing, or idea.

         person: Darlene, boy, mayor, worker, scientist, assistant
         place: Los Angeles, dock, home, park
         thing: automobile, tool, balloon, penguin, tree
         idea: freedom, independence, enmity, thoughtfulness

    A singular noun is the name of only one person, place, thing, or idea. Examples of singu-
    lar nouns include woman, auditorium, bicycle, and honesty.
    A plural noun is the name of more than one person, place, thing, or idea. Examples of
    plural nouns include teammates, cities, houses, and freedoms.


    Activity

    Underline the three nouns in each of the following sentences.

1 Rose carried her pet into the office.
2 The newspaper was left on the table in the classroom.
3 The group spent many hours discussing the new plan.
4 Joshua saw the bridge and the lighthouse.
5 Her computer was repaired by the technician on Tuesday.
            Challenge
    For each of these four letters, list four nouns, each having at least four letters.
    b:                                                 m:




    g:                                                  t:




2         Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
2 types of nouns
A noun is the name of a person, place, thing, or idea. There are singular nouns
that name ONE person (player), place (room), thing (towel), or idea (love), and
there are plural nouns that are the names for MORE THAN ONE person (play-
ers), place (rooms), thing (towels), or idea (loves).
There are other types of nouns that are good to know. They include the
following.

7 Common nouns begin with a lowercase (or small) letter since they
   name any person, place, thing, or idea. They are nonspecific. Some sin-
   gular common nouns include actor (person), lounge (place), stick (thing),
   and kindness (idea). Plural common nouns include men (persons), head-
   quarters (places), computers (things), and liberties (ideas).

7 Proper nouns begin with an uppercase (or capital) letter because they
   name specific persons, places, things, and ideas. Proper nouns include
   President Harry Truman (person), Eiffel Tower (place), American Federation
   of Teachers (thing), and Theory of Relativity (idea).

7 Concrete nouns name a person, place, thing, or idea that can be per-
   ceived by one or more of your senses (seeing, hearing, touching, tasting,
   and smelling). Popcorn, thunder, rainfall, skunk, windmill, and hair are
   concrete nouns.

7 Abstract nouns name an idea, feeling, quality, or trait. Examples
   of abstract nouns include pity, weakness, humility, and elation.

7 Collective nouns name a group of people or things. Some collective
   nouns are squad, assembly, team, jury, flock, and herd.




  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   3
    3 the pronoun
    The pronoun, the second of the eight parts of speech, is a word that takes
    the place of a noun.

    7 In the sentence, ``Felipe is an intelligent student,'' the noun, Felipe, can
       be replaced by the singular pronoun he. Thus, the new sentence reads,
       ``He is an intelligent student.''

    7 In the sentence, ``We offered the baseball tickets to Rita and Drew,''
       the nouns, Rita and Drew, can be replaced by the plural pronoun,
       them. The new sentence will now read, ``We offered the baseball tickets
       to them.''

    There are several types of pronouns.
      Personal pronouns refer to people, places, things, and ideas. I, me, you,
       your, they, us, and it are all personal pronouns.
      Reflexive pronouns are formed by adding ``-self'' or ``-selves'' to cer-
       tain personal pronouns. They ``reflect'' back to the person or thing
       mentioned in the sentence. Myself, himself, herself, itself, yourself, your-
       selves, and themselves are reflexive pronouns. There is no such word as
       theirselves.
      Demonstrative pronouns can be singular or plural. They point out a
       specific person, place, or thing. This, that, these, and those are demon-
       strative pronouns.
      Interrogative pronouns, like their name suggests, are used when ask-
        ing a question. Who, whom, which, and whose are interrogative pro-
        nouns.
      Indefinite pronouns do not refer to a specific person, place, or thing.
        Some indefinite pronouns are another, both, everyone, most, no one, and
        several.




4      Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
4 personal pronouns
A personal pronoun refers to people, places, things, and ideas.
7 A first-person personal pronoun refers to the one (or ones) speaking.
   The singular first-person pronouns are I, me, my, and mine. The plural
   first-person personal pronouns are we, our, ours, and us.
     We told our story.
     I offered my opinion to the reporters.
     Ours is the less expensive model.
     The new family moved next door to us.

7 A second-person personal pronoun refers to the one (or ones)
   spoken to. The singular and plural second-person personal pronouns
   are the same three words--you, your, and yours.
     Can you bring your book back here today?
     The present will be given to you.
     This award is yours.

7 The third-person personal pronoun is the one (or ones) spoken
   about. The singular third-person personal pronouns include he, his,
   him, she, her, hers, it, and its. The plural third-person personal pronouns
   include they, their, theirs, and them.
     He and she wanted to take their children on a vacation.
     They asked him and her if the house had kept its appeal.
     Do you think that they will think that this car is theirs?




  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   5
    5 Do you know your personal
      pronouns?

    Activity

    Underline the appropriate personal pronoun in each of these fifteen
    sentences.

    1   (We, Us) love to read books.

    2   Most of these dresses had belonged to (her, hers).

    3   (I, Me) will be waking up early tomorrow.

    4   Emma has finished (her, mine) piano lesson.

    5   Is this sweater (your, yours)?

    6   You and (they, us) were invited to the graduation ceremony.

    7   (Their, Theirs) is the cutest dog in this show.

    8   Please pass the ball to (him, his).

    9   Her grade is higher than (mine, him).

        Does this instrument belong to (him, hers)?

        (Our, Ours) car needs an inspection.

        Were you able to hear (us, we) from that spot?

        (We and they, Us and them) will meet at the movies.

        Please help (they, us) lift this heavy box.

        Listen to what (she, her) is telling (you, your) about the ship's cargo.


6       Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
6 reflexive, demonstrative,
  and interrogative pronouns
A reflexive pronoun is formed by adding ``-self'' or ``-selves'' to a personal
pronoun.
7 Reflexive pronouns include the first-person pronouns, myself and our-
   selves. The second-person pronouns are yourself and yourselves. The
   third-person pronouns are himself, herself, itself, and themselves.
     The young lady carried in all her packages by herself.
     They relied upon themselves to finish the daunting task.
     Will he remember to help himself to the food on the table?

7 Demonstrative pronouns point out a specific person, place, thing, or
   idea. This, that, these, and those are demonstrative pronouns.
     This birthday card is intriguing.
     These crossword puzzles sure are stumpers!
     Are those stars always visible to us?

7 Interrogative pronouns introduce questions. What, which, who,
   whom, and whose are interrogative pronouns.
     Whose bicycle is this?
     Which of these is the correct answer, Paula?
     Whom did you ask to watch your dog while you went on vacation?


Activity

Underline the reflexive (REF), demonstrative (DEM), and interrogative (INT)
pronouns in these sentences. Above each of those pronouns, indicate its type
by using the three-letter code.

1 Who can learn this dance by herself?
2 Will you complete those problems by yourself?
3 Whom can I ask for help with these directions?
  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   7
    7 singular and plural nouns
      and pronouns
    A singular noun or pronoun is a word that refers to one person, place,
    thing, or idea.
    7 Singular nouns include car, desk, pool, friend, computer, video, geography,
       and poetry.

    7 Singular pronouns include he, she, it, I, me, mine, my, his, and her.
    A plural noun or pronoun refers to more than one person, place, thing,
    or idea.

    7 Plural nouns include women, bottles, games, crafts, cylinders, and instru-
       ments.

    7 Plural pronouns include they, them, we, our, ours, their, theirs, themselves,
       and us.

    Activity

    Write the letter S for singular or P for plural on the line next to each word.

      1.         fan                                 11.           lights
      2.         their                               12.           families
      3.         ourselves                           13.           I
      4.         licenses                            14.           muscles
      5.         herself                             15.           gasoline
      6.         swimmer                             16.           myself
      7.         it                                  17.           them
      8.         bats                                18.           its
      9.         graveyard                           19.           we
     10.         few                                 20.           slide

8      Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
8 the adjective
The adjective, the third of the eight parts of speech, modifies (qualifies or
limits the meaning of) a noun or pronoun. An adjective can answer any one
of these questions: What kind? Which one? How many? or How much?
In addition to regular adjectives such as tall, muscular, beautiful, and intelli-
gent, there are two specific types of adjectives--the proper adjective and the
compound adjective.

7 A proper adjective is formed from a proper noun. Examples of proper
    adjectives include French onion soup, the Belgian detective, Orwellian
    philosophy, and the Kenyan landscape.

7 A compound adjective is composed of two or more words. Examples
    include part-time referee, eight-foot tree, and fifteen-year-old musician.

7 Note: Do not hyphenate an adjective preceding an adverb that ends
    in -ly. Some of these instances are smartly dressed politician and nicely
    groomed model.


Activity

Write an appropriate adjective in each blank.

1 new school rules.
  Many of the                             students voiced their displeasure with the


2 meet.
  These                          geese were searching for a                              place to


3 ward to their coach's speech.
                  and                             , the losing team did not look for-


4 Although the boss was                               , her                       workers felt
                       .


5                          people attended the play's                            performance.


  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.    9
 9 the noun-adjective-pronoun
   question
 When is a specific word a noun? an adjective? a pronoun? Great questions!
 7 Sometimes, a noun is used as an adjective. This is true for the word gar-
     den in the sentence, ``The garden display attracted many visitors'' since
     garden describes the type of display.

 7 Examples of when a noun is a noun and when it acts as an adjective are
     found in the following sentences.
       Joseph left his empty glass on the table. (noun)
       Joseph left his cup on the glass table. (adjective)
       The ball sailed through the window. (noun)
       The ball sailed through the window pane. (adjective)

 7 Sometimes, a pronoun is simply a pronoun. In other instances, it
     is an adjective and a pronoun at the same time and is then called a
     pronoun-adjective.
       Several of the watches were expensive. (Several is simply a pronoun
         since it replaces the names of various watches.)
       Several watches were expensive. (Several is a pronoun-adjective that
         describes the noun watches.)
       Many of these computers were recently purchased. (Many is a pro-
         noun that replaces the names of the computers.)
       Many computers were recently purchased. (Many is a pronoun-
         adjective that describe the noun computers.)
       Some of the roads were repaired. (pronoun only)
       Some roads were repaired. (pronoun-adjective)


 Activity

 On a separate sheet of paper, write three additional examples of the noun-
 adjective-pronoun concept featured on this page.



10   Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
10 the verb
The verb, the fourth of the eight parts of speech, is an action word. Since all
good writing starts with strong verbs, this part of speech is very important.
The three basic types of verbs are the following:
7 The action verb tells what action the sentence's subject (or doer) per-
   forms, is performing, has performed, or will perform.
     Our lawyer speaks frequently with her clients.
     This lawyer has spoken with some clients this week.
     These attorneys will be speaking soon.

7 The linking verb connects (or links) a subject (or doer) to a noun, pro-
   noun, or adjective in the sentence. The words that follow a linking verb
   answer the question ``What?''
     Common linking verbs are am, is, are, was, be, being, appear, grow,
   seem, smell, stay, taste, turn, sound, remain, look, feel, and become.
     These chickens are hungry.
     Selena is the club president.
     Note: To tell the difference between an action verb and a linking verb,
   substitute a form of the verb be. If the new sentence seems logical, the
   verb that you replaced is probably a linking verb.
     Sylvia sounded the alarm. (action verb)
     Sylvia sounded nervous. (linking verb)

7 The helping verb assists the main verb in a sentence. One or more
   helping verbs can assist the main verb. If a sentence is a question,
   answer the question, and the helping verb will precede the main verb.
     This mechanic will repair the auto this morning.
     These mechanics will be inspecting the auto this afternoon.
     Has the mechanic spoken with you yet?




  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   11
 11 Is it an action, linking,
    or helping verb?

 Activity

 Indicate the action verbs by writing A on the line before the sentence. Do the
 same for the linking verbs (L) and the helping verbs (H). There are at least
 three examples of each of these verbs within these fifteen sentences.

 1           Last night's audience members seemed more enthusiastic than
             tonight's audience members.

 2           Warren is going to ask his sister for some advice.

 3           Can you remember your teacher's first name?

 4           This talented surfer rode the wave all the way to the shore.

 5           Since Vicki had not eaten much today, her dinner tasted
             especially delicious.

 6           The doctor examined each patient twice.

 7           Hustle to first base, Charles!

 8           My niece quickly grew bored with the dull cartoon.

 9           Much of the required information will be reviewed during the
             three-week course.
             Listen to exactly what the director is telling you.
             Hear what I have to say.
             This is the correct answer.
             Greta felt tired after the grueling boot camp exercises.
             Each of these fifteen doctors was interviewed by the county
             health officials.
             Will you be able to help me move these books today?



12   Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
12 the adverb
The adverb, the fifth part of speech, modifies (qualifies or limits) verbs,
adjectives, or other adverbs. An adverb can answer any of these four
questions--Where? When? How? To what extent?
7 Adverbs modify verbs:
     Henry swam brilliantly. (How did Henry swim?)
     The train then came down the line. (When did the train come down
       the line?)

     The runner fell down. (Where did the runner fall?)

7 Adverbs modify adjectives:
     The day was almost perfect. (To what extent was the day perfect?)

     Some older people were quite happy with the club's proposal. (How
       happy were they?)

7 Adverbs modify adverbs:
     Sonny, swallow your food very slowly. (How slowly should Sonny
       swallow his food?)
     The architect worked quite methodically. (How methodically did the
       architect work?)

Though many adverbs end with -ly, these thirty-three adverbs below
do not.

 again              almost              alone               already              also
 always             away                even                ever                 here
 just               later               never               not                  now
 nowhere            often               perhaps             quite                rather
 seldom             so                  sometimes           somewhat             somewhere
 soon               then                there               today                too
 very               yesterday           yet




  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   13
 13 the preposition
 The preposition, the sixth part of speech, is a word that shows the relation-
 ship between a noun (or a pronoun) and another word in the sentence.

     Mollie walked into her aunt's house. (Into connects walked and house.)
     My mom exercises quietly in the morning. (In connects the idea of
      exercises and morning.)
     The professor placed the book underneath the large desk. (Underneath
       connects the idea of placed and desk.)

 Note: To remember many of the one-word prepositions listed in the following
 box, remember the sentence, ``The plane flew                               the clouds.''
 Any word that can be logically placed into that blank is a preposition. Then
 simply memorize those few that do not work in that sentence (aboard, as,
 but, concerning, despite, during, except, like, of , out, since, till, until, with, and
 without), and you will know your prepositions!

                    aboard              about              above        across
                    after               against            along        among
                    around              as                 at           before
                    behind              below              beneath      beside
                    besides             between            beyond       but
                    by                  concerning         despite      down
                    during              except             for          from
                    in                  inside             into         like
                    near                of                 off          on
                    onto                opposite           out          outside
                    over                past               since        through
                    throughout          till               to           toward
                    under               underneath         until        up
                    upon                with               within       without




14    Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
14 compound prepositions
   and the preposition-adverb
   question
A compound preposition has the same function as the regular, one-word
preposition. It connects a noun (or pronoun) to another word in the sen-
tence. The sole difference with the compound preposition is that it contains
more than one word!
             according to       ahead of         apart from        as of
             aside from         because of       by means of       in addition to
             in back of         in front of      in place of       in spite of
             instead of         in view of       next to           on account of
             out of             prior to
  According to the author, this event happened in 1334.
  We sat next to him.
  In addition to the shed, we will also have to paint the basement floor.
  We had a great time in spite of the nasty weather.

The Preposition-Adverb Question
The same word can be an adverb in one sentence and a preposition in
another sentence. How do you tell the difference? Simple! Both an adverb
and a preposition answer the same questions--When? Where? How? To what
extent?--but only the adverb does it in a single word. The preposition needs
other words to answer the same questions.
I walked around. (adverb) (Where did I walk? around)
I walked around the block (preposition). (Where did I walk? around the block)
The terrified dog scampered past (adverb). (Where did the dog scamper?
  past)
The terrified dog scampered past us (preposition). (Where did the dog scam-
  per? past us)
Kenny, look beyond (adverb). (Where should Kenny look? beyond)
Kenny, look beyond your present troubles (preposition). (Where should Kenny
  look? beyond his present troubles)

  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   15
 15 the coordinating conjunction
 The conjunction, the seventh part of speech, connects words or groups of
 words. In the sentence, ``The video producer and the singer selected an inter-
 esting location for the shoot,'' the conjunction and connects the two nouns
 producer and singer. Similarly, in the sentence, ``You can swim or jog during
 the afternoon class,'' the conjunction or joins the two verbs swim and jog.
 A coordinating conjunction is a single connecting word. The seven coor-
 dinating conjunctions are for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so. An easy way to
 remember these seven conjunctions is the acronym FANBOYS, in which the
 first letter of each conjunction is used.


 Activity

 Underline the coordinating conjunction in each of these sentences.


 1   I will not be able to go to the field for I have not completed my science
     project.


 2   Paola would like to be here with us, yet she has to watch over her
     younger sisters today.


 3   This seems like a terrific plan, but I am not sure that the town can
     afford such a high tab.


 4   Perhaps you or your neighbors will be able to organize the block party
     this year.


 5   Do you think that we should put the paint on now so it will have time
     to dry?


16   Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
16 the correlative conjunction
Just as the coordinating conjunction does, the correlative conjunction
joins words or groups of words.
Here are the five pairs of correlative conjunctions.
               Whether . . . or                      Either . . . or
               Neither . . . nor                     Not only . . . but also
               Both . . . and
Note: Using only the first letter of the first word in each pair of correlative
conjunctions, the mnemonic WNBEN will help you to remember these
correlative conjunctions.
Whether the shark swims near the town beach or remains out at sea is the
  mayor's concern in the movie.
Neither the Olympics nor the World Series attracted the expected number
  of television viewers this year.
Emma likes to play both basketball and soccer.
You may select either the vacation or the car for your prize.
Not only will Desiree donate money to her favorite charity, but she will also
  volunteer at the group's annual fund-raiser.


Activity             Select a pair of correlative conjunctions to complete each
                     sentence.

1 still broken will affect our work schedule.
                    the machine has been repaired                                         if it is


2 invitation to perform at the graduation party. magician will accept our
                   the ventriloquist         the


3 Marcelle enjoys playing with                                   dogs                        cats.

4 The competent writer uses                                   poor word choice
                         vague details in her articles.

5                               will Olivia attend the meeting,
    she will                         chair the proceedings.

  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.     17
 17 the subordinating
    conjunction
 The subordinating conjunction joins larger groups of words within sen-
 tences. It begins adverb clauses (groups of words that answer the questions
 When? Where? How? To what extent?). The subordinating conjunction can
 also be used to combine the ideas found in several sentences.
 Here are the subordinating conjunctions, followed by sample sentences.

             after               although        as                 as far as    as if
             as long as          as soon as      as though          because      before
             even though         if              in order that      since        so that
             than                though          unless             until        when
             whenever            where           wherever           while

     Because Grandma was upset, she asked to be left by herself.
     After Andy parked his new car, his sister asked for a ride.
     The driver stopped her vehicle where the passengers were standing.
     Our goalie, Caroline, looked as if she could block any shot.
     We will probably have to finish unless you know someone who could
       do it for us.

 Activity

 Use a subordinating conjunction to complete each sentence. Use each con-
 junction only once.

 1 We had not seen our old friends                            they moved away several years ago.

 2 These chimpanzees looked                          they were displeased with the zookeeper.

 3 house.the turn
   Make                                     you see the tall oak trees in front of the large white


 4 Mom warned us.
   ``                        you behave yourselves, you will not be able to go to the movies,''


 5 I cannot stop from laughing                             Garrett tells us his funny stories.


18    Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
18 combining ideas with the
   subordinating conjunction

Activity             Use an appropriate subordinating conjunction to combine
                     each pair of ideas or sentences. Insert punctuation where it
                     is needed. Write your answers on a separate sheet of paper.
                     Feel free to add or delete words, but keep the same ideas.


1 The bell rang. The students moved to the next period.
2 You finish your science project. You cannot play your video game.
3 We aunt. watching the nightly news. We received a phone call from
  my
     were



4 My cat, Belinda, started to hiss. The veterinarian approached my cat.
5 You will want to try an even harder puzzle. You solve a challenging
  puzzle.


6 I take your picture. Stand here.
7 Johann gets a ride. Johann will go to the concert.
8 Francois explored the surroundings. His friends asked him questions.
      ¸


9 The garbage cans in theleft outmorning.
  emptied the
              cans were
                          early
                                  in the street. The garbage collectors


   Eduardo was pale. Eduardo saw a ghost. Eduardo is my brother.




  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   19
 19 the interjection
 The interjection, the eighth part of speech, expresses strong emotions or
 feelings. Often found at the beginning of a sentence, an interjection is usually
 followed by either an exclamation mark (for strong emotions) or a comma
 (for mild emotions). An interjection can also be used to protest or command.
 Though interjections can stand alone, they are often contained within larger
 groups of words.
     Wow! That was a close call. (strong emotion)
     Oh, you are correct. (mild emotion)
 Note: Good writers choose their interjections wisely for they know that too
 many interjections can decrease the writing's power and total effect.
 Here is a list of the most common interjections.

           aw         ahem      bravo       darn                       dear me      eh
           eek        gee       golly       goodness gracious          gosh         hello
           hey        hi        hurrah      hurray                     no           oh
           oh no      oops      phew        psst                       rats         ugh
           whoa       wow       yea         yeh                        yes          yippee



 Activity               Write a sentence for each of these five interjections.


 1    gosh


 2    oops


 3    yippee


 4    hurrah


 5    oh no


20    Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
20 parts-of-speech review
   (part one)

Activity

Identify each underlined word's part of speech. An answer can be used
more than once. Use these abbreviations on the line before each sentence:
n = noun; pro = pronoun; adj = adjective; v = verb; advb = adverb;
prep = preposition; c = conjunction; and int = interjection.

1           Each of the programs was taped.
2           Joanna programs her television equipment.
3           Fluffy, the family's cat, was looking down the well.
4           I feel well.
5           Dad bought training wheels for my brother's bicycle.
6           They have been training at this site.
7           Hey! Are you complaining about our group's meeting?
8           All of the contestants but Monica were scheduled.
9           These geese wanted to cross the street, so the tourists escorted
            them.
            We all helped to shovel the snow.
            Will it snow tomorrow?
            The snow shovel is out in the barn.
            The elderly man fell down.
            We chased him down the street, but we were unable to catch him.
            They made a down payment on a new car.
            The coach told Mitch to down the ball.
            The quarterback attempted a pass on the second down.
            Will you be able to move that large box by yourself?
            He had to solve the problem in a hurry.
            Uncle Erik gave Rick box seat tickets to the Yankees' game.


  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   21
 21 parts-of-speech review
    (part two)

 Activity

 Identify each underlined word's part of speech. An answer can be used more
 than once. Use these abbreviations on the line before each sentence:
 n = noun; pro = pronoun; adj = adjective; v = verb; advb = adverb; prep =
 preposition; c = conjunction; and int = interjection.

 1           Foolish decisions can cause trouble.

 2           She gained fame quickly as a journalist.

 3           You will soon know how difficult this is.

 4           Please dispose of your garbage.

 5           We can do this by ourselves.

 6           Tomas entered into the competition.

 7           Brianna becomes hysterical whenever she hears a funny joke.

 8           Rachel is an heiress to a large fortune.

 9           He and I can carry that bundle.
             You or they will be able to assist.
             The choir members walked onto the stage.
             Murphy is a silly dog some of the time.
             Yippee! I do not have to go to bed yet.
             It is my all-time favorite movie.
             Gary was so athletically talented that he was recruited by several colleges.
             This is the story of a seven-time award winner.
             Maurice is preparing for his lab experiment.
             The family room has been remodeled in a modern d´ cor.
                                                             e
             I would love to attend the ceremony, but I already have another commitment.
             Both of these comedians will be appearing at local clubs this fall.


22   Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
22 parts-of-speech parade


Activity

Use each word as indicated. Write your answers on a separate sheet of paper.


1 Use part as a noun.
2 Use part as a verb.
3 Use televised as a verb.
4 Use televised as an adjective.
5 Use lower as a verb.
6 Use lower as an adjective.
7 Use for as a conjunction.
8 Use for as a preposition.
9 Use before as a subordinating conjunction.
   Use before as a preposition.




  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   23
 23 filling in the parts of speech

 Activity              Fill in each blank with one word that logically fits
                       the sentence's sense. Then, on the line preceding the
                       sentence, write the word's part of speech using the code
                       letters--noun (n), pronoun (pro), adjective (adj), verb (v),
                       adverb (advb), preposition (prep), conjunction (c), and
                       interjection (int).

 1           A                         mouse ran through our garage.
 2           Either the doctor
             procedure to you.
                                                           the nurse will explain the


 3           Lucille is the gymnast
             the floor exercise.
                                                                  scored a perfect ten on


 4                            ! That bicyclist almost crashed into the parked car.
 5           The brave soldier ran
             skirmish.
                                                                 the field during the


 6           Creative writers entertain their readers quite                                    .
 7           Two police officers
             town officials.
                                                              the building looking for the


 8           One of the most important
             busy street.
                                                                          is found on that


 9           number.
                                    of the guitar players stayed late to rehearse the

                                    the barn we spotted several sheep.
             The machinist selected her tool from the                                  cabinet.
             Peanut butter                             jelly is my cousin's lunch time
             treat.
             Take your                            photo album to the party, Benny.
             The singing group was                                 into the Music Hall
             of Fame.
             It had rained                            often lately that we cannot play
             our last scheduled game.


24   Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
24 What's missing? (parts-of-
   speech review)

Activity

Insert a word in each blank. On the line before the sentence, write the
inserted word's part of speech.

1                        Christie had
                         challenging situation.
                                                                 shied away from a


2                        Either Brian
                         with these problems.
                                                                Madeline will help you


3                        Nobody can do all of this by                                 .
4                                         several hours, many of us were very
                          nervous after hearing the news.
5                        These                 singers captured first place in
                         the most recent contest.
6                         space?
                                               ! You can fit that car into this small


7                                               Catherina sees that movie, she cries.
8                        Those talented
                         stories to major publishers.
                                                                    sold many of their


9                        Thursday
                         the week.
                                                             Marcia's favorite day of

                         The motorist drove                               the long road.
                         Helen's                          actors were waiting for the
                         director's advice.
                         Our professor is very                              and friendly.
                                                is my favorite Canadian province.
                                                you help the older woman with her
                          situation?
                         We think that she had                                 the record for
                         the mile run.

  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   25
 25 fun with literary titles
    (parts-of-speech review)

 Activity

 Identify the part of speech of each underlined word in these literary titles.

 1                                And Then There Were None

 2                                The Taming of the Shrew

 3                                Silent Spring

 4                                The Blue Lagoon

 5                                Tender Is the Night

 6                                Thereby Hangs a Tale

 7                                Romeo and Juliet

 8                                The Cat in the Hat

 9                                The Old Man and the Sea
                                  Writing About Your Life
                                  Our Town
                                  The Chocolate Wars
                                  Arms and the Man
                                  Far From the Madding Crowd
                                  Twelfth Night, or What You Will
                                  The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
                                  A Winter's Tale
                                  Anything Goes
                                  The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy
                                  A Room With a View


26   Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
26 parts-of-speech matching

Activity

Match the items in these two columns that deal with parts of speech. Each
item in Column A is a word, suffix, or group of words. Write the correct letter
from Column B on the line next to its corresponding number in Column A.
Each answer is used only once.


    Column A                                  Column B
    1.           past                         A. a collective noun and an adjective
    2.           activate                     B. suffix used primarily for nouns
    3.           specific                    C. can be used as a noun, a verb, and
    4.           calculated                     an adjective
    5.           -able                       D. can be used as a noun, a
    6.           -ion                           preposition, or an adjective
    7.           -ly                          E. a suffix used primarily for
    8.           invent, invention,              adjectives
                 and inventive                F. a verb only
   9.            is, being, was
                                             G. a compound preposition
  10.            snow
                                             H. a subordinating conjunction
  11.            during
                                              I. suffix used for adverbs
  12.            swift, swiftly,
                 swiftness                    J. a one-word preposition
  13.            fleet                        K. an adjective
  14.            whether                      L. consecutively, a word's adjective,
  15.            aside from                      adverb, and noun forms
                                             M. linking verbs
                                             N. consecutively, a word's verb,
                                                noun, and adjective forms
                                             O. an adjective and a past-tense verb


  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   27
SECTION TWO
 Usage
 Usage
 27 complete and simple
    subjects
 7 The complete subject (the noun or pronoun that performs the action)
     contains all the words that help to identify the main person, place,
     thing, or idea in the sentence.
     The complete subject in each sentence is italicized.

       Many teachers and two principals from our school attended the musical
         concert.
       Giraffes and monkeys in the local zoo captured the children's interest
         yesterday.
       This novel's last few chapters are replete with great sensory language.

 7 The simple subject is the main word within the complete subject.
     The simple subject is italicized in each of these sentences.

       This taco from the local store was quite tasty.
       Some people never cease to amaze me.
       These two swimmers graduated from the same high school.
       Around the corner is the local theater.


 Activity              In each sentence, underline the complete subject and circle
                       the simple subject.

 1   Threatening skies changed our picnic plans.

 2   Many engineers from neighboring communities have visited our
     sanitation plant over the last few years.

 3   Huge trucks blocked our roadway for an hour during last week's terrible
     snowstorm.

 4   The Padres will win the championship in our local softball league this
     season.

 5   The talented actress signed autographs for thirty minutes after the play.


30   Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
28 complete and simple
   predicates
7 A complete predicate is the main verb (action) along with all of
   its modifiers.
   The complete predicate is italicized in these sentences.
     Each of the seven contestants will be flying to Los Angeles next week.
     The talented mechanic fixed our car yesterday afternoon.
     My sister, a hairdresser, studied hard for her state licensing examinations.
     Can you recall his name?

7 A simple predicate (verb) is the main word or phrase that tells some-
   thing about the subject (doer) of the sentence.
   The simple predicate is italicized in these sentences.
     Izzy roamed the neighborhood last night.
     The students cheered loudly for our lacrosse team.
     Youngsters really enjoy that activity.
     Will he star in the school play?


Activity

Underline the complete predicate and circle the simple predicate.

1 The citizens heard the blaring sirens.
2 Babies were crying during the awards ceremony.
3 Talented musicians give their best efforts all the time.
4 An angry bystander yelled at the speeding motorist.
5 Who will be chosen as this year's recipient?

  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   31
 29 compound subject
    and compound predicate
 7 A compound subject is two or more subjects in a sentence. These
     subjects are joined by a conjunction and share the same verb. The com-
     pound subject is underlined in each sentence.
       Happy, Sleepy, and Doc knew Snow White.
       The horses and the king's men could not put Humpty Dumpty
         back together again.
       She and I will go to the dance tomorrow night.

 7 A compound predicate (verb) is two or more verbs that are joined by
     a conjunction and share the same subject. The compound predicates are
     underlined in each sentence.

       An experienced pilot studies and knows about air currents.
       All of these cars were made and sold in our country.
       Hearing the exciting announcement, the audience members
        loudly cheered and whistled.

 Note: In the sentence, ``Renata waxed her car, and then she parked it in the
 garage,'' the two verbs waxed and parked are not compound predicates (or
 verbs) since they do not share the same subject. Renata and she (though
 the same person) are different subjects (in different parts of the same
 sentence).


 Activity              On a separate sheet of paper, use each pair of words as com-
                       pound predicates or verbs.


 1   walked, talked                                 4    remembered, responded
 2   ran, hid                                       5    ran, threw, caught
 3   earned, donated




32   Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
30 the direct object
A direct object is a noun or pronoun that receives the action of a transitive
verb (a verb that has an object) or shows the result of that action. A direct
object answers the question ``What?'' or ``Whom?'' after the transitive verb.
In these sentences, the transitive verb is underlined, and the direct object
is italicized.

  My neighbor asked us an interesting question. (What?)
  The television set required repair. (What?)
  Tyler edited three errors in her essay. (What?)
  They oiled the skates before lacing them up. (What?)
  We guided him during the mountain climb. (Whom?)
  James met Mr. Hunt in the school's main office. (Whom?)


Activity

Lucky Seven: Fill in the direct object with a word having these first and last
letters and the total number of letter within the parentheses. The first one is
done for you.

1 The man greeted his brother (7).
2 The baseball coach gave the man on base a s                                       n (4).

3 This bee gave off a painful s                g (5).

4 Pull the kite's s               g (6).

5 that horse. reckless gambler, placed a large w
  Johnson, a                                                                         r (5) on


6 supermarket. a b
  Sylvia selected                               t (4) from the vegetable section of the


7 Seymour found his old woolen s                                    r (7) in the closet.



  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   33
 31 the indirect object
 An indirect object is a noun, pronoun, or word group that answers the ques-
 tion ``to whom?'' or ``for whom?'' after the action verb. An indirect object
 precedes a direct object in the sentence.
 In each sentence, the indirect object is italicized, and the direct object
 is underlined.
     Mr. Higgins gave Penny an award. (To whom was the award
      given?--Penny)
     Laura gave us a challenging problem. (To whom did Laura give
       the challenging problem?--us)
     Their efforts earned them a handsome reward. (Earned a handsome
       reward for whom?--them)
     Can Harold purchase his mother a new home? (Purchase a new
       home for whom?--his mother)

 Note: Remember the difference between an indirect object and an object
 of the preposition.

     The comedian told her a joke. (The indirect object is her, and the
       direct object is joke.)
     The comedian told the joke to her. (The direct object is joke, and the
       object of the preposition is her. There is no indirect object.)


 Activity

 Circle the indirect object, and underline the direct object in each sentence.

 1    Hillary's minister gave her a compliment.

 2    Lance lent me some money to attend the concert.

 3    Dad cooked Mom a delicious dinner last night.

 4    Have they brought you the newspaper yet?

 5    Will you please tell her the secret?


34    Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
32 the object of the preposition
The object of the preposition is the noun or pronoun that follows a prepo-
sition and completes the prepositional phrase. The prepositional phrase can
also include modifiers.
In the sentence, ``The orange juice box was in the new refrigerator,'' the
prepositional phrase is ``in the new refrigerator.'' This phrase answers
the question ``Where (is the orange juice box)?'' The object of the preposition
is refrigerator. The modifier, or describer, is new.
The compound objects of the preposition are two or more objects, such as
``Mom (and) Dad'' in the sentence, ``The party was paid for by Mom and Dad.''


Activity

In each sentence below, underline the prepositional phrase, and circle the
object of the preposition.

 1 Our plans for the trip will need to change now.
 2 We will need to change our plans for the occasion.
 3 Unless the Grant family adds more space to their home, they will
     probably have to move.

 4 Can you find your way home without me?
 5 The picture sent from China is breathtaking.
 6 Will Jermaine be willing to walk the dog after dinner?
 7 This playground was built by community volunteers.
 8 All of the puppets were bought immediately.
 9 The puppets were sold by Christina and Carla.
     Was he waiting long for you and Moe?




  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   35
 33 objects and 8­7­5

 Activity

 Twenty objects are underlined. There are eight direct objects (DO), seven
 indirect objects (IO), and five objects of the preposition (OP). Write the
 two-letter code on the line before each sentence.

     1             Two Navy officials award Hugo a medal.

     2             His physician told Brian the best way to lose weight.

     3             Sylvester gave his sister a gift during the ceremony.

     4             The cartoons on the large screen entertained us.

     5             All of the directors gave the young starlet good suggestions.

     6             Frank gave Jim a hard time.

     7             After his win, the racer celebrated with friends.

     8             Give Nancy your bike for this leg of the trip.

     9             The scientist brought the experiment's results to his colleagues.
                   Patsy brought her friends more cold lemonade.
                   Brad Lawrence, the hotel's owner, went to the chiropractor
                   last Wednesday.
                   Our principal, Mr. Hartill, taught us a valuable lesson.
                   Ms. Bossi gave Mr. Shierant the keys to the gymnasium.
                   Please bring the book back to Bobbie Brennan.
                   Show me the correct method.
                   Has Yvonne ever given her sister the secret that we share?
                   Wilma walked Dino along the dusty path.
                   They found the situation quite alarming.
                   I showed Christine the city's new plans.
                   Seth remembered the answer after his test had been collected.


36       Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
34 subject complements--
   predicate nominatives and
   predicate adjectives
A subject complement is a word or group of words within the complete
predicate that either identifies (with a predicate nominative) or describes (with
a predicate adjective) the subject (doer of the action). There are two types of
subject complements--the predicate adjective (the describer) and the predicate
nominative (the identifier).
As an example, in the sentence, ``Our Town is a play written by Thornton
Wilder,'' the complete predicate, is a play written by Thornton Wilder, includes
play (predicate nominative), the word that identifies what Our Town is. In
the sentence, ``The play was interesting and inspirational,'' the complete
predicate, was interesting and inspirational, includes the words interesting and
inspirational (two predicate adjectives) to describe what the play was.
The subject complement is underlined in these sentences.
  O'Hare is a very busy airport. (predicate nominative)
  Mike Smith is a terrific friend. (predicate nominative)
  Indiana's capital city is Indianapolis. (predicate nominative)
  She was the first president of that association. (predicate nominative)
  Mitchell's report was factually correct. (predicate adjective)
  The lake's water was crystal clear. (predicate adjective)
  Gary's parents and grandparents are quite successful in the business world.
    (predicate adjective)
  The basement was moldy, dusty, and unpainted. (predicate adjectives)


Activity

Fill in each blank with a predicate nominative or a predicate adjective.

1 My uncle's observations are generally                                                             .

2 Kathy's new car is                                                                                .

3 Unfortunately, the movie was a(n)                                                                 .

4 The name of our school's principal is                                                             .

5 The capital city of Wyoming is                                                                    .


   Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.       37
 35 Predicate nominative,
    predicate adjective,
    or neither?
 Activity

 Five of the underlined words are predicate nominatives (PN); five are
 predicate adjectives (PA); and five are neither (NE). On the line before each
 sentence, write the two-letter code to indicate your answer.

     1             Elizabeth Bennet is her favorite literary character.

     2             She is very agile as a dancer.

     3             All of the musicians in the orchestra recalled their favorite
                   experiences.

     4             The younger man is our new state senator.

     5             Last year's festival held in the state capital's fields was fair.

     6             These experienced carpenters displayed great craftsmanship over
                   the last few months.

     7             The immediate effects of the new legislation are widespread.

     8             The message that he tried to interpret was cryptic.

     9             Today's weather conditions are cold and rainy.
                   Monty and his buddies saw the kayaks in the store's large
                   window.
                   I had to meet my counselor, Mr. Wilhelm, after lunch.
                   The most talented scientists in our school are Tameka and Jose.
                   Tom L. Morgan is the architect in this photograph.
                   We had never seen them perform before last night.
                   This past drought was a huge problem for the farmers.



38       Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
36 introducing phrases
A phrase is a related group of words that functions as a part of speech and
does not contain both a subject and a verb.

7 Verb phrases do not contain a subject. Examples of verb phrases
   include has been laughing, will remain, and does believe.

7 Prepositional phrases, such as the adjective phrase and the adverb
   phrase, do not have a subject or a verb. Examples of prepositional
   phrases are in the beginning, at the end, and after the trial.

7 Participial phrases function as adjectives. In the sentence, ``Walking
   home after the movie, Joe felt happy,'' the participial phrase is
   Walking home after the movie, and the participle is Walking.

7 Gerund phrases function as nouns. Gerund phrases can be used as
   subjects, predicate nominatives, direct objects, indirect objects, and
   objects of the preposition. In the sentence, ``Walking home from the
   movies was a good time for Joe and his friends,'' the gerund phrase used
   as a subject is Walking home from the movies.

7 Infinitive phrases function as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs. In the
   sentence, ``To beat the old record was Nina's goal,'' the infinitive phrase
   is To beat the old record, and the infinitive is To beat.

7 Appositive phrases describe or identify another noun or pronoun
   in the sentence. In the sentence, ``Lake Harris, our favorite vacation
   spot, is off the beaten path,'' the appositive is spot, and the appositive
   phrase is our favorite vacation spot.




  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   39
 37 the verb phrase
 A verb phrase is the main verb and one or more helping verbs.

 Common helping verbs include these words in the box.
            am      are       be        been    being    can        could     did    do
            does    doing     had       has     have     having     is        may    might
            must    shall     should    was     were     will       would

 The verb phrases are underlined in these sentences.
     Many doctors have been concerned about the new flu.
     Some of the new stamps were purchased by the collector.
     The collector had purchased the new stamps.
     We had never witnessed such a hysterical scene. (Never is an adverb modifying the
      main verb, witnessed, and is not part of the verb phrase.)
     Will you remember my address and phone number? (You is the pronoun subject of
      the sentence and is not part of the verb phrase.)
     Is Emma practicing her piano now? (Emma is the sentence's subject and is not part
        of the verb phrase.)
     The runner had not been passed by any of the other contestants. (Not is an adverb
       and is not part of the verb phrase.)



 Activity                 Use each of the verb phrases in a sentence.


 1 had been writing

 2 will go

 3 can be replaced


40    Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
38 the prepositional phrase
A prepositional phrase begins with a preposition and usually ends with a
noun or a pronoun.
The prepositional phrase is underlined in each sentence.
  The elderly man went to the doctor's office today.
  In the morning, the elementary school students perform their exercises.
  These magicians performed many tricks for the children.
  Tomas walked into the dark house.

The word that ends the prepositional phrase is the object of the preposition.
In each of these sentences, the prepositional phrases are underlined, and
the objects of the preposition are italicized.
  All of the trees had been pruned by the workers.
  Someone in this office has borrowed the stapler from Markisha.
  Will you show your necklace to your grandparents?


Activity

Underline the prepositional phrases and circle the object of the preposition
in each of these ten sentences. There may be more than one prepositional
phrase in the sentence.

1 She was lonesome without him.
2 They were jogging throughout the neighborhood.
3 Beyond the river is a beautiful park.
4 All of the sailors climbed aboard the ship.
5 In the meantime, please watch my backpack.
6 Therese had never seen such a sight in her backyard.
7 There was very little talk during the movie.
8 These men with their equipment are experts.
9 Some of the boats were moving along the river.
    All of the women except Denise will be at the meeting.


  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   41
 39 the adjective phrase
 An adjective phrase is a prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or
 a pronoun. This phrase answers the question Which one? The adjective
 phrase follows right after the noun or pronoun that it modifies or describes.
 Generally, if you cannot logically move the prepositional phrase within the
 sentence, it is most often an adjective phrase. Remember that an adjective
 phrase contains no verb.
 The adjective phrases are underlined in these sentences.

     Some programs at our local library were requested last year. (Which
       programs? the ones in our local library)
     These women in this photograph are my aunts. (Which women?
       the ones in the photograph)
     The programs on her favorite television station are often repeated.
       (Which programs? the ones on her favorite television station)


 Activity

 If the underlined prepositional phrase is an adjective phrase, write YES on the
 line before the sentence. If it is not, write NO.

 1            In the morning the cook prepares many different meals.

 2            The car in our driveway was recently purchased.

 3            These cameras near the office building are huge.

 4            We were more than happy with the new arrangements.

 5            Nicole has been traveling on many business trips lately.




42    Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
40 the adverb phrase
A prepositional phrase that answers any of these questions--When? Where?
How? Why? Under what conditions? or To what degree?--is an adverb phrase.
If you can logically move the prepositional phrase within the sentence, it
is probably an adverb phrase. Remember that an adverb phrase contains
no verb.
The adverb phrases in these sentences are underlined.
  We walked after dinner. (When?)
  The little boys and girls ran into the hallway. (Where?)
  Audrey, one of the chaperones, certainly handled herself with class
    yesterday. (How?)
  John built the wooden shed with much assistance. (Under what
    conditions?)
  The underdog candidate won the state election by a landslide. (To
    what degree?)


Activity

In each of these sentences, insert an adverb phrase that answers the ques-
tion in the parentheses found after the sentence. Do not include any verbs
within these adverb phrases!

1 The hilarious cartoon aired                               . (When?)

2 Wendy followed the older child                               . (Where?)

3 None of these young children could lift the heavy packages
                                              . (How?)

4 (Why?)
  The championship boxing match was canceled                                                       .


5                                       we like to jog with our friends. (When?)


  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.       43
 41 adjective and adverb
    phrases review

 Activity

 On the line before each sentence, write ADJ if the underlined prepositional
 phrase is an adjective phrase or ADVB if it is an adverb phrase.

     1             The magician with his rabbit entertained the crowd.

     2             With the rabbit, the magician entertained the crowd.

     3             During the storm we were quite frightened.

     4             The noise during the storm frightened us.

     5             Some information in this book helped me with my report.

     6             Sean left his pencil in this book.

     7             We found the missing coins on the track.

     8             The shoes on the track are Roberta's.

     9             The news program at five o'clock features local stories.
                   We ate dinner at five o'clock.
                   These planes directly above us are moving quite rapidly.
                   The planes moved very fast above us.
                   These plans for the new recreation center are fabulous!
                   Much money was donated for the new recreation center.
                   In the taxi cab, we had a heated conversation.
                   Our conversation in the taxi cab was heated.
                   The benches in our backyard are brand new.
                   Dad moved the benches into our backyard.
                   Have you met our new senator from Vermont?
                   We are four hours away from Vermont.


44       Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
42 prepositional phrases review

Activity

Underline the prepositional phrase in each sentence. Then write ADJ on
the line before the sentence if the phrase is an adjective phrase or ADVB if
it is an adverb phrase.

1            The lawn was seeded today by the maintenance workers.

2            We will open the museum's doors in a few minutes.

3            Tickets to tomorrow night's concert will be sold starting
             this morning.

4            There is a hint within every sentence.

5            Several investigators asked us questions during their investigation.

6            In fact, I do remember that funny incident.

7            Water in this tank must be drained often.

8            Without much fanfare the actress greeted her admiring fans.

9            The student finished reading the book that was in her van.
             The Senior Citizens Center requested donations instead of
             something else.
             Barbara's bicycle with the basket should be moved soon.
             The view from Hester's living room is breathtaking.
             No lifeguard is on duty now.
             Such a wondrous event had not taken place near our house.
             Grab the rope with both hands.
             The buoy was bobbing in the bay.
             The buoys in the ocean were bobbing.
             We had waited for a very long time.
             Rachel's look of surprise confused us.
             The minister looked up into the heavens.


  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   45
 43 the appositive
 An appositive is a noun or pronoun (often with modifiers) that is placed
 beside another noun or pronoun to explain or identify it. Essentially, an
 appositive is an additional word or group of words used to tell more about
 who (or what) that noun or pronoun is. No verb appears in an appositive
 phrase.
 In each sentence below, the appositive phrase is underlined, and the apposi-
 tive is italicized.
     Michelle Rogers, the lifeguard at Smith's Beach, made three saves
        last month.
     ``The Ugly Duckling,'' Hans Christian Andersen's story, has entertained
        many children over the years.
     My daughter's car, a Toyota, has certainly served her well.
     The Little Red Deli, our neighborhood store, is more than seventy-five
        years old.
     Eleven, Joe's house number, is also his uniform's number.
     The cheetah, the fastest land animal, sprinted across the plains.
     Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, the famous author, won many writing
        awards.


 Activity               Insert an appositive phrase into each of these five sen-
                        tences. Remember that verbs are not included in apposi-
                        tives or appositive phrases.

 1    I just finished reading my favorite book,                                                        .

 2    Our class members recently visited Arizona's capital city,
                                    .

 3 Barack Obama,                                                , attended Harvard College.

 4 quickly each year.
   December,                                                    , seems to go by very


 5 to college. friend,
   Juan's best                                                           , won a scholarship



46    Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
44 Appositive, verb,
   or prepositional phrase?

Activity

Indicate whether the underlined phrase is an appositive (A), verb (V), or
prepositional (P) phrase by writing the corresponding letter on the line
before the sentence.

1          The machinist was elated with his substantial raise.

2          LeBron James, an NBA star, can easily score against most of
           his opponents.

3          Lupita played well in the second half of the soccer game.

4          The boxer used his most powerful weapon, the left hook, very
           often during the match.

5          Some of the marchers had been exhausted by the hot sun during
           the parade.

6          Will you lend me your eraser for next period's class?

7          Abraham Lincoln, a man of many talents, was the sixteenth
           U.S. president.

8          ``Red, the color of my aunt's car, is also my favorite color,''
           Mitch stated.

9          Patsy, a mischief maker, creates havoc for her family members.
           Warren has never forgotten his sisters' birthdays.
           These ducks in the photograph are so cute together.
           Physics has been Jeremy's most challenging class this semester.
           The crowd cheered throughout the concert.
           Marty, a World War II veteran, was John's uncle.
           James Short had kept the prized autograph in a safe place.



  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   47
 45 the participle and participial
    phrase
 7 A word that looks like a verb, but functions as an adjective, is a
     participle. A participle is a type of verbal, a word that is formed from
     a verb, but functions as another part of speech. Common endings for
     participles are -ing (reading), -ed (returned), -en (broken), -d (said),
     -t (lent), and -n (woven).
     Each italicized word in these sentences is a participle.
       Mom's puzzling answer confused us.
       These squandered opportunities will not come again soon.
       This forgotten soldier will be honored by the townspeople
         next weekend.
       The paid workers were happy with their salaries.
       Steve's unsent messages were still stored in his computer.
       A driven athlete will push herself to the limit.

 7 A participial phrase consists of the participle, its modifiers, and other
     words needed to complete the idea begun by the participle. This type of
     phrase generally follows immediately after or right before the noun
     it describes.
     The participial phrase is underlined in each sentence.
       Leaving the press conference, the politician felt confident about
         her answers.
       A memo sent to all the employees was well received.
       The teacher's best lesson delivered to his eighth graders dealt with
         literary allusions.
       My dad's present, bought by his sisters, was a gold watch.
       Acclaimed by many critics as the year's best movie, The Sound of
         Music won many awards.
       The Sound of Music, acclaimed by many critics as the year's
         best movie, won many awards.


48   Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
46 Participial phrase or not?

Activity             Indicate whether the underlined group of words in each
                     sentence is a participial phrase by writing PART on the line
                     before the sentence. If it is not, write NO on the line.

1            The tourists were waiting for the leader's directions.

2            Startled by the loud noise, the parakeet excitedly flew around
             the cage.

3            The birds soaring above us were enjoying themselves.

4            Leaving her child at nursery school on the first day of class was
             not easy for Mrs. Plunkett.

5            It was difficult for Perkins to remember his neighbor's telephone
             number.

6            The director speaking to the cast members is Mr. Flores.

7            Burning leaves in one's backyard is illegal in our village.

8            The screens placed into their windows by Patsy had been
             repaired by Doug Hayes.

9            Reading three newspapers a day, Christine enjoyed herself on
             Cape Cod that week.
             Frolicking with the dogs was fun for Luke's cat.
             Our goalie was congratulated by all of us.
             The young boy running with his friends is my nephew.
             Guided by her trusty dog, Debbie found her way to the market.
             A book read by many high school students is To Kill
             a Mockingbird.
             The gymnast had struggled with her challenging routine.


  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   49
 47 the gerund
    and gerund phrase
 7 A gerund, the second type of verbal, ends in -ing and functions as a
     noun. A gerund's uses are many--subject, direct object, subject comple-
     ment (predicate nominative), appositive, and object of the preposition.
     If a gerund or the entire gerund phrase is removed from the sentence,
     the remaining words will not form a complete, logical sentence.
     The underlined word in each sentence is a gerund. Its use is within the
     parentheses that follow the sentence.
       Learning is fun for Kate and Moe. (subject)
       Marcia loves sewing. (direct object)
       A fun time for Rachel is reading. (predicate nominative)
       His passion, traveling, inspired him in many ways. (appositive)
       Geraldine has a love for traveling. (object of
         the preposition)

 7 A gerund phrase includes the gerund, its modifiers, and the words
     that complete the idea begun by the gerund.
     In each sentence, the gerund is italicized, and the gerund phrase is
     underlined.
       Shopping for new dresses excites Terry Anne. (subject)
       The orchestra members enjoy rehearsing for long periods of time.
         (direct object)
       Tommy's passion is running long distances. (predicate nominative)
       Joanna's love, running, kept her very fit. (appositive)
       Can you pass the test by studying very hard this month? (object of the
         preposition)
     Note: Remember that the same phrase can have several uses.
       The man signaling to you is my grandfather. (participial phrase)
       Signaling to you was not difficult. (gerund phrase)
       The player passing the soccer ball is James. (participial phrase)
       Passing the soccer ball was hard for that man. (gerund phrase)


50   Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
48 Gerund or not?

Activity

Ten of these underlined groups of words are gerund phrases. Place a check-
mark on the line next to those ten sentences that contain gerund phrases.

1           The dog groomer was brushing Murphy's hair.

2           Making this work will be fairly easy for Kate.

3           Brushing Murphy's hair, the dog groomer seemed to be
            enjoying herself.

4           Latoya's sister enjoys watching sci-fi movies.

5           Thomas Edison's passion was experimenting in the lab.

6           Launching his boat this summer was a thrill for Jimmy.

7           My uncle recalled walking two miles to school with his friends
            each morning.

8           These artists working on the mural will finish soon.

9           Monique's arms were tired from lifting all these heavy weights
            at the gym.
            Rex's favorite hobby is collecting stamps.
            Trying to reach his friends by telephone, Willy looked forward
            to telling them the good news.
            Hubie detested making loud noises.
            James enjoys playing his guitar.
            Illustrating books was fun for Maureen.
            After that, the commentator was interviewing the country's
            new leader.




  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   51
 49 the infinitive and infinitive
    phrase
 7 The third type of verbal, in addition to the participle and the gerund,
     is the infinitive. An infinitive is composed of the word to plus a verb.
     Examples of the infinitive include to remember, to cuddle, to pacify,
     and to yodel.
        Infinitives can function as nouns, adjectives, and adverbs.

       To succeed is Ted's goal. (noun--subject of the sentence)
       Franklin's goal was to succeed. (noun--predicate nominative)
       Melissa wanted to succeed. (noun--direct object)
       Kelly has the drive to succeed. (adjective--Which drive? the drive
         to succeed)
       Kelly will endeavor to succeed. (adverb--How will Kelly endeavor?
         to succeed)

 7 An infinitive phrase is composed of the infinitive, its modifiers (or
     describers), and all the other words that are needed to complete the idea
     begun by the infinitive.

       To stay up later was the child's wish. (noun--subject)
       Lorene desired to be a doctor. (noun--direct object)
       My cousin's goal was to make the New York Yankees. (noun--
        predicate nominative)
       Henry's ultimate goal was to make other people happy. (noun--
        predicate nominative)
       The musical to see is Oklahoma! (adjective--Which musical?
         Oklahoma!)
       The strong lifeguard swam out to save the struggling swimmer.
         (adverb--Why did the lifeguard swim out? to save the struggling
         swimmer)




52   Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
50 the many uses
   of the infinitive phrase

Activity

Underline the infinitive phrase in each sentence. Then indicate on the
line before the sentence if the infinitive phrase is used as a noun (N),
adjective (ADJ), or adverb (ADVB).

 1            Claudio left early to meet his brother.

 2            Haley's dream is to revisit Europe.

 3            To collect the entire series of presidential cards is my goal.

 4            All the students were excited to display their artwork.

 5            Kate's determination to teach well is quite obvious.

 6            Patsy likes to listen to Broadway tunes.

 7            We walked to the pizza parlor to buy some Italian
              hero sandwiches.

 8            My relatives were the most important people to invite to
              the ceremony.

 9            Eloise did try to call you last night.
              Sheilah was very excited to participate in the contest.
              The best way to improve your performance is no secret.
              Is this the proper way to hold the musical instrument?
              The finest way to memorize the poem is through practice.
              Lenka opened the book to find the correct answer.
              To do all of her illustrations well was Maureen's goal.




  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   53
 51 verbal phrase review

 Activity

 Underline the verbal phrase in each sentence. Then, in the space before the
 sentence, indicate if the phrase is a participial (P), gerund (G), or infinitive (I)
 phrase.

     1           The teacher helping the English 11 students is Mr. Pryal.

     2           The emcee wanted to introduce the contestants.

     3           To learn the Greek alphabet was the young scholar's goal.

     4           Participating in the Indy 500 this year was fun for the veteran
                 driver.

     5           These primary-grade students enjoy drawing on the board.

     6           Skateboarding most of the morning, Jason did not tire easily.

     7           This speaker is the one to watch.

     8           Knowing how to get back to its nest, the oriole started on
                 his journey.

     9           Watching the bathers swim occupied the man's time this
                 morning.
                 A man recognizing his mistakes should correct them.
                 Running after his kite was a chore for the little boy.
                 Talking on the cell phone was a distraction for the motorist.
                 She ran across the crowded city street to catch the taxi.
                 The crossword puzzle contest held in New York City was well
                 attended again last year.
                 One day Marcellino hopes to win his town's art contest.


54       Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
52 matching the phrases
   in context

Activity

Match the underlined, numbered phrase in each selection with its name and
code found in the box. The same code letters will be used in both selections.
Each letter is used only once in each selection. All letters are used in
both selections.

                A = verb phrase                    E = infinitive phrase
                B = adjective phrase               F = gerund phrase
                C = adverb phrase                  G = appositive phrase
                D = participial phrase

(SELECTION ONE)
Driving the golf ball more than two hundred yards (1), Phil wanted to do the
same on the next hole (2) in this tournament (3). He had played (4) well last
week here at Green Valley Golf Course, but he wanted today to be special (5).
Putting the ball accurately on these greens (6), a difficult task (7), would take
great skill.

  1.           2.            3.            4.             5.           6.            7.

(SELECTION TWO)
Have you ever wanted to visit Ireland (1), the home of many talented writers
(2)? Going to a foreign country (3) can be a wonderful opportunity. Many
people traveling in tour groups (4) like that the trip has already been planned
(5) for them. Others choose to tour by themselves (6). No matter how you go,
visiting Ireland is the experience of a lifetime (7).

  1.           2.            3.            4.             5.           6.            7.



  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   55
 53 showing what you know
    about phrases
 Here is a quick activity that allows you to display your skills with phrases. Do
 your best!


 Activity

 Match the items in Column A with those in Column B. Use each
 number and letter only once.

     Column A                                   Column B

     1.        verb phrase                      A. a noun or pronoun that is placed
                                                   beside another noun or pronoun
                                                   to identify or describe it
     2.        adjective phrase
                                                B. a verb form that ends in -ing and
                                                   functions as a noun
     3.        adverb phrase                    C. a prepositional phrase that modi-
                                                   fies a noun or a pronoun
                                                D. includes at least one main verb
     4.        appositive                          and one or more helping verbs
                                                E. a verb form that functions as an
     5.        participial                         adjective
                                                F. a verb form that can be used as a
                                                   noun, an adjective, or an adverb
     6.        infinitive
                                                G. a prepositional phrase that mod-
                                                   ifies a verb, an adjective, or an
     7.        gerund                              adverb




56   Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
54 happy in ten different
   ways

Activity

Here are ten tasks to check on your knowledge of various grammar topics
that you have covered in class thus far. Every sentence will include the
word happy! Write your sentences on a separate sheet of paper.


1 Use happy within a prepositional phrase.
2 Use happy as an adjective that describes the sentence's subject.
3 Use happy as part of a gerund phrase.
4 Use happy within a participial phrase.
5 Use happy within an infinitive phrase.
6 Use happy as part of an appositive phrase.
7 Use happy as a predicate adjective.
8 Use happy as the subject of a sentence.
9 Use happy as part of an adjective phrase.
    Use happy within an adverb phrase.




  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   57
 55 writing with variety

 Activity

 Here is your chance to show how you can use many different types of word
 and sentence constructions in your writing. Underline each phrase or clause
 that you use in each sentence. Write your answers on a separate sheet
 of paper.

     1    Write a sentence that contains an adjective phrase.


     2    Write a sentence that contains an adverb phrase.


     3    Write a sentence that starts with a participial phrase.


     4    Write a sentence that ends with an infinitive phrase.


     5    Write a sentence that starts with a gerund phrase.


     6    Write a sentence that includes an appositive phrase.


     7    Write a sentence that includes an adjective clause.


     8    Start a sentence with an adverb clause.


     9    End a sentence with a noun clause.


          Write a sentence that contains two adverb phrases.




58       Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
56 phrases finale

Activity

Write True or False on the line before each statement.

1              A prepositional phrase can function as an adjective or
               an adverb.

2              ``Because of'' is not a preposition.

3              A gerund phrase can function as a noun.

4              The noun or pronoun that generally ends a prepositional
               phrase is called the object of the preposition.

5              A gerund phrase can be removed from the sentence, and the
               sentence will still make sense.

6              ``Called out at third base'' is an example of a gerund phrase.

7              ``We went to the dance'' includes a prepositional phrase that
               functions as an adjective.

8              There are three types of verbals--the participle, the gerund,
               and the infinitive.

9              ``The candidate to choose is Juan Ramos'' includes a participial
               phrase.
               An adjective phrase can include a verb.
               A prepositional phrase acting as an adjective generally follows
               right after the word it modifies.
               ``To see the beauty of nature'' is an example of an infinitive
               phrase.
               In the sentence, ``Removing the furniture from the upstairs
               rooms was not easy,'' the phrase ``Removing the furniture
               from the upstairs rooms'' is a participial phrase.
               A pronoun can be the object of the preposition.
               The phrase ``of the majority'' is a prepositional phrase.



  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   59
 57 introducing clauses
 A clause is a group of words that has both a subject and a verb. Any simple
 sentence is a clause. Unlike phrases, clauses include both a subject and a verb.
 The specific types of clauses are the following:

 7 A main or independent clause is a group of words that can stand
     alone. ``Jeremiah was a bullfrog'' is such a clause.

 7 A subordinate or dependent clause is a group of words that
     cannot stand alone. This clause needs to be accompanied by a main
     or independent clause to make sense. In the sentence, ``Moe went to
     the department store after she finished her drawings,'' the subordinate
     or dependent clause is after she finished her drawings, and the main or
     independent clause is Moe went to the department store.

 The three types of subordinate or dependent clauses are these:

 7 The adverb clause is a group of words that functions as an adverb.
     In the sentence, ``While Nick was riding his bike, he saw his friends
     walking along the street,'' the adverb clause is While Nick was riding
     his bike.

 7 The adjective clause is a group of words that functions as an adjective.
     In the sentence, ``Doris is the woman who designed the mural,'' the
     adjective clause who designed the mural describes the woman.

 7 The noun clause is a group of words that functions as a noun. In the
     sentence, ``This is what the doctor recommended to me,'' the noun
     clause is what the doctor recommended to me. The clause functions as a
     predicate nominative.




60   Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
58 the adverb clause
An adverb clause functions as an adverb. This clause answers any of these
questions--How? When? Where? Why? How much? How often? It has a subject
and a verb, but it cannot stand alone as a complete thought. It needs to be
joined with an independent or main clause to make sense. An adverb clause
starts with any of the following subordinating conjunctions:

                      after                although            as
                      as if                as long as          as soon as
                      as though            because             before
                      if                   in order that       once
                      provided that        since               so that
                      than                 though              unless
                      until                when                whenever
                      where                wherever            while

Each adverb clause is underlined in the following sentences:
  After the captain docked the large ship, her crew members cheered.
    (When?)
  Because his arm was aching, Mr. Hopkins went to the doctor. (Why?)
  You can go with us if you would like to do so. (How?)
  Monica is more intelligent than she thinks she is. (How much?)


Activity

Underline the adverb clause in each sentence.

1 While Rome burned, Nero fiddled.
2 Until the weather conditions improve, the boat will not leave the pier.
3 Hector entered the room before we did.
4 Even though Marcelle was tired, she still completed her workout.
5 You can enter the building if you have the custodian's permission.

  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   61
 59 nailing down the adverb
    clause

 Activity

 Ten of these sentences contain adverb clauses. The other five do not. Place
 a checkmark on the line next to those sentences that contain an
 adverb clause.

     1            Do you know when the movie will finish?

     2            Because I am tired, I will not participate.

     3            Emma left the game before me.

     4            Fiona stayed here while we went fishing.

     5            Unless I am incorrect, this is their house.

     6            Some of the antelopes that were here have been relocated.

     7            Larry looked as if he had seen a ghost.

     8            Before the band played, we left to get a snack.

     9            Did they see where Terry went?
                  Have you seen the principal since then?
                  Though the officer stopped them, she did not ticket them.
                  My brother seemed so tall at that time.
                  Even though you are younger than they are, you are
                  more talented.
                  Because the exam is tomorrow, I must study tonight.
                  After the contest, we will go for a nice meal.




62       Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
60 the adjective clause
An adjective clause (a group of words with at least one subject and one
verb) is a subordinate or dependent clause that functions as an adjective. This
type of clause answers the question, Which one? Relative pronouns, such as
who, whom, which, and that, begin adjective clauses. At times, words such
as where or when can also begin adjective clauses. If you delete the adjective
clause from a sentence, you will still have a full (though less informative)
sentence.
In the following sentences, the adjective clause is underlined. Notice the
word that begins the clause.
  This extremely intelligent geologist, who is also a talented juggler,
    has been asked to visit the State Assembly later this month.
  The street that you live on is scheduled to be repaved next month.
  The movie director, whom you read about last week, will be
    promoting her new film throughout Europe.
There are essentially two types of adjective clauses--restrictive and unrestric-
tive clauses.

7 A restrictive (or essential) adjective clause offers essential
   information that is necessary to complete the sentence's thought.
   An example of this is, ``The trophy that was presented to you is
   enormous.'' Here, the adjective clause that was presented to you restricts
   the information to just that trophy.

7 An unrestrictive (or nonessential) clause simply offers more
   information about the noun it describes. In the sentence, ``The trophy,
   which was made in Canada, was presented to you,'' the adjective clause
   which was made in Canada is nonessential to the sentence. It just offers
   more information about the trophy.




  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   63
 61 recognizing adjective clauses

 Activity

 Underline the adjective clause in each sentence. Then circle the relative
 pronoun. Finally, draw a line from the relative pronoun to the word
 (or words) that the clause modifies.

     1    Will this be the only instrument that you will play tonight?

     2    This next batter, who has sixteen home runs, is only twenty years old.

     3    The motorcycle that your dad purchased should be cleaned often.

     4    Our former college president for whom this award has been named
          will be in attendance this evening.

     5    Have the answers that you submitted been reviewed yet?

     6    Miguel, who won last year's contest, is seeded first in this year's
          competition.

     7    This is the exact spot where the hide-and-seek game began last night.

     8    Some films, which I have not watched, were made in black and white.

     9    This is the hour when most people should be getting ready for bed.
          A few graduates whom I have already contacted will help with
          the reunion.
          Doctor Gavigan, who is a very competent podiatrist, practices in
          New England.
          These proposals that the committee has questioned will be discussed
          again at next month's meeting.
          A word that has an interesting origin is curfew.
          Those who chose to leave the session can get the information
          next time.
          The only person to whom I have told this personal information is you.


64       Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
62 the noun clause
A noun clause (a group of words that has at least one subject and one verb)
is a subordinate or dependent clause that functions, as its name suggests, as
a noun.

It can be a subject, direct object, indirect object, object of the preposition, or
a predicate nominative. This type of clause often starts with any one of these
words--how, that, what, whatever, when, where, whether, which, whichever, who,
whoever, whom, whomever, whose, and why.

The noun clause is underlined in each of these sentences. Its function within
the sentence follows in the parentheses.

  What you thought about that candidate is correct. (subject)

  The paleontologist remembers when he met you at the conference.
    (direct object)
  Will these older folks recall how they were part of a terrific
   generation? (direct object)
  Remind whoever is on your discussion panel that we will meet
    tomorrow morning in the library. (indirect object)
  Give whoever needs that information the correct numbers.
    (indirect object)
  Mr. Bellington reminded us of where we should obtain the necessary
   papers for our licenses. (object of the preposition)
  My children's request is that you wear your silly tie to the birthday
   party. (predicate nominative)
  The lady's wish is that you bring her some pansies and daisies.
    (predicate nominative)




  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   65
 63 the many uses of the noun
    clause

 Activity

 Indicate the function of the underlined noun clause in each sentence. Write
 the correct letter codes on the line preceding each sentence. Each function is
 used at least once.
     S = subject        IO = indirect object           PN = predicate nominative
     DO = direct object OP = object of the preposition

     1             These math teachers taught us whatever we needed to know for
                   the exam.
     2             The winner will be whichever speller correctly spells the
                   most words.
     3             When the next door will open is puzzling to all of us.
     4             Give the survey's results to whoever asks for them.
     5             The family's housekeeper scrubbed whichever floors were dirty.
     6             I asked whomever I wanted to come to the dance.
     7             Whatever time you decide to leave is fine with me.
     8             That these clams cannot be opened more easily frustrates
                   Samantha.
     9             Winning the raffle prize was what excited him the most.
                   Winnie presented whoever had earned fifty tickets with a
                   certificate.
                   My younger brother forgot that he needed to pick up the shirt
                   from the cleaners.
                   You may travel with whomever you desire.
                   Fred is very aware of what you meant.
                   What was on the screen was very intriguing.
                   Working diligently for many years is why Dr. Hutter is a leader
                   in the field of dentistry.


66       Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
64 adjective, adverb, and noun
   clauses

Activity

Circle the correct letter of the underlined clause, and then write that letter on
the line before the sentence. Finally, write these ten consecutive letters on the
line below the last sentence to spell out an interesting ten-letter word.

1          Whenever you need a lift, call me.
           (b) adjective clause (q) adverb clause (j) noun clause

2          Give this ticket to whomever needs to get in here.
           (a) adjective clause (k) adverb clause (u) noun clause

3          The trampoline that is in your backyard is great fun.
           (e) adjective clause (p) adverb clause (y) noun clause

4          I will assist you as soon as I can.
           (e) adjective clause (s) adverb clause (c) noun clause

5          Can you read while others are talking around you?
           (h) adjective clause (t) adverb clause (d) noun clause

6          This is the computer that you bought.
           (i) adjective clause (c) adverb clause (w) noun clause

7          Pia decided that she will go to college this semester.
           (a) adjective clause (i) adverb clause (o) noun clause

8          Mr. Jones, who is my mayor, will be here this evening.
           (n) adjective clause (b) adverb clause (m) noun clause

9          These magnificent mountains that we just saw are breathtaking.
           (e) adjective clause (u) adverb clause (n) noun clause
           I understand what you mean by that.
           (y) adjective clause (t) adverb clause (r) noun clause

The ten-letter word is                                                                         .



  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   67
 65 identifying phrases
    and clauses

 Activity

 Identify the underlined group of words by writing the code letter that is
 found within the box below. Write the letter on the line before the sentence.
 Each letter is used at least once.
            A = adjective phrase         D = infinitive phrase          G = adverb clause
            B = adverb phrase            E = participial phrase         H = adjective clause
            C = gerund phrase            F = appositive phrase          I = noun clause


     1           Writing so many plays kept Tennessee Williams very busy for
                 many years.
     2           That man with the golden retriever is Hank's best friend.
     3           Unless I have enough vacation time, I will not be able to share
                 that summer rental with them.
     4           This presiding officer knows how to attract good workers.
     5           The musician signing autographs in the lobby has been there for
                 a while.
     6           Joe Edwards, my boss in the factory, is intelligent.
     7           On the next day, all the penguins returned to the site.
     8           To reach the North Pole was the explorer's goal.
     9           Arnold told Juanita that she would probably get the promotion.
                 These are certainly the times that try men's souls.
                 Touching the finish line before the others, the talented swimmer
                 won the race.
                 The doctor's advice, more rest, should be followed.
                 The lions roared while the cats purred.
                 Running in place, the soldier felt fit.
                 These children on the bus need to sit quietly.


68       Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
66 Do you know your phrases
   and clauses?

Activity

Fifteen groups of words are underlined in these sentences. Identify the name
of each group with its name from the phrases and clauses listed below. Write
the code letter on the blank next to each sentence. Each letter is used at
least once.
      A. Verb phrase                  D. Infinitive phrase          G. Adverb clause
      B. Prepositional phrase         E. Appositive phrase          H. Adjective clause
      C. Participial phrase           F. Gerund phrase              I. Noun clause

1           Win's birthday is April 23rd, the same day as Shakespeare's
            birthday.
2           The mural had been painted by the school's eighth graders.
3           Until Lucinda's grades improve, she will not be allowed to
            participate in school sports.
4           We followed along on the trail that eventually led to the canteen.
5           In the interim, let us continue to work.
6           Philosophy is what Naomi will study in graduate school.
7           Will the egret return to this location?
8           I like to visit my former neighborhood whenever I can.
9           The key can be found in the upper drawer.
            To collect both old and new stamps was Henry's hobby.
            Derek wanted to win the World Series again.
            Cleaning up the garage kept John busy last Saturday.
            This situation is what the director desired.
            Walking down the darkened stairway, the policewoman was very
            careful.
            Finding so many colorful shells was stimulating for Felicia.


  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   69
 67 putting clauses into action

 Activity

 Combine these ideas in each number as requested within the parentheses. Discuss your
 answers with your classmates.

 1 (adjective clause) My sister is tall. My sister is in the fifth grade.

 2 (adverb clause) The bell rang. Three mice ran throughout the maze.

 3 (adjective clause) We visited the restaurant last Tuesday. It is in the Sheldon
   Park Mall.




 4 (noun clause) Here are two magazines. I would like to buy these two magazines.

 5 (adverb clause) School The storm dropped ten inches of snow. was a big snow-
   storm on Monday night.
                          was canceled on Tuesday morning. There




 6 (adverb clause) stories. us scary stories. These stories are about ghosts. We get
   frightened by her
                     Lucy tells




 7 (noun clause)the prize. will win the potato sack race. The deputy mayor will give a
   blue ribbon as
                  Someone




70   Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
68 what good writers do
Good writers utilize effective sentence starters to interest their readers. You can do the same.
By using different starters, you use variety, a trait of strong writing.
Here are seven ways to start your sentences.

1 Gerund or gerund phrase
       Learning was crucial for the new student. (gerund)
       Finishing his art project on time brought Andy great relief.
          (gerund phrase)

2 Participle or participial phrase
       Smiling, Mom welcomed her guests into our house. (participle)
       Jumping from the side of the pool, the young boy was enjoying himself.
         (participial phrase)

3 Infinitive or infinitive phrase
       To laugh is good for your health. (infinitive)
       To win the trophy was the boater's goal. (infinitive phrase)

4 Prepositional phrase
       In the evening, Shirley and her friends play bridge. (prepositional phrase)
       After an hour the cat felt better. (prepositional phrase)

5 Adverb
       Slowly, the children exited the school bus. (adverb)
       Intelligently, these scientists debated the heated topic. (adverb)

6 Adverb clause
       Because the weather will be good for surfing, we plan on hitting the beach
         tomorrow. (adverb clause)
       Although the doctor will not be in this evening, her assistant can see you.
          (adverb clause)

7 Adjective
       Awed, the circus attendees watched the trapeze artist in action. (adjective)
       Bright and curious, the scholarship students performed their experiments.
          (two adjectives)


 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.    71
 69 starting the sentence

 Activity

 Match these seven ways to start a sentence found in Column A with the
 appropriate example of that technique found in Column B. Each answer
 is used only once. Write the correct letter in the blank in Column A.


        Column A                                   Column B
         1.          Gerund phrase                 A. To skate in challenging com-
                                                      petitions was Sasha's goal.
                                                   B. Brilliantly, Sasha had attained
         2.          Participial phrase               her life's goal by skating in
                                                      challenging competitions.
                                                   C. Satisfied, Sasha had achieved
         3.          Infinitive phrase                her life's goal by skating in
                                                      challenging competitions.
                                                   D. For her life's goal, Sasha
         4.          Prepositional phrase             wanted to skate in challeng-
                                                      ing competitions.
                                                   E. Skating in challenging com-
         5.          Adverb clause                    petitions was Sasha's goal.
                                                   F. Skating in challenging compe-
                                                      titions, Sasha had brilliantly
         6.          Adverb                           attained her goal.
                                                   G. After Sasha had skated in
                                                      challenging competitions, she
         7.          Adjective                        had attained her life's goal.




72   Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
70 it's all about form

Activity

Match these ten sentences in Column A with their content descriptions in
Column B. Write the corresponding letter on the line after the number in
Column A. Each is used once.
As an example, if the sentence reads, ``I left my glove with you,'' the
content description will read ``Pronoun subject--past-tense verb--direct
object--prepositional phrase.''
Column A                                          Column B
 1.         After the debate con-                 A. Verb--direct object
      cluded, the judges made their                  (modifier)--adverb phrase
      decision.                                   B. Pronoun subject--future-tense
 2.         To understand the trans-                 verb--adverb--adjective
      lator was the students' goal.
                                                  C. Infinitive phrase as subject--
 3.         Sitting on the old                       verb--predicate nominative
      wooden dock, the elderly fish-
      erman was enjoying his day.                D. Gerund phrase--verb--predicate
                                                    nominative (with two modifiers)
 4.         These old films will be
      shown in the community                      E. Subject (with two modifiers)--
      room.                                          future-tense verb--adverb phrase
 5.         Watching the business                 F. Subject--adjective clause--
      channel throughout the day is                  verb--adverb--adjective
      my neighbor's routine.
                                                 G. Participial phrase--subject--
 6.         Let more air into the                   verb phrase--direct object
      room.
                                                 H. Adverb clause--subject--
 7.         The play that Arthur                    past-tense verb--direct object
      Miller wrote years ago is still
      popular.                                     I. Proper noun subject--
                                                      verb--consecutive prepositional
 8.         They will be very happy.
                                                      phrases
 9.         Helene was running at
      top speed during the race.                   J. Proper noun subject--
                                                      verb--adverb
10.         Isaac slept soundly.

  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   73
 71 sentences, fragments,
    and run-on sentences
 A sentence can be a word (Stop!) or a group of words that must contain a
 subject (doer), a verb (action), and a complete thought.

 7 In the sentence, ``Lorina washed her face,'' the subject is Lorina, the verb
     is washed, and the group of words makes a complete thought.

 A fragment is a group of words that might lack a subject or a verb and does
 not make a complete thought.

 7 ``During the trial'' is a fragment since there is no subject, verb, or
     complete thought.

 7 ``Vicki running next to her sister'' is another fragment because, though
     it has a subject, (Vicki), and possibly a verb (running), the group of words
     does not make a complete thought. Thus, it is not a sentence.

 7 The group of words ``After these stray dogs were placed in the pound'' is
     also a fragment. It has a subject (dogs) and a verb (were placed), but there
     is no complete thought.

 A run-on sentence is two (or more) sentences incorrectly written as a single
 sentence.

 7 ``The sofa is comfortable, the chair is too'' is an example of a run-on
     sentence because two complete sentences are incorrectly joined (or
     spliced) by a comma.

 7 Sometimes run-on sentences have no punctuation at all! An example
     of this is, ``Princeton University is a fine place of higher learning it is
     located in New Jersey.'' Here, there are really two sentences that have
     been mistakenly joined or spliced into one.




74   Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
72 What's what? sentences,
   fragments, and run-on
   sentences
Activity

Five sentences (S), five fragments (F), and five run-on sentences (ROS) are
found in these fifteen groups of words. Write the appropriate code letter(s)
on the line next to the group of words.

 1           Have you already visited that famous London museum?
 2           At the beginning of the movie.
 3           Let's open the presents, we want to see what you have
             been given.
 4           Last year we photographed some of the events.
 5           Again after all of the applause.
 6           Before they started their photography business.
 7           Please handle these expensive vases with care.
 8           The men fixing the heater need more time, they can bill us
             more if they need to do so.
 9           During the celebration held at the plaza.
             Bring the empty cartons back from the factory they can be
             used again.
             While you dial Molly's number, the rest of us can continue to
             set the table.
             There are too many people in this elevator, who can take
             another one so this one is not so crowded?
             Several telephone operators tried to assist me finally I gave up.
             Leaving through the back door in the middle of the night
             last August.
             We would really like to accept your invitation.




  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   75
 73 making sense
    (and sentences)

 Activity

 All ten groups of words are either fragments or run-on sentences. On a
 separate sheet of paper, write a logical, grammatically correct version of those
 words. You can add or delete words, but keep the main idea intact.

 Here is an example: ``An unfamiliar car in the driveway.'' This can be changed
 to ``We noticed an unfamiliar car in the driveway.''

     1    Mount Rushmore is fabulous it is located in South Dakota

     2    Before the storm started

     3    If you think that it is a workable plan

     4    Oliver is a great friend he never speaks badly about anybody

     5    James Short just arrived he is funny

     6    Skateboarding is wonderful exercise my friends and I like to
          go skateboarding

     7    While the repairman fixed the dishwasher

     8    This author had written for seven consecutive hours she was exhausted

     9    Looking into the car's window
          The entertainer sang many songs we like all of them




76       Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
74 types of sentences
   by purpose
Sentences have different purposes. Some make statements. Some ask questions. Others give
commands, and still others express strong feelings.
Here are the four types of sentences by purpose:

7   A declarative sentence makes a statement or expresses an opinion. Use a period at
    the end of a declarative sentence.
       Andy Murray has a great will to win.
       The commentator laughed at his own mistake.
7   An interrogative sentence asks a question and ends with a question mark.
       Are you using the saw today, Mitch?
       May the other people come along with us?
7   An exclamatory sentence expresses strong feeling and ends with an exclamation mark.
       This is just the way to do it!
       That is great news!
7   An imperative sentence gives a command (strong emotion) or makes a request (mild
    emotion). Use an exclamation after the imperative sentence that contains a strong
    emotion, and a period after one that contains a mild emotion.
       Stop that foolish talk now!
       Please take the empty plate away now, Ira.



Activity               Write an example of each type of sentence on the appropriate line.


    Declarative sentence


    Interrogative sentence


    Exclamatory sentence


    Imperative sentence



    Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   77
 75 ``purposeful'' sentences

 Activity

 Knowing a sentence's design by purpose is helpful. Each of these sentences
 is either a declarative (DEC), an interrogative (INT), an exclamatory (EXC),
 or an imperative (IMP) one. Write the appropriate three-letter combination
 next to its corresponding type of sentence. Each type of sentence appears
 five times.

     1          Have you read this newspaper article?
     2          We are late for the meeting.
     3          Stop that right now!
     4          Remember to watch your step as you leave the room.
     5          Are the packages here yet?
     6          Professor Franklin said that the situation would improve.
     7          Leave those old plates in the closet.
     8          That dessert was awesome!
     9          Painting is a relaxing hobby.
                These are the best seats in the stadium!
                Are the barbers and the beauticians working late tonight?
                I can hardly bear to hear more stressful news right now!
                Is this sweater yours?
                Tough decisions will be made during the next few weeks.
                That speeding car just missed hitting the bicyclist!
                Hand me the wrench please, Reggie.
                She will probably start up the grill now.
                These disgusting mice have to be around here!
                Please carry my valise into the next room, Louis.
                Will you remember to lock the doors behind you?




78   Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
76 sentences by design
   (or construction)

Activity

Sentences are constructed by purpose (declarative, interrogative, exclamatory, and impera-
tive sentences) as well as by design. The four types of sentences by design (or construction)
are the simple, the compound, the complex, and the compound-complex sentence.

7   A simple sentence consists of one independent (or main) clause (group of words).
       My report should be longer.
       Joanna and Anna brought their children home.
       I cannot easily forget that ceremony.

7   A compound sentence consists of two or more independent (or main) clauses that
    are closely related in meaning.
       The sun broke through the clouds, and the children went outside to play. (This is a
         good compound sentence because the clauses are related.)
       The sun broke through the clouds, and the television needs to be replaced. (This is
         not a good compound sentence because the clauses are totally unrelated.)

7   A complex sentence has one main (or independent) clause and one (or more)
    subordinate (or dependent) clauses.
       This is the same method that the doctors used last year. (The subordinate clause is
         underlined.)
       If you can help us out, we would be very grateful. (The subordinate clause is
          underlined.)

7   A compound-complex sentence has two (or more) main (or independent) clauses
    and one (or more) subordinate (or dependent) clauses.
       [The public address announcer correctly pronounced the player's difficult name],
         and [the umpire signaled to the batter] who was standing by the dugout.
         (The subordinate clause is underlined, and the two main clauses are in brackets.)




    Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   79
 77 simple and compound
    sentences

 Activity

 There are five simple (S) and five compound (C) sentences in these
 ten sentences. Write the appropriate letter on the line next to the sentence.

     1         The exciting performer approached the microphone, and the
               crowd waited expectantly.

     2         This operation will take only two hours.

     3         Walter signaled for the waiter, and the waiter walked over
               to the table.

     4         Tom, the repairman, entered the office, and his helper brought
               in the tools.

     5         Scratching his head, the musical conductor looked
               quite confused.

     6         The experienced stuntman is capable of performing many
               difficult maneuvers.

     7         Trey's mother-in-law would also like to go to the dance recital,
               but she already has an appointment that night.

     8         Our team's catcher, Jillian, is very agile, and she is also
               a dedicated captain and player.

     9         Priscilla watched the sunset from her bay window across the
               serene lake in Massachusetts.
               Can you believe that story?




80   Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
78 complex sentences
A complex sentence has one main (or independent) clause and one (or
more) subordinate (or dependent) clauses.
In each sentence, the main clause is underlined, and the subordinate clause
is in italics.
  After the storm subsided, we went out to inspect the grounds.
  The ticket that you received in the mail is the right one.
  You will be able to ride with us unless you would rather take the train.
  If the trees shed their leaves during the next two weeks, I could use some
     help with the raking.


Activity

Part One: Underline the main clause in each sentence.

1 After his assistant arrives, Van will go home.
2 Select a hat that will block the sun well.
3 Rob returned the library book as soon as he found it in his locker.
4 When my pencil broke during the exam, Sheila lent me hers.
5 Isaac gazed at the computer screen while you were reading
  the schedule.
Part Two: Change these simple sentences into complex sentences by adding
at least one subordinate (or dependent) clause.
A. This is the video game.



B. The cars sped by on the highway.



C. Those winds continued to howl.




  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   81
 79 compound-complex
    sentences
 A compound-complex sentence has two or more main (or independent)
 clauses and at least one subordinate (or dependent) clause.
 7 After the winds ceased, the children went outside to play, and their
     parents started to rake the leaves.

 The main (or independent) clauses are ``the children went outside to play''
 and ``their parents started to rake the leaves.''
 The subordinate (or dependent) clause is ``After the winds ceased.''

 7 These maintenance workers who are cleaning up the park after last
     night's concert are my friends, and they are willing to work overtime
     to complete the task.

 The main (or independent) clauses are ``These maintenance workers are my
 friends'' and ``they are willing to work overtime to complete the task.''
 The subordinate (or dependent) clause is ``who are cleaning up the park after
 last night's concert.''


 Activity              Add a clause to each sentence to make it a compound-
                       complex sentence.

 1   The deck
     is quite larger, and it will not require much care.

 2   Several doctors reviewed the patient's charts, and they came to the
     conclusion                                                                                       .

 3   Whenever I start to read a novel, I want to get to know the characters,
     and                                                                                              .

 4   While the wedding band
     was warming up, the wedding singer practiced her lines, and
                                                                                                      .

82   Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
80 Know the sentence's
   structure?

Activity

Each type of sentence (by design or structure)--the simple (S), the
compound (CPD), the complex (CPLX), and the compound-complex
(CC)--is used at least once in this activity. On the line before the sentence,
write the corresponding letters for each sentence.

 1             Several workers placed their lunch orders, and their kind boss
               drove to pick up the food.
 2             Seldom has it rained for this long.
 3             Even though Marnie searched hard for the misplaced earring,
               she was unable to find it.
 4             An idea that the director introduced to the group was well
               received, and then their plans were revised.
 5             I would like to visit my cousin soon.
 6             The ship's captain made a wide turn, and the boat
               responded beautifully.
 7             Edith sat still while the dentist examined her teeth.
 8             Is this the address?
 9             When the movie ended, the crowd of people exited quietly.
               The dealer shuffled the cards, and the players anxiously
               awaited their hands.
               A few marathon runners who had trained hard for the event
               sped along the course, but other less intense runners struggled.
               These computer monitors that are several years old can be
               stored here.
               You can stay, or you can go.
               She finished her meal in time.
               Is this the watch that you were given?



  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   83
 81 subject and verb agreement
 A sentence's subject must agree in number with its verb. Thus, singular
 verbs should be used for singular subjects, and plural verbs should be used
 for plural subjects.
 7 In each of these sentences, the singular subject is underlined, and the
     singular verb is italicized.
         Sam holds the school record for the mile run.
         This woman knows that subject very well.
         Kara performs with the local dance company.

 7 In each of these sentences, the plural subject is underlined, and the
     plural verb is italicized.
         These two seniors hold the record for the mile run.
         These women know that subject very well.
         They perform with the local dance company.


 Activity

 Underline the correct verb in each sentence. Then indicate if the verb is
 singular (S) or plural (P) on the line next to the sentence.

     1         We (drive, drives) to school each morning.
     2         Layla (read, reads) her textbook in class.
     3         All of the workers (line, lines) up for their checks.
     4         Some contestants (win, wins) much money on that show.
     5         The experienced judge fondly (recall, recalls) her early days on
               the bench.
     6         The cereal box (attract, attracts) many shoppers.
     7         Most writers (do, does) their writing in comfortable locations.
     8         The replica of the dinosaur (is, are) in the city's museum.
     9         Today's weather conditions (is, are) favorable for the regatta.
               Seven plane tickets (was, were) given at no cost to the
               needy family.


84   Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
82 agreement involving
   prepositional phrases
A verb will agree in number with the sentence's subject.

7 In the sentence, ``One of the girls is counting the tickets,'' the subject is
   one and the verb is is. Both the subject and the verb are singular.

7 In the sentence, ``Many of the girls are counting the tickets,'' the subject,
   many, and the verb, are, are plural.


Notice how in these example sentences the subjects and verbs agree in
number.


7 The design for these few buildings is intricate. (The singular subject,
   design, agrees in number with the singular verb, is.)

7 The portraits in the White House are memorable. (The plural subject,
   portraits, agrees in number with the plural verb, are.)


Note: When you are working with the indefinite pronouns that can be either
singular or plural (all, any, more, most, none, and some), the verb will agree in
number with the object of the preposition in the prepositional phrase that is
associated with the verb.


7 Some of the newspaper is missing. (Because some can be either singular or
   plural, match the verb with the object of the preposition. As newspaper
   is singular, use is [not are] as the verb.)

7 Some of the newspapers are missing. (Because some can be either singular
   or plural, match the verb with the object of the preposition. As newspa-
   pers is plural, use are [not is] as the verb.)




  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   85
 83 knowing your prepositional
    phrases and agreement

 Activity              Underline the subject of each sentence, and then circle the
                       verb that agrees in number with it.

     1   Many buildings in our city (is, are) managed well.

     2   Outside the stores, several men (was, were) chatting.

     3   This cryptic drawing, in addition to these others, (seem, seems) to be
         the work of a very talented artist.

     4   The residents of this farm community (select, selects) a new mayor
         every six years.

     5   Both of the monkeys in this large cage (is, are) very active.

     6   The persons in this remote location (interest, interests) the scientists.

     7   These cans, as well as this bottle, (has, have) been on the ground for
         several days.

     8   A note sent to the senators (was, were) discussed at the private
         meeting.

     9   Particles in the air (annoy, annoys) the flies.

         Juan's relative from the United States (live, lives) in Denver, Colorado.

         The antiques in this catalog (has, have) already been appraised.

         The cartoon monster with the hairy arms (frighten, frightens) my
         young cousin.

         Several of the new toys (excite, excites) the children in the store.

         The pair of earrings (belong, belongs) to my wealthy aunt.

         These notes on the board (need, needs) to be copied and memorized.

86   Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
84 pronouns and their
   antecedents
Take the sentence, ``The veterinarian took pride in her work.'' The pronoun
her refers back to veterinarian, the subject of the sentence. In this context, vet-
erinarian is the pronoun's antecedent, the word that the pronoun refers back
to in the sentence. Usually, the antecedent comes before the pronoun in the
sentence. In all cases, the pronoun and its antecedent must agree in number
and gender.
In the following sentences, the antecedent is italicized, and the pronoun
is underlined.
  The flag has lost its colors over these two years. (singular antecedent
    and pronoun)
  Our teachers surely know their subjects well. (plural antecedent
    and pronoun)
  Dogs know their capabilities. (plural antecedent and pronoun)


Activity             In the following sentences, circle the antecedent, and
                     underline the pronoun.

 1 This superficial wound should heal itself.

 2 These girls recalled their passwords.

 3 Thetime. time that I spoke with Luca, he said that he would be here
   on
        last




 4 When Jim and Joe play their guitars in school, they attract
   a large crowd.



 5 Since wetowardsour cousins on the telephone, they have been more
   friendly
            called
                   us.

  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   87
 85 agreement between
    indefinite pronouns
    and their antecedents
 Singular indefinite pronouns agree in number with their antecedents.
 These pronouns are anybody, anyone, anything, each, either, everybody,
 everyone, everything, neither, nobody, no one, nothing, one, somebody, someone,
 and something.
 7 Everyone in the church is singing his or her best. (His and her are singular
     pronouns, and everyone is the singular antecedent.)

 Note: Use his or her if you assume that both genders are included, as in the
 preceding example.

 7 Everything in this large closet has lost its value over the years.
     (Its is a singular pronoun that agrees in number with everything, the
     singular antecedent.)

 Plural indefinite pronouns, including both, few, many, and several, will
 serve as plural antecedents.

 7 Both of the singers have their fans. (Both is the plural antecedent, and
     their is the plural pronoun.)

 7 Several of the club officials raised their hands with questions. (Several is
     the plural antecedent, and their is the plural pronoun.)

 Some pronouns can be either singular or plural, depending upon
 their context within the sentence. These pronouns are all, any, more, most,
 none, and some.
 In these instances, look to see if the object of the preposition is singular or
 plural. The verb and antecedent will agree with the object of the preposition.

 7 All of the newspaper is wet, and I cannot read it now. (Newspaper, the
     object of the preposition, is singular; use the singular pronoun, it.)

 7 Most of the newspapers have raised their advertising prices. (Newspapers,
     the object of the preposition, is plural; use the plural pronoun, their.)

88   Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
86 showing what you know
   about pronouns and their
   antecedents
Activity             In each sentence, underline the indefinite pronoun (the
                     antecedent), and circle its corresponding pronoun.

1 Anybody who is here should have (his or her, their) permission
  slip ready.

2 Because none of the book is scary, you can read (it, them) late at night
  and not be frightened.

3 Some of these toys have lost (its, their) appeal with these children.
4 The producer said that any of these actresses can memorize (her, their)
  lines quickly.

5 Neither of those books lends (itself, themselves) to being read in
  a hurry.

6 Everybody clapped when (his or her, their) favorite dance
  group appeared.

7 Several of the famous drivers have already finished (his or her, their)
  practice laps.

8 We heard that one ofmorning.
  during rehearsal this
                        the performers injured (his or her, their) ankle


9 Is it true that someone in this classroom has had (his or her, their)
  speech read over the loudspeaker?
     All of the sports jackets have new labels on (it, them).
     Because most of the surgeons had concerns, the hospital administrator
     listened to (his or her, their) issues.
     A few of the senators were hurrying to (his or her, their) offices.
     Any of these radio stations has (its, their) loyal listeners.
     Many of the seagulls were hungry so (he or she, they) searched
     for food.
     Each of the printers has (its, their) own number.

  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   89
 87 indefinite pronouns
 The singular indefinite pronouns are anybody, anyone, each, either,
 everybody, everyone, everything, neither, nobody, no one, nothing, one,
 somebody, someone, and something. As subjects, these pronouns agree in
 number with singular verbs.
     Everyone in these seats is invited to the party.
     Neither of the contestants has to leave the studio.
     Everything in those rooms was ready to be moved.
 The plural indefinite pronouns are both, few, many, and several. As
 subjects, these four pronouns agree in number with plural verbs.
     Both of the staircases need painting.
     Many of the brochures contain useful information.
     Several of the candidates in this year's election are debating in
       the auditorium.
 As subjects, some pronouns (all, any, more, most, none, and some) can
 be singular or plural depending on the object of the preposition in the
 prepositional phrases that follow them.
     All of the pizza was eaten. (All is a singular subject because pizza, the
       object of the preposition, is singular. Thus, a singular verb, was, is
       required.)
     All of the pizzas were eaten. (All is a plural subject because pizzas,
       the object of the preposition, is plural. Thus, a plural verb, were, is
       required.)
     Most of the project is completed.
     Most of the projects are completed.
     More of the room needs brighter colors.
     More of the rooms need brighter colors.
     None of this paper is stained.
     None of these papers are stained.




90    Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
88 indefinite pronouns
   and agreement

Activity

Underline the subject in each sentence, and then circle the correct verb.
On the line before each sentence, write S if the subject and verb are singular,
or P if the subject and verb are plural.

 1           Most of the inspected cars (pass, passes) the examination.

 2           None of these dishes (has, have) been washed yet.

 3           Everyone in these cabins (is, are) going to the assembly.

 4           (Do, Does) both of these tigers eat that much each day?

 5           Several of us (want, wants) to be included in the plans.

 6           (Has, Have) someone forgotten to sign the register
             this afternoon?

 7           Each of the stockings (was, were) near the fireplace.

 8           (Was, Were) all of the pastries delivered on time?

 9           More of this speech (is, are) getting better each time you
             practice it.
             Nothing on these tables (is, are) mine.
             A few of the turtles (swim, swims) in the pond back here.
             (Has, Have) several of these engineers surveyed the grounds?
             Neither of these essays (was, were) completed on time.
             Both of these girls (has, have) musical talent.
             No one on the grade level (read, reads) these kinds of articles.




  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   91
 89 writing with indefinite
    pronouns

 Activity

 Now is the time to use indefinite pronouns in your writing. Think carefully
 about the agreement rules before you compose each sentence. Write your
 answers on a separate sheet of paper.

     1   Use neither as the sentence's subject.


     2   Use few as the sentence's subject.


     3   Use most as a singular subject.


     4   Use most as a plural subject.


     5   Use someone as the sentence's subject.


     6   Use some as a singular subject.


     7   Use some as a plural subject.


     8   Use any as the singular subject of a sentence that asks a question.


     9   Use somebody as the sentence's subject.

         Use all as a plural subject of a sentence that asks a question.




92   Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
90 compound subjects
   (part one)
A subject is the doer of the action in a sentence. A compound subject has
more than one subject.

In each of these sentences, the compound subjects are underlined.

  The cat and the mouse ran around the room.
  Neither the cat nor the mouse heard him.
  Both the youngsters and the adults enjoyed square dancing.

Here are two important rules when working with compound subjects. You
will be introduced to several other rules on another page.

7 Rule #1: Singular subjects joined by and usually agree in number with a
   plural verb.
     This plant and a large tree were in the photo.
     The older boy and his companion have the boxes of fruit.
     His dad and my brother are on the same work crew.

7 Rule #2: Compound subjects that have a single entity agree in number
   with a singular verb.

     Bacon, lettuce, and tomato is Mitt's tastiest sandwich. (Bacon, lettuce,
       and tomato are a single entity here.)
     Chutes and Ladders was Ricky's favorite game. (Chutes and Ladders is a
       game--a single entity.)
     All the King's Men by Robert Penn Warren is a good book to read if
       you are interested in politics. (Though the book's title features a
       plural noun, men, the title is considered a single entity. Thus, the
       verb is should be used.)




  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   93
 91 compound subjects
    (part two)
 Here are some more handy rules about compound subjects to know and use
 in your writing.

 7 Rule #3: When singular subjects are joined by or or nor, use a
     singular verb.
       Neither the kangaroo nor the ostrich was awake.
       Either the monkey or the giraffe is here.


 7 Rule #4: Plural subjects joined by or or nor agree in number with a
     plural verb.
       The girls or the boys are going to the playground.
       Neither the girls nor the boys are at the playground.


 7 Rule #5: When a singular subject and a plural subject are joined by or or
     nor, the verb agrees in number with the subject closer to it.
       Neither the assistants nor the police captain has called you.
       Either the police captain or her assistants have called you.
       Either he or his three friends are going to the library this evening.
       Neither they nor she is here.


 7 Rule #6: If the compound subjects are in an interrogative sentence,
     answer the question to see which subject is closer to the verb.
       (Has, Have) either the boy or the girls reached the location?
         Answer the question: No, neither the boy nor the girls have reached
         the location.
       (Was, Were) either the girls or the boy with you at the dance?
         Answer the question: No, neither the girls nor the boy was with me
         at the dance.




94   Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
92 working with compound
   subjects

Activity             Underline the correct verb in each sentence.


1 Laverne and Shirley (was, were) one of my grandmother's
  favorite shows.

2 Both specialist.and the cream (has, have) been ordered by our
  food
       the eggs


3 The bat and the catcher's mask (is, are) in the dugout.
4 Neither the stars nor the sun (was, were) discussed at length.
5 Either she or they (is, are) prepared to address the press corps now.
6 Neither the muscles nor the joint (has, have) yet to be covered in our
  anatomy class.

7 These cards and that board game (occupies, occupy) my
  grandfather's afternoons.

8 (Do, Does) the magician or the clowns entertain you more?
9 (Has, interest? books or that magazine article captured
  your
         Have) these


     Either the trombone or the clarinet (is, are) the instrument that you
     can play in this orchestra.
     Either the plate or the utensils (is, are) ready to be placed on the
     table now.
     Pride and Prejudice (is, are) Patsy's favorite book.
     Both the writers and their publishers (was, were) on attendance.
     Neither the sailboat nor these kayaks (is, are) on sale until next week.
     The book's author and illustrator (are, is) Patricia Polacco.

  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   95
 93 subject-verb agreement
    situations
 Here are some important rules and situations regarding subject-verb
 agreement.
 7 Singular nouns and pronouns use the contraction doesn't while plural
     nouns and pronouns use the contraction don't.
       This piece doesn't look like the one we need. (singular noun subject)
       He doesn't need to exercise that frequently. (singular pronoun subject)
       These occasions don't need to be photographed. (plural noun subject)
       They don't remember your saying that. (plural pronoun subject)
     Note: Avoid using contractions in formal writing. Contractions are
     allowable in dialogue.

 7 A collective noun (a name that refers to a group of people, animals,
     or things, though they are singular in form) can be used as a
     singular or plural noun.

 7 If the collective noun refers to a unit or as a whole, use a singular verb
     and pronoun.
       The squad is meeting this afternoon. Its president is Kanisha. (Squad is
         considered a unit since all of its members will be meeting as a unit.
         Thus, Its [not Their] is an appropriate pronoun reference.)

 7 When a group is considered as individuals, the collective noun is plural.
       The squad brought their notebooks. (Squad refers to individual mem-
         bers so the pronoun their is warranted.)

 7 Some nouns that look as if they are plural take singular verbs and
     pronouns. These nouns include civics, economics, genetics, gymnastics,
     mathematics, news, physics, social studies, and others.
       Physics is a challenging subject for Mitch because it demands much
         time and intelligence. (It is a pronoun reference to physics.)
       Social studies is an interesting subject.


96   Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
94 more subject-verb
   agreement situations
An expression of an amount, including fractions, measurements, percent-
ages, and time periods, can be singular or plural depending on its use.

  Two-sixths equals one-third. (Two-sixths is considered a single unit.)
  Sixteen hours is a very long time to wait. (Sixteen hours is a unit of
    time, one block of time according to the sentence.)
  Five dollars were left on the table. (These are five separate dollars; use the
    plural verb, were.)
  Two-thirds of the drummers are practicing. (Drummers is plural; use the
    plural verb, are.)

A verb that precedes the sentence's subject agrees with the subject in number.
In the following sentences, the verb is in italics, and the subject is underlined.
  Here is a fortune cookie for you. (singular subject and verb)
  There are seven board games over there. (plural subject and verb)

The title of a book, city, country, film, magazine, organization, painting,
sculpture, or song that is plural still takes a singular verb.
(The italicized subjects and the underlined verbs below are singular.)

  Des Moines is Iowa's capital city.
  The Rolling Stones was my uncle's favorite rock group.

When a relative pronoun, such as that, which, or who, starts an adjective
clause, the clause's verb agrees in number with the noun or pronoun to
which the relative pronoun refers.

  The woman who is directing the chorus is Ms. Linden. (Who refers to
    the singular noun, woman.)
  The ladies who are singing together are Kate and Moe. (Who takes a
    plural verb, are, because it refers back to ladies, a plural noun.)




  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   97
 95 making the wrong right

 Activity              Each of these fifteen sentences includes an incorrect
                       subject-verb agreement. Without changing the subject,
                       make the necessary verb change.

     1   One of my friends are here in this room with the rest of us.

     2   The pillow are too hard on my neck.

     3   These oranges from Florida is juicy.

     4   A few of the painters at that table has finished their work.

     5   Before she started her workout, Lupita were listening to the broadcast.

     6   The university officials is now admitting more students.

     7   Proponents favors this new methodology of training doctors how to
         be more receptive to their patients' concerns.

     8   Then the physician insert the fluid into the other vial.

     9   The film festival that was held in the mountains were well attended.

         Concert attendees admires that singer who really knows how to
         entertain her audience members.

         The number of graduates are higher this year.

         The people in our neighborhood in Queens is very friendly.

         You does not have to be at the gate that early.

         Some soldiers is on our train heading for Portland, Oregon.

         They does not have the winning ticket in last night's lottery.

98   Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
96 knowing your subject-verb
   agreement

Activity             Underline the correct verb in each sentence.


1 Thesesomeplace. (is, are) missing from the deck should be around
  here
        cards that


2 Each star on these maps (indicate, indicates) a newborn's home.
3 Melinda's new jeans (is, are) quite comfortable.
4 Tuesdays with Morrie (make, makes) me think, cry, and appreciate life.
5 The club's officers (meet, meets) today at noon in the caf´ .
                                                            e

6 The cat that (has, have) been adopted is very playful.
7 The group (leave, leaves) for each game as a unified team.
8 The group members (leave, leaves) in separate cars.
9 Ken's family (exchange, exchanges) gifts with one another each
  holiday season.
     Forensics (capture, captures) my interest.
     Maureen, along with her three friends, (attend, attends) concerts.
     The Fifties (is, are) the decade that some refer to as ``Happy Days.''
     Tonight's news (is, are) not that exciting.
     (Is, Are) the scissors near you, Antonio?
     The exercises which (has, have) been recommended to you will
     increase your stamina.
     Friends who (help, helps) you are good friends indeed.
     My new pants (need, needs) to be altered.
     This is the Web site that (provide, provides) much useful information.
     All who (attend, attends) this meeting will receive a free ticket
     to the movie.
     Robotics (is, are) a topic that James will soon study.

  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   99
  97 subject-verb agreement
     parade

  Activity             How well do you know your subject-verb agreement rules?
                       Here are twenty sentences that will test your knowledge of
                       these rules. Underline the correct verb in each sentence.

  1   One-tenth of the test papers (has, have) been collected.

  2   Mathematics (is, are) Harold's most challenging subjects.

  3   Where (is, are) your books, Princess?

  4   They (doesn't, don't) recall that incident.

  5   Carrots (is, are) a good source of nutrition.

  6   Only one-fourth of your time in the library (was, were) spent
      productively.

  7   One-third of the participants (has, have) their cards.

  8   There (is, are) only one dollar left in the box.

  9   Where (is, are) your backpack, Carlos?
      Lyle (doesn't, don't) want to order the food just yet.
      Fifteen dollars (was, were) my change from the purchase.
      Twelve days (is, are) left for you to register for the new semester.
      All of the senators at today's session (wasn't, weren't) happy with
      what happened.
      Three dimes (is, are) at the bottom of the pool.
      Twenty percent of the order (has, have) been delivered.
      His statistics (is, are) fabulous.
      Statistics (is, are) my first-period class.
      Here (is, are) some advice for you, Ty.
      There (is, are) at least three reasons why you should join the
      organization.
      Three-fourths of the process (has, have) been completed.

100   Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
98 practicing agreement

Activity             Practice using correct agreement by writing sentences that
                     satisfy these directions. Write your answers on a separate
                     sheet of paper.

1 Write a sentence using and to join a singular and a plural pronoun.
2 Write a sentence that starts with ``Most of the animals . . . ''
3 Write a sentence in which the plural pronoun them refers back
  to the subject.


4 Write a sentence using Anybody as the sentence's subject.
5 Write a sentence using Physics as the sentence's subject.
6 Write a sentence using the pair of correlative conjunctions,
  both and and.


7 Write a sentence using a male pronoun that refers back to the subject.
8 Write a sentence starting with ``My favorite team . . . ''
9 Write a sentence using Here as the sentence's first word.
     Write a sentence using a single subject joined with a plural subject by
     the coordinating conjunction or.




 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   101
  99 How well do you know
     agreement?

  Activity                 Test your knowledge of agreement by underlining the
                           correct choice in each sentence.

      1    Mathematics (is, are) Allyson's easiest class.

      2    Each of the female contestants took (her, their) place on stage.

      3    Everybody, including the pilots in the other section of the plane,
           (was, were) eager to hear the news.

      4    Neither the president nor her closest confidantes (is, are) prepared to
           address this situation immediately.

      5    Most of the photographs have no dark spots on (it, them).

      6    These lifeguards (doesn't, don't) become distracted when they are
           on duty.

      7    Anyone who purchased a defective radio should bring (his or her,
           their) receipt and radio back to the store.

      8    Here (is, are) the directions on how to make the dinner.

      9    One-fifth of the new physicians (is, are) from other countries.

           Both of these walls (need, needs) to be repainted.

           His favorite sandwich (is, are) bacon, lettuce, and tomato.

           Our captain and team leader (is, are) Emma.

           All of this carpet (has, have) been intricately woven.

           Fifteen percent of the quarter's grade (is, are) class participation.

           The Outsiders (was, were) the last book that Rachel read this year.

102       Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
100 regular verb tenses
Most regular verbs form their past tense by adding -ed to the present-tense
form of the verb. Examples of this include walked, talked, and recalled.
If a regular verb ends in ``e,'' as in bathe or wave, simply add ``d'' to form
the past tense.

In addition to the present (expresses action that is occurring now) tense,
as in, ``We remember that story,'' and the past (expresses action that has
already happened) tense, as in, ``We remembered that story,'' there are
other verb tenses that you should know. Following are definitions and some
examples of these additional verb tenses:

Present Perfect: expresses action that was completed at some other time, or
action that started in the past and continues now. Add has or have to the past
participle form of the verb to make the present perfect.
  I have climbed that small mountain every weekend since last April.

Past Perfect: expresses action that happened before another past action.
Add had to the past participle form of the verb.
  We had walked up that hill before they did.

Future: expresses action that will happen in the future.
  I will walk with you on Tuesday.

Future Perfect: expresses action that will be completed by a given time in
the future. Add shall have or will have to the past participle.
  I will have walked to school by then.




 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   103
  101 selecting the correct verb
      tense

  Activity              Underline the correct verb in each sentence.


  1   The commercial was (air, aired) five times last night.
  2   Have the forensics students (review, had reviewed, reviewed)
      the evidence?
  3   Each of the carpenters has (help, helped, have helped) with this project.
  4   Were these models (suppose, supposed, had supposed) to be here
      this early?
  5   Many of these windows (needed, has needed, needs) a thorough
      washing.
  6   The chef (slice, sliced, have sliced) the roast beef.
  7   We were (imagine, imagining, imagined) what you were doing at that
      same time.
  8   Some of the newspapers (has been moved, have been moved) to the
      recycling bin.
  9   Will our brother (invite, invited, shall invite) Mona to next
      month's prom?
      Hector and the other members of his rock band (had sanged, sang,
      had sang) at that venue last August.
      Have most of the light bulbs (replaced, been replaced, were replaced)
      during this past school year?
      The ducks that are in the pond behind my teacher's house were
      (quacking, quacked, quack) quite loudly.
      Our insurance representative (has been reviewing, review, reviews) our
      policy for several hours.
      I (had fall, had fallen, will have fallen) on that slippery floor two
      days ago.
      Carlotta (has been painting, have painted, will have painted) portraits
      for several years now.

104   Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
102 irregular verbs (part one)
Regular verbs form their past and past participle forms by adding -d or -ed to the verb's
present tense. Thus, use becomes used, and call becomes called. Irregular verbs form their
past and past participle forms differently. The present tense break becomes broke in its past-
tense form and broken in its past participle form. The present tense verb buy becomes bought
in its past and past participle forms.

                        Present                                      Past
    Infinitive          Participle           Past                    Participle
    (to + verb)         (the -ing form)      (Yesterday I . . . )    (I had . . . She has . . .
                                                                     You have . . . )
    begin               beginning            began                   begun
    blow                blowing              blew                    blown
    break               breaking             broke                   broken
    bring               bringing             brought                 brought
    burst               bursting             burst                   burst
    buy                 buying               bought                  bought
    catch               catching             caught                  caught
    choose              choosing             chose                   chosen
    come                coming               came                    come
    cost                costing              cost                    cost
    do                  doing                did                     done
    draw                drawing              drew                    drawn
    drink               drinking             drank                   drunk
    drive               driving              drove                   driven
    eat                 eating               ate                     eaten
    fall                falling              fell                    fallen
    feel                feeling              felt                    felt
    find                finding              found                   found
    freeze              freezing             froze                   frozen
    get                 getting              got                     got (or gotten)
    give                giving               gave                    given
    go                  going                went                    gone
    grow                growing              grew                    grown
    hold                holding              held                    held
    keep                keeping              kept                    kept
    know                knowing              knew                    known
    lay (to place)      laying               laid                    laid
    lead                leading              led                     led
    leave               leaving              left                    left



  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   105
  103 working with irregular
      verbs from part one

  Activity             Underline the correct form of the irregular verbs that
                       appear in Irregular Verbs (Part One).

  1   All of the most talented golfers (came, come) to the big tournament
      last year.

  2   Emma has (draw, drew, drawn) a caricature of her uncle spending a
      dollar that weekend.

  3   Did this set of glasses (cost, costed) much money?

  4   Has James already (drink, drank, drunk) the entire bottle of water?

  5   Ellie (held, holded) her breath as her brother attempted to start his car.

  6   These religious leaders (feeled, felt) the need to discuss the event with
      their congregation members.

  7   Three days ago the Umpies (goed, went) to visit the Shorties.

  8   Jimmy Baldino (grow, grew, grown) tomatoes in his backyard
      last summer.

  9   You could have (get, got, gotten) better advice about the problem from
      Uncle John.
      Have Moe and Kate (chose, choose, chosen) their favorite tunes for the
      drive to the Cape?
      It had just (begin, began, begun) to rain when the horses were leaving
      the barn.
      Patsy (find, finded, found) an interesting way to repair this float.
      Jack (fall, fell, fallen) asleep listening to his oldies.
      Now I (begin, begun) to see exactly how she solved the mystery.
      Murphy (bring, brang, brung, brought) the scrap of food to his cage.

106   Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
104 irregular verbs (part two)
Regular verbs form their past and past participle forms by adding -d or -ed to the verb's
present tense. Thus, like becomes liked, and walk becomes walked. Irregular verbs form
their past and past participle forms differently. The present tense rise becomes rose in its
past-tense form and risen in its past participle form. The present tense verb sit becomes sat
in both its past and past participle forms.

                        Present                                      Past
    Infinitive          Participle           Past                    Participle
    (to + verb)         (the -ing form)      (Yesterday I . . . )    (I had . . . She has . . .
                                                                     You have . . . )
    lie (to rest, to    lying                lay                     lain
    recline)
    lose                losing               lost                    lost
    make                making               made                    made
    ride                riding               rode                    ridden
    ring                ringing              rang                    rung
    rise                rising               rose                    risen
    run                 running              ran                     run
    say                 saying               said                    said
    see                 seeing               saw                     seen
    sell                selling              sold                    sold
    send                sending              sent                    sent
    set                 setting              set                     set
    shrink              shrinking            shrank                  shrunk
    sing                singing              sang                    sung
    sink                sinking              sank                    sunk
    sit                 sitting              sat                     sat
    speak               speaking             spoke                   spoken
    steal               stealing             stole                   stolen
    swim                swimming             swam                    swum
    take                taking               took                    taken
    teach               teaching             taught                  taught
    throw               throwing             threw                   thrown
    tear (to rip)       tearing              tore                    torn
    tell                telling              told                    told
    throw               throwing             threw                   thrown
    wear                wearing              wore                    worn
    win                 winning              won                     won
    write               writing              wrote                   written



  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   107
  105 working with irregular
      verbs from part two

  Activity             Underline the correct form of the irregular verbs that appear
                       in Irregular Verbs (Part Two).

  1   I (wear, wore, worn) these running shoes whenever I go jogging.

  2   Cousin Moe (write, wrote, written) a beautiful piece about her second-
      grade students.

  3   Mervin (lose, loosed, lost) weight.

  4   Could Ms. Short have (sing, sang, sung) any more beautifully than she
      did at that ceremony?

  5   The court officer (sent, sended) a note about the jury to the judge.

  6   Remember that the police officers had already (speak, spoke, spoken) to
      us about this situation.

  7   The small group of musicians had (sat, sit) on this bench during
      their break.

  8   Please (take, taken, took) these plates over to the machine.

  9   My shirt (shrank, shrinked, shrunk) in the dryer last night.
      Jason (telled, told) that joke to us last Monday.
      Could Kayla have (write, wrote, written) that essay as quickly as
      she did?
      The tall boy (swam, swimmed, swum) twenty laps in the pool this
      morning.
      This cloth has been (teared, tore, torn) up by the hungry dog.
      With that amazing catch, the skilled receiver (win, winned, won) the
      game for her team.
      Wellington had (ran, run) for that office two years ago.

108   Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
106 irregular verbs in context

Activity             Use the correct form of each of the irregular verbs within
                     the parentheses. Write your answer in the blank space
                     in the sentence.

1 a season? this team ever
  (win) Has                                                  fewer than ten games in


2 owned it. The sweater
  (shrink)                                              over the years that I have


3 in the case. clue
  (lead) This                                   the detectives to more important clues


4 (draw) The maid had                                   the shades in the den.

5 stop this morning.
  (freeze) I nearly                              waiting for the bus to come to my


6 (catch) Yesterday, the fisherman                  three snappers.

7 (bring) Have you                  your camera with you, Mitch?

8 (begin) When the game                   , both teams played hard.

9 what they had discussed at that important meeting. indication of
  (give) Neither of the presidents                 much


   (ride) We all                            in the van to the mall.
   (give) None of us had been                                   explicit instructions on
   how to get to the office.
   (rise) The balloon had                                in no time.
   (sink) The fishing line                               quickly after I released the
   reel's lock.
   (drive) My mom had                                   us to this museum many times.
   (send) The misbehaving student was                                        to the
   principal's office.

 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   109
  107 Correct or incorrect?

  Activity             If the underlined irregular verb is used correctly, do nothing. If
                       the underlined irregular verb is used incorrectly, cross it out and
                       write the correct verb form on the line after the sentence.

  1 The police officer catched the thief quite easily.
  2 My family had eaten at this restaurant several times before last night.
  3 The truck sunk into the mud in a few seconds.
  4 The track star could not have ran faster than she did at that meet.
  5 We lost our way on those dimly lit roads as we drove to Uncle Arnold's
      cabin.

  6 Shakespeare had wrote many memorable tragedies.
  7 A representative from the railroad spoke to the passengers about the
      proposed plan.

  8 Neil keeped his cool during these tense moments in the subway.
  9 Loretta done all her work by herself.
      The powerful dog broke free from her leash and ran quickly down the
      street.
      I had gave her these peaches for a snack.
      Our candidate had won the election by a landslide that year.


      The proud grandparents had lain awake the night that their grandson
      was accepted into that prestigious college.
      Wendy and her friends had ridden on that scary roller coaster ride last
      summer.
      That rock star had sang in many different European cities during her
      career.

110   Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
108 helping out with irregular
    verbs

Activity

This writer can use your help with irregular verbs (and other writing skills).
The student has made many irregular verb errors. Cross out each incorrect
irregular verb, and write its correct form above it. For this activity, you do
not need to make any other changes.


    Last summer, we gone to the Rocky Mountains for our family

  vacation. On the way there, we sung many songs and keeped a log of

  our journey. After Dad had drove three hundred miles on that first

  day, Mom and he decided to stop in a hotel for the afternoon and

  night. The hotel have an indoor swimming pool. Since last year's

  bathing suit had not teared or loosed its color, I weared it in the

  hotel's pool where my brother and I swimmed for a while. Mom brung

  us some snacks and drinks that we ated and drunked by the pool. I

  also buyed some ice cream bars that I had saw in the snack shop. Later

  that evening, after all of us eaten a good dinner, we goed to our rooms

  to enjoy a good night's sleep.


 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   111
  109 the verb ``be''
  Forms of the verb to be are used very frequently in the English language. It is very useful to
  know all of the verb's forms. Here is a list to help you along with the verb's tenses.
  Present tense: The action either exists or is happening now.

                         Singular                              Plural
       First person      I am happy.                           We are there now.
       Second person     You are tall.                         You are here with us.
       Third person      (He, She, It) is in the room.         They are laughing.


  Past tense: The action was started and completed already.

                         Singular                              Plural
       First person      I was there last night.               We were happy.
       Second person     You were in the recital.              You were excited.
       Third person      (He, She, It) was there.              They were ecstatic.


  Future tense: The action will or shall occur later.

                         Singular                              Plural
       First person      I will (or shall) be there.           We will (or shall) be there.
       Second person     You will (or shall) be selected.      You will (or shall) be here.
       Third person      (He, She, It) will (or shall) be on   They will (or shall) be with us.
                         the panel.


  Past perfect tense: The action ended before another past action or state of being.

                         Singular                              Plural
       First person      I had sat in that room.               We had been friends.
       Second person     You had swum in that lake.            You had helped my aunt.
       Third person      (He, She, It) had been there.         They had sung with them.




112   Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
110 busy with the verb ``be''

Activity              Underline the correct form of the verb ``to be.''


1 I (has, have) been washing the car for thirty minutes now.
2 (Was, Were) you photographing these beautiful mountains?
3 All of them (is, are) very happy with you, Maria.
4 (Was, Were) they believing your story?
5 My younger sister will (be, been, being) going off to college this fall.
6 The audience members (was, were) awed by the contestant's
  knowledge.

7 (Was, Were) you and Mickey at the movies on Monday, Monica?
8 I (wasn't, weren't) in favor of these stricter rules.
9 These paleontologists have (been, being) digging intensely.
    It (wasn't, weren't) a good experience for any of us.
    He (was, were) blaming me for the problems in the house.
    Had you (been, being) hoping for an easier trip along the river?
    You (is, are) the committee's first choice.
    Many of the birds (is, are) flying toward the tower.
    (Wasn't, Weren't) you thinking the same thing, Clara?
    (Are, Is) this the correct address?
    These magazines (was, were) on the table for hours.
    (Was, Were) you trying to be funny?
    (Is, Am) I to believe that tall tale, Tom?
    You (is, are) going home with the other children.

  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   113
  111 the nominative case
  Nouns and pronouns (I, you, he, she, it, we, and they, to name a few) used in
  the nominative case function as subjects and predicate nominatives in
  sentences.
  Subject examples:
      Patsy read the newspaper.
      I can assist you with the project.
      They will be doing the least favorite part of the job.
  Predicate nominative examples:
      The new champion is Tony.
      The new leader is he.
      Their choices for club leaders are you and Juanita.
  Note: In all cases, an appositive is in the same case as the word it refers to in
  the sentence. Thus, in certain situations, an appositive is in the nominative
  case.
      We neighbors must rely upon one another. (Because we refers to the
        sentence's subject, neighbors, we is in the nominative case.)
      The witnesses are we people. (Because we refers to the sentence's
        predicate nominative, people, we is in the nominative case.)
      The proposal's writers, Jess and Tess, were present. (Jess and Tess are
        the appositives and are in the nominative case.)


  Activity              Tell whether the underlined word used in the nominative
                        case is a subject (S), predicate nominative (PN), or apposi-
                        tive (A). Write the corresponding letter(s) on the line before
                        the sentence.

  1           They will furnish their new apartment soon.

  2           It was he who found your necklace.

  3           She is the first born in her family.

  4           The newest employees are we.

  5           The performers, we pianists, have much practice ahead of us.

114    Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
112 the objective case
Nouns and pronouns (me, you, her, him, it, them, and us, to name a few) used
in the objective case function as direct objects, indirect objects, and objects
of the preposition.

The direct object is a noun or pronoun that answers the question ``who?'' or
``what?'' after an action verb.

7 You asked me an interesting question. (What did you ask me?--an inter-
   esting question. Thus, question is the direct object.)

7 The dog drank the water and the lemonade. (What did the dog drink?--
   the water and the lemonade. Thus, water and lemonade are the compound
   direct objects.)

The indirect object is a noun or pronoun that answers the question ``for
whom?'' or ``to whom?'' after an action verb. If a sentence includes an indi-
rect object, it must also have a direct object.

7 George brought his mom some groceries. (Mom is the indirect object,
   and groceries is the direct object.)

7 We gave her and him a new car. (The two pronouns, her and him, answer
   the question ``to whom?'' did we give a new car. Therefore, her and him
   are the compound indirect objects, and car is the direct object.)

The object of the preposition is a noun or pronoun that usually ends the
phrase begun by the preposition.

7 Sherry walked into the cafeteria. (The prepositional phrase, into the cafe-
   teria, includes the object of the preposition, cafeteria.)

7 They sat beside her and me. (The prepositional phrase, beside her and me,
   includes the compound objects of the preposition, her and me.)




 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   115
  113 the possessive case
  The possessive case of a noun or pronoun indicates ownership or posses-
  sion. Pronouns such as his, her, its, my, mine, your, yours, their, theirs, our, and
  ours are all possessive case words.
  Here are several rules for the possessive case.
  A. Most singular nouns form their possessive by adding an apostrophe
     and an s. (the baboon's food; the girl's sweater; Marx's teachings; Burns's
     poetic lines; Dickens's characters)
  B. To form the possessive of a singular noun that ends with an s sound,
     take one of two actions.
      1. If a name of two or more syllables ends in an eez sound, the posses-
         sive is formed without an additional s. (Ulysses' friends; Archimedes'
         theories)
      2. Add an apostrophe and an s if the word would not be difficult to
         pronounce. (dress's cost; quartz's essence)
  C. Add only an apostrophe to form the possessive of a plural noun that
     ends in s. (the boys' gymnasium; the Murphys' home)
  D. If a plural noun does not end in s, add an apostrophe and an s. (the
     men's department; the mice's hiding spots)
  E. Use the possessive form for only the last name in compound nouns for
     organizations, literary titles, businesses, and relatives. If owned sepa-
     rately, use the possessive for both names.
        Tom's and Pete's reputations (separate reputations)
        Procter and Gamble's sales (combined ownership)
        mother-in-law's magazines (one woman's ownership)
        mothers-in-law's magazines (two or more women's ownership)
  F. For acronyms (words formed from the first letters of a series of words),
     add an apostrophe and an s.
        the NHL's (National Hockey League's) members
        AARP's (American Association of Retired People's) membership




116   Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
114 the possessive case and
    pronouns
A word used in the possessive case shows ownership. Possessive pronouns do not require
apostrophes.

The singular possessive pronouns are my, mine, your, yours, his, her, hers, and its.

The plural possessive pronouns are our, ours, your, yours, their, and theirs.
The possessive pronoun whose also does not require an apostrophe.

   This house is theirs.
   Their car is currently in the shop.
   Your notebook and my textbook are in the school's cafeteria.
   Is that package theirs or ours?
   The movie has lost its appeal with her children.
   His bike is locked up next to mine in your space.

Note: Though a noun that precedes a gerund (word that ends in -ing and functions as a
noun) requires an apostrophe, the pronoun that does the same does not require one.

   Nina's selecting that prize was very interesting. (Nina's, a possessive noun/adjective,
     requires an apostrophe.)
   Her selecting that prize was very interesting. (Her, a possessive pronoun/adjective, does
     not require an apostrophe.)


Activity              Fill in each blank with a singular or plural possessive pronoun.



1                     diagrams were studied by the medical staff.

2                     friends organized a trip.

3 Can you bring                      photo album to                                house tonight?

4 Will they not forget to follow                   directions to get to

                           home?

5 These date.
  party
        youngsters were happy about                               choosing Friday for their



  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.    117
  115 indefinite pronouns
      and the possessive case
  Indefinite pronouns form the possessive by adding an apostrophe and an
  ``s'' after the word.
      Is this someone's backpack?
      May I ask everyone's help here?
      Somebody's cell phone is ringing; please answer it in the other room.
      We would like to hear another's opinion.
      The other's situation is much different.
  If you use the word else after anybody, nobody, or somebody, place the apostro-
  phe and the ``s'' after else, not after anybody, nobody, or somebody.
      This is somebody else's radio, not mine.
      Your business is nobody else's concern.


  Activity              Some of the personal pronouns in these sentences require
                        the apostrophe followed by the ``s.'' Others do not. Under-
                        line the correct word in each sentence.

  1    Will the option be offered to (everybody, everybody's)?

  2    (Somebody, Somebody's) car is making weird noises.

  3    The pocketbook belongs to (nobody, nobody's) in this room?

  4    Remember that this situation is (nobody's else's, nobody else's) matter.

  5    We would certainly like to hear (everyone, everyone's, everyones') ideas.

  6    (Somebody else, Somebody else's) entered the room after we left.

  7    These cards belong to (somebody else, somebody else's).

  8    (Anyone else, Anyone's elses, Anyone else's) proposals will certainly be
       considered.

  9    (Nobody, Nobody's, Nobodys') permission slip is missing.
       (Somebody else, Somebody else's, Somebody's else's) will be assisting
       you shortly.

118    Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
116 using the possessive case

Activity

On the line provided, write the possessive form for each of these phrases. The
first one is done for you.

1 Lesley's house                the house that belongs to Lesley

2                               the house owned by both Joe and Jim

3                               the two houses owned separately by Joe and Jim

4                               the car that belongs to that woman

5                               the cars that belong to the women

6                               the value of a dollar

7                               the salaries of the machinists

8                               the motorcycle that belongs to my father-in-law

9                               the plan of the committee
                                the plans of the committees
                                the suggestion that he made
                                the store owned by Ulysses
                                the address of it
                                the bike owned by Tom
                                the bike owned by Thomas




 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   119
  117 confusing usage words
      (part one)
 1 accept: (verb) to receive willingly
        Will you accept this present as a thank-you for your work?
      except: (preposition) but; other than
        All of the dogs except Kenny's dog were in the park that afternoon.

 2 adverse: (adjective) opposed; unfavorable
        Due to adverse weather conditions, the concert was postponed.
      averse: (adjective) not willing or inclined; reluctant
        Fortunately, the teen was averse to smoking cigarettes, even though
          her friends told her it was a cool thing to do.

 3 affect: (verb) to influence
        How will this low test grade affect my quarterly average?
      effect: (noun) result; (verb) to cause to become; to accomplish;
      to produce
        The effects of the treatment will not be known for several days.
          (noun)
        This plan will effect immediate change. (verb)

 4 aid: (verb) to help; to assist; (noun) help; assistance
        The nurse was able to aid the injured athlete on the field.
        Stu came to his aunt's aid.
      aide: (noun) one who helps or assists
        This doctor's aide really knows how to put a patient at ease.

 5 among: (preposition) used to refer to two or more people, places,
   things, or ideas
        Sylvia divided the goodies among the five children.
      between: (preposition) used to refer to two people, places, things,
      or ideas
        Mom divided the chores between my sister and me.

120    Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
118 confusing usage words
    (part two)
6 anywhere: in, at, or to any place
      I think that we can drive anywhere in this county.
   anywheres: This word does not exist in the English language.

7 as: (conjunction(As is also a a subordinate clause); (adverb) to the same
  degree, equally.
                   that starts
                                preposition.)
      Rex is already as tall as his dad.
   like: (preposition) similar to; resembling in some manner. (Like is also
   an adjective, a verb, and an adverb.)
      He is much like his brother when it comes to helping others.

8 beside: (preposition) by or at the side of; alongside
      Would you be willing to sit beside my sister and me at the graduation
       ceremony?
   besides: (adverb) in addition; as well
      Besides those math problems, what other homework do you have
        tonight?

9 bring: (verb) to move something to a place
      Bring the boxes back to the table.
   take: (verb) to move something away from a place
      Take the boxes to that table.

   borrow: (verb) to take or receive from another on the provision that it
   will be returned
      May I borrow some money for a few days?
   lend: (verb) to let another use or have
      Could you please lend me a few dollars for the weekend?




  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   121
  119 confusing usage words
      (part three)
      can: (verb) to know how to; to be able to
        I think that I can climb that fence with little effort.
      may: (verb) to be allowed to
        May I help you with those heavy bundles?
      cent: (noun) one penny; 1/100 of a dollar
        Lou found one cent under the couch.
      scent: (noun) a smell; odor; (verb) to smell; to perceive with the nose
        Do you smell the scent of raccoon? (noun)
        I scent a raccoon around here. (verb)
      cite: (verb) to quote
        A respected attorney will often cite several cases in her argument.
      site: (noun) piece of land; location
        Our favorite restaurant chain plans to build a new establishment on
         this site.
      continual: (adjective) happening over and over again
        The continual good behavior of the class members earned them free
          time each Friday.
      continuous: (adjective) happening without interruption
        The continuous noise of the hammers and saws disturbed the work-
          shop participants.
      doesn't: (contraction for does + not) does not
        Steven doesn't think that we will need three umbrellas for the
          beach today.
      don't: (contraction for do + not; considered substandard usage) do not
      or does not
        We don't know what the future will bring.


122    Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
120 confusing usage words
    (part four)
 discover: (verb) to be the first to find
    The scientist discovered this element years ago.
 invent: (verb) to think out and produce
    Who will invent a better way to stop people from texting while
     driving?
 disinterested: (adjective) not biased or prejudiced; showing no
 favoritism
    We all want a disinterested judge to work in our judicial system.
 uninterested: (adjective) not interested
    Gracie is uninterested in that particular field of mathematics.
 emigrate from: (verb) to leave one country to go live in another
    The Greek family emigrated from their homeland and settled in
      Astoria, New York.
 immigrate to: (verb) to come to a new country or area
    These Irish brothers immigrated to Manhattan and established them-
      selves there in a short time.
 explicit: fully and clearly expressed or demonstrated
    The troop leader gave us explicit directions on what to expect
      during the trip.
 implicit: implied, rather than expressly stated
    Our dad's facial expressions implicitly told us that we should not
     behave in the same manner again.
 famous: (adjective) well known; having fame; renowned
    She became a famous singer whose name was known around
      the world.
 notorious: (adjective) well known; publicly discussed; widely, but unfa-
 vorably, known
    The notorious bank robber had spread fear throughout the city.

Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   123
  121 confusing usage words
      (part five)
      good: (adjective) effective; efficient; (adverb) well; completely; fully
        Evelyn has been a good physician's assistant for many years now. (adjective)
        This is about as good as it gets for this group. (adverb)
      well: (adverb) in a pleasing or desirable manner; fittingly; to a large extent
        I felt well after the challenging mountain climb.
        Pierre fit in well with the new group of students in his new school.
        These girls are well schooled in how to stay fit.
      fewer: (adjective used to modify plural nouns) a smaller number
        Fewer people participated in last year's fundraiser.
      less: (adjective used to modify singular nouns) not so much; smaller in size
      or amount
        Edith felt less fear about going on that ride.
      have: (verb) helping verb
        I could have finished the recording in two hours.
      of: (preposition) used in prepositional phrases, but not in verb phrases
        She was a woman of great dignity and service to her country.
      imply: (verb) to suggest indirectly
        Did the speaker imply that we should be doing more to preserve the society?
      infer: (verb) to draw a conclusion from facts
        What did you infer from the speaker's words regarding global warming?
      it's: (contraction of it + is or it + has)
        It's starting to rain.
        It's begun to drizzle.
      its: (adjective) the possessive form of it
        The colorful umbrella has lost some of its color.




124    Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
122 confusing usage words
    (part six)
 farther: (adjective and adverb) used to designate a physical distance
    This woman shot the arrow much farther than I did.
 further: (adjective and adverb) additional
    Let's wait for further instructions before we do anything else.
 healthful: (adjective) that which brings about good health; wholesome
    Doctor Geiger told his patient to eat a more healthful diet.
 healthy: (adjective) having good health; well; sound
    If you want to remain healthy into old age, exercise and eat good
       foods.
 in: (preposition, adjective, adverb) within
    Sis was in the dentist's chair for thirty minutes.
 into: (preposition) from the outside to the inside of
    Sis walked into the dentist's office at 2:20 this afternoon.
 leave: (verb) to exit; to let be or stay
    Most of the children and their parents had to leave once the weather
     changed.
 let: (verb) to allow; to permit
    Will you let me take care of your dog while you go on vacation?
 liable: (adjective) legally responsible
    Because the chipped stoop caused the delivery person to fall, the
      homeowner was liable for damages.
 likely: (adjective and adverb) probable; reasonable to be expected
    After we saw that ominous sky, we felt that a storm was likely.




Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   125
  123 confusing usage words
      (part seven)
      learn: (verb) to acquire knowledge

        How did you learn to swim so gracefully?
      teach: (verb) to instruct
        Will you please teach me the eight parts of speech for this test?

      personal: (adjective) individual or private; intended for use by a single person
        This is a personal problem that I would not want to share with others right now.

      personnel: (noun and adjective) body of persons employed in an organization or a
      place
        The director said that the case involved a personnel issue involving several experi-
          enced workers.
      poor: (noun and adjective) the opposite of rich; not done well
        Will you be willing to contribute some money to help the poor? (noun)
        Your team showed a poor effort in not running out the grounder in the third inning.
          (adjective)

      pore: (noun) an opening
        Harold looked very closely at his skin pores and was amazed.
      pour: (verb) to cause to flow
        My aunt was nice enough to pour milk into my little sister's cereal.

      quotation: (noun) something that is quoted
        The quotations of Mark Twain and Yogi Berra are used quite often for various effects.
      quote: (verb) to repeat or cite

        Did you quote that author at any time within your term paper?

      respectfully: (adverb) politely

        We respectfully acknowledged their country's leader.
      respectively: (adverb) in precisely the order given

        Please line up these folders from A to Z respectively.

126    Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
124 confusing usage words
    (part eight)
 right: (noun) claim or title; (adjective) proper; just; correct;
 (adverb) directly; (verb) to put in proper order
    Freedom of speech is one of our rights. (noun)
    Is this the right way to tie this knot? (adjective)
    Come right home after school. (adverb)
    Let's right the wrongs we committed. (verb)
 rite: (noun) a ceremony
    The religious woman performed the rite in front of twenty people.
 wright: (noun) a worker
    One of Mike's relatives worked as a wheelwright many years ago.
 write: (verb) to record in print
    Please write your name on this line.
 set: (verb) to put in place
    Please set the table for dinner, James.
 sit: (verb) to rest in a seated position
    Sit down for a while, and catch your breath.
 than: (conjunction) word used to compare two or more people, places,
 things, or ideas
    Yvonne is older than I.
 then: (adverb) at that time
    I then told him that he was doing the right thing.
 unless: (subordinating conjunction) in any other case than
    Unless you have a good reason, the coach expects you to be here with
     the rest of us.
 without: (preposition) lacking; with none of; (adverb) outside
    Without this card, I will not be admitted. (preposition)
    He ran without. (adverb)

Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   127
  125 matching up the confusing
      words

  Activity

  Match the fifteen words in Column A with their definitions in Column B.
  Write the correct letter on the line before the number in Column A. All of
  these words have been taken from the Confusing Usage Words lists that you
  have studied.

      Column A                       Column B
        1.         effect            A. one penny
        2.         discover          B. (used with singular nouns) not so much;
                                        smaller in size or amount regarding
        3.         invent
                                     C. result; cause to become; to accomplish
        4.         explicit          D. by or at the side of; alongside
        5.         affect            E. a smell; an odor
        6.         fewer             F. in addition; as well
        7.         beside            G. to think out and produce

        8.         cent              H. a smaller number
                                      I. to let another use or have
        9.         implicit
                                      J. implied, rather than expressly stated
       10.         besides
                                     K. to take or receive from another with the
       11.         less                 intent of returning
       12.         scent             L. to be the first to find

       13.         borrow           M. fully and clearly expressed or demon-
                                       strated
       14.         imply             N. to suggest indirectly
       15.         lend             O. to influence


128   Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
126 Which is the correct word?

Activity             Underline the correct word in the parentheses.


1 (Bring, Take) your supplies back to your desk.
2 Will you (borrow, lend) me a few dollars tonight?
3 The Olympic swimmer spent much time training (in, into) the pool.
4 Please (leave, let) me finish what I have to do here.
5 (It's, Its) going to rain tomorrow night.
6 Tell me some of your best (quotations, quotes).
7 Will you please (poor, pore, pour) me some milk?
8 The students were yawning sothe screen.that they were (disinterested,
  uninterested) in what was on
                                   I figured


9 What did you (imply, infer) from what the district manager said?
     A celebrity's (personal, personnel) life should be kept private.

     Do you have more experience (than, then) the other candidates
     seeking this position?

     Are you going to (set, sit) the table for tonight's meal?

     Do you think that you could (have, of) saved more money over
     the years?

     The criminals were quite (famous, notorious) in that part of
     the country.

     (Unless, Without) they reach Minneapolis by dark, they might have to
     go to another motel.

 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   129
  127 select the correct word

  Activity                 Part One: Underline the correct word within the
                           parentheses.

      1    (Can, May) I have your permission to check the files?

      2    As a homeowner, you are (liable, likely) for the damage.

      3    Can you throw the ball any (farther, further)?

      4    We sat right (beside, besides) the band members at the wedding.

      5    My sister is studying to become a nurse's (aid, aide).

      6    Wait for (farther, further) instructions about the new plan.

      7    Fortunately, (fewer, less) problems plague the police department
           this year.

      8    How many families have (emigrated from, immigrated to) their
           homeland to other countries?

      9    The perfume's (cent, scent) was very pleasant.

           Should I turn (right, rite, wright, write) here?

           (Than, Then) I transferred to another college.

           Will the weather greatly (affect, effect) the bus trip?

           There seemed to be no parking (anywhere, anywheres).

           (Learn, Teach) me how to play the guitar.

           The religious leader plans to perform the (right, rite, wright, write)
           this afternoon.

  Part Two: Write five sentences, each one using one of the words in the
  parentheses within the above sentences. Write your sentences on a separate
  sheet of paper.

130       Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
128 double negatives
In mathematics, a negative number times a negative number yields a positive number.

Similarly, in grammar, when two negative words are used (where only one is needed), the
negatives cancel each other out, making the idea positive and not negative as intended. In
the sentence, ``I cannot get no respect from them,'' the two negative words, cannot and no,
cancel each other out. Thus, the sentence is really saying, ``I can get respect from them,''
a far different thought from what seems to be the sentence's original intention. Had the
sentence read, ``I cannot get respect from them,'' or ``I can get no respect from them,''
the meaning is quite different from that when both negative words are included in the
sentence.

Here is another example of this double negative situation. Notice the different meanings
when the negative words are included or deleted.
   Two negative words in the sentence: We didn't have no disappointments.
   One negative word in the sentence: We didn't have disappointments.
   One negative word in the sentence: We had no disappointments.


Activity

Correct these double negative problems. Write the improved version on the line provided.

1 Linda can't have no friends over tonight.

2 The nurse doesn't never give bad health advice.

3 I hadn't noticed nobody in the room.

4 This pen doesn't have no ink left in it.

5 After exchanging their presents, my friends didn't do nothing more to celebrate the
  occasion.




  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   131
  129 misplaced and dangling
      modifiers
  Words, phrases, and clauses that describe or modify nouns and pronouns
  need to be properly placed within the sentence. This placement should
  clearly indicate which word is being described.
  A misplaced modifier is a word or group of words intended to describe a
  noun or pronoun, but is placed incorrectly within the sentence.
      Speaking to the state officials, the microphone held the reporter.
      (In this sentence, the underlined modifier, Speaking to the state officials,
        a participial phrase, is misplaced. The reporter, not the microphone,
        was speaking to the state officials. Thus, the sentence could read, ``The
        reporter speaking to the state officials held the microphone.'')

  Other misplaced modifier examples include these. See if you can correct
  each one.
      In the microwave, the man cooked the popcorn.
      Unhappy, the match was forfeited by the tennis player.
  A dangling modifier is a word or group of words intended to describe a
  noun or pronoun, but, according to the sentence's wording, has nothing to
  describe.
      To get to the airport, the tram needs to be taken.
      (In this sentence, the underlined modifier, To get to the airport, describes
        nothing. The corrected version should read, ``To get to the airport,
        you need to take the tram.'' Now the modifier has someone to
        describe--you!)
  Other dangling modifier examples include these. See if you can correct
  each one.
      To solve this challenging puzzling, patience is needed.
      Walking along the Thames River, the flowers looked beautiful.




132    Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
130 revising sentences that
    have misplaced and
    dangling modifiers
Activity

Revise each sentence so that the misplaced and dangling modifiers work
correctly. Add or delete words as needed. Write your revised sentences on
a separate sheet of paper.

 1 To move this heavy package, strength is needed.
 2 Walking quickly, the road was crossed.
 3 Emma read the cartoon laughing loudly.
 4 While washing the dishes, my cell phone rang.
 5 Glued to the present, Bob saw the bow.
 6 Looking under the bed, my birthday gift was spotted.
 7 Extending over three hundred miles, the car moved along the
   highway.


 8 Shining in the distance, I saw a star.
 9 Wrapped in silver foil, I ate my hamburger.
     Hal noticed a kangaroo driving his motorcycle.




 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   133
  131 transitive and intransitive
      verbs
  A transitive verb is an action verb that has a direct object. Remember that
  a direct object (a noun or a pronoun) answers the question Whom? or What?
  after the action verb. Thus, in the sentence, ``The clown threw the toy into
  the air,'' the verb, threw, is transitive because (A) it is an action verb, and (B)
  there is a direct object, toy.
  Here are some other examples of transitive verbs. The verb is underlined, and
  the direct object is italicized.
      Danielle wanted pizza for lunch.
      The old shed really needs repairs.
      We believed him.
  An intransitive verb is an action verb, but it does not have a direct object
  following it. In the sentence, ``Veronica remained here after the incident,''
  the intransitive verb, remained, does not have a direct object after it. No noun
  or pronoun receives the action of the verb.
  Some other examples of intransitive verbs are these.
      They laughed quite loudly.
      The boys sprinted from the alley.
      These scientists know about physics.


  Activity

  On the line before each, write T if the underlined verb is transitive or I if it is
  intransitive.

  1         We walked slowly around the lake.
  2         We walked the dog in the park.
  3         Reggie wrote your card.
  4         Reggie wrote.
  5         Reggie wrote carefully.



134    Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
132 Do you know your
    transitive and intransitive
    verbs?
Activity

Ten of these sentences include transitive verbs, and ten include intransitive
verbs. Write the letter T (for transitive) or I (for intransitive) on the line next
to the sentence.

 1        These flowers need more sunshine during the next few weeks.

 2        Walk more quietly down the hallway.

 3        Drivers noticed the many potholes on the roads last spring.

 4        Mrs. Littlefield helped Roger find his dog, Rex.

 5        You do not need to help yet.

 6        A newscaster examined the historical photographs.

 7        We witnessed the beautiful sunrise.

 8        That hurts him.

 9        Bring the tickets with you this evening.
          My dog ran away last night.
          The rain came suddenly.
          Jasmine walked confidently down the street.
          The heavy winds lifted the table into the air.
          Larry spoke eloquently at the banquet.
          Dan rested often during the challenging climb.
          The scouts marched in size order at the jamboree.
          Did you give Candace the candy?
          My dad wished for clearer skies.
          These candles will glow for a long time.
          We interviewed Gussy after the memorable performance.


 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   135
  133 active and passive voices
  Voice is a verb form that indicates if the sentence's subject performs or
  receives an action.
  There are two types of voice--active voice and passive voice.

  7 If the sentence's subject performs the action, the sentence is written in
      the active voice. ``The pilot landed the plane'' is written in the active
      voice since the subject (pilot) performed the action (landed the plane).

  7 If the sentence's subject receives the action, the sentence is written in the
      passive voice. ``The plane was landed by the pilot'' is written in the
      passive voice since the subject (plane) received the pilot's action (landed
      the plane).

  Note: Good writers use the active voice whenever possible. However, if you
  want to emphasize a specific point, you can use the passive voice. That is why
  the sentence, ``An exciting program was aired by our local television station,''
  is acceptable, even though it is written in the passive voice. The writer wants
  to emphasize the program, not the television station.


  Activity

  Indicate, with an A for active voice, or a P for passive voice, the voice of the
  verbs in these sentences.

  1        The construction worker heard the noise.

  2        The noise was heard by the construction worker.

  3        Our contest was won by Timbo.

  4        Timbo won our contest.

  5        A new SUV was purchased by that family down the block.




136   Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
134 sound-alike words
    (part one)
The words in these pairs sound alike. Study these quick definitions, and use
these words in your writing and speech.

1 board: piece of wood
      Hillary hammered the pine board.
   bored: tired of; not interested
      Were you bored at the movies?

2 brake: the stopping device
      Push hard on the brake to stop the bike.
   break: a rest; to smash or shatter
      The tired workers deserved a break.
      Did the player break her leg in the collision?

3 capital: money; most important
      The company's owners put up the capital to start the project.
      Annapolis is the capital city of Maryland.
   capitol: building
      Each state has its own capitol where officials convene.

4 choose: to select
      Choose your dessert and take it to that table.
   chose: past tense of the verb choose
      The couple chose their wedding song.

5 desert: to abandon (di =            zert); the dry region ( de = zert)
      Did the foe desert his army and go to the enemy's side?
      The Sahara Desert is huge.
   dessert: cake, pie, ice cream, pudding, fruit, and such served as the
   meal's final course
      We had ice cream for dessert.


  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   137
  135 sound-alike words
      (part two)
  Here are some more paired words that sound the same. Review them, and then use them in
  your writings and speech.

 6 formally: in a refined way
        He formally asked the girl to the banquet.
      formerly: in the past
        The new soldier had formerly lived in Duluth, Minnesota.

 7 hear: to use the ears to pick up sounds
        Did you hear that animal's howl?
      here: this place; sentence starter
        I placed the card right here, and now it is gone.
        Here are the finalists in our contest.

 8 its: personal pronoun for the neuter-gender words
        The contest has grown in its importance.
      it's: contraction for it + is
        It's going to be a good beach day tomorrow.

 9 loose: opposite of tight
        The new bathing suit felt too loose on the swimmer.
      lose: to fail; the opposite of ``to find''
        The coach did not want to lose the game in that manner.
        Did you lose your keys at the park?

      quiet: opposite of loud
        Please be quiet in the library.

      quite: to a high degree
        Winston was quite tall for his age.
      peace: opposite of war
        Most people prefer peace over war.
      piece: a portion or part
        May I have a piece of pepperoni pizza, please?

138    Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
136 sound-alike words
    (part three)
Here is the third set of sound-alike words. Study and use them well.
  plain: not adorned; piece of land
     She wore a plain dress to the event.
     The horses moved quickly across the plain.
  plane: a piece of aircraft
     How heavy is that plane with all those passengers aboard it now?
  principal: the school's leader; the most important
     The committee met in the principal's office.
     This highway is the principal road in this county.
  principle: rule of conduct or main fact
     Jeremiah could readily understand that science principle.
  their: owned by a group
     Their clubhouse was made by Frank Miller.
  there: place; sentence starter
     He lives right there.
     There are many reasons to vote for Brianna Feller.
  they're: contraction for they + are
     They're moving to Canada after the school year ends.
  theirs: possessive of their
     That boat is theirs.
  there's: contraction for there + is
     There's my dad on his motorcycle.
  to: preposition; start of an infinitive
     He went to school.
     ``To be'' is an infinitive.
  too: more than enough
     Perry was too tired to run fast.
  two: one plus one
     Two people were approaching the door.

  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   139
  137 sound-alike words
      (part four)
  Here is the last of the sound-alike words. Study, review, and use them when you can.
      threw: past tense of to throw

        The hurler threw his best pitch right down the middle of the plate.
      through: preposition meaning ``in one side and out the other''

        We walked through the many corridors of the large building.
      waist: the middle portion of one's body

        He exercised to decrease the size of his waist.

      waste: garbage
        The waste paper basket was in the corner.

      weak: opposite of strong
        After running twenty-six miles, the runner felt weak.
      week: the seven-day unit of time

        Sunday is considered the first day of the week.
      weather: outdoor conditions
        Will the weather be good for our picnic tomorrow?
      whether: a word used for alternatives

        I did not know whether to go to the cafeteria or to stay in the auditorium.
      who's: contraction of who + is

        Who's knocking at the door?
      whose: possessive of who

        Whose problem is it--yours or mine?

      your: possessive of you
        Is this your new backpack?

      you're: contraction of you + are

        You're the lucky prizewinner.


140    Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
138 making your mark with
    sound-alike words

Activity

On the line next to each numbered sentence, write the corresponding letter
of the correct word in each sentence. If your answers are correct, you will
spell a fifteen-letter word that will help this activity's title make sense.

 1        I was not (H) board (F) bored at the concert.

 2        They will need to (I) break (A) brake the window to get into
          the shed.

 3        Will you (M) chose (N) choose me to lead the game?

 4        What's for (P) desert (G) dessert?

 5        Liam was dressed (E) formally (L) formerly for the big event.

 6        May I have a (B) peace (R) piece of that cake?

 7        (P) It's (E) Its going to be sunny tomorrow.

 8        You will need to be more (D) quite (R) quiet because your father
          is sleeping.

 9        Have they introduced the new school (I) principal (H) principle,
          Ms. Morrison?
          The (S) plain (N) plane landed two miles away from here.
          (T) There (S) Their are many good reasons to attend that college.
          Is that (E) there (I) their fence?
          I am (O) to (N) too tired to read and understand this passage.
          My sister will start her new job next (A) weak (G) week.
          (S) Whose (N) Who's books are on my desk?

The fifteen-letter word is                                                                        .



 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.       141
  139 regular comparison
      of adjectives and adverbs
  To show how they differ in degree or extent, most adjectives and adverbs have three degrees
  (or forms)--the positive, the comparative, and the superlative.
  One-syllable words form these degrees in a regular way.
  7   The positive degree (or form) is used when an adjective or adverb modifier is not
      being compared. The young sister walked with her brother. (Young simply states the
      sister's age.)

  7   The comparative degree (or form) is used when two people, places, things, or ideas
      are compared. Add -er to these words to form the comparative. The younger sister
      walked with her father. (The sister's age is being compared to the age of another
      sister.)

  7   The superlative degree (or form) is used when more than two people, places,
      things, or ideas are compared. Add -est to these words to form the superlative.
      The youngest sister walked with her mother. (The sister's age is compared to the ages of
      at least two other sisters.)

          Positive Degree Comparative Degree Superlative Degree
                    tall                         taller                             tallest
                    fast                        faster                             fastest
                   large                        larger                             largest
                   small                        smaller                            smallest
                   light                        lighter                            lightest



  Activity                 Fill in each blank with the correct form of the word in parentheses.



 1 (smart) Johnny is the                                      of the twenty students.

 2 (nice) Mary is the                                     of the four directors.

 3 (bright) This new wallpaper is                                      .

 4 (smooth) This board is                                      than the other one.

 5 (long) ``This is the                                   song that I have ever heard,'' stated Julio.


142    Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
140 irregular comparison
    of adjectives and adverbs
Adjectives and adverbs of two or more syllables form their comparative and superlative
degrees (or forms) in an irregular way. The rules below will help you understand and utilize
these forms.

7   Use -er, more, or less to form the comparative degree of many two-syllable modifiers or
    describers.

7   Adverbs that end in -ly always use more or less to form the comparative degree and
    most and least to form the superlative degree.

7   When forming the comparative and superlative degrees of modifiers (adjectives and
    adverbs) that have two syllables, ``Let your ear be your gear.'' In other words, if adding
    -er or -est makes the word hard or clumsy to pronounce, use more (or less) and most (or
    least) instead.

7   Modifiers of three or more syllables, such as intelligent, cumbersome, and beautiful,
    always form their comparative degrees with more (or less) and their superlative degrees
    with most (or least). Examples include less magnificent, more interesting, and most
    spectacular.

        Positive Degree Comparative Degree Superlative Degree
                lovely                     more lovely                     most lovely
                funny                        funnier                         funniest
               crowded                    less crowded                    least crowded
               plentiful                 more plentiful                  most plentiful




Activity              Fill in each blank with the correct form of the word in parentheses.



1 (frightened) My dog is the                                     of all those dogs in the kennel.


2 (rigorous) Eddiepush-up. the rope climb is a
  exercise than the
                    feels that



3 (happy) Are you                                    today than you were yesterday?


  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   143
SECTION THREE
Mechanics
Mechanics
  141 periods, question marks,
      and exclamation marks
 1 Use a periodone the end of a declarative sentence, a sentence that is a
   request, and
                at
                   that includes a mild command.
        Our blue couch will soon be replaced. (declarative sentence)
        Please help me. (request)
        Let's be quiet. (mild command)

 2 Use a period after abbreviations.
        Dr. (Doctor)          Mr. (Mister)         ft. (foot)       in. (inch)

 3 Use a question mark at the end of an interrogative sentence.
        Have you finished your dinner, Sven?
      Note: The speaker's exact words should be placed within the quotation
      marks. If those words form a question, place the question mark inside
      the quotation marks.
        Jason asked, ``Is this my slice of pizza?''
      Note: If the speaker's exact words are a statement but are within a
      sentence that asks a question, place the question mark outside the
      quotation marks.
        Did Mollie say, ``Tomorrow is the deadline''?

 4 Use an exclamation mark at the end of an exclamatory sentence.
        This is too good to be true!
      Note: If a speaker's exact words require an exclamation mark, place that
      mark within the quotation marks.
        ``What a great performance!'' Emma remarked to James.
      Note: If a speaker's exact words are a statement, and the
      entire sentence is an exclamation, place the exclamation mark
      outside the quotation marks.
        It is hard to believe that Mark ever said, ``I think that you're right''!

146    Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
142 working with periods,
    question marks, and
    exclamation marks
Activity             Place the appropriate periods, questions marks, and excla-
                     mation marks as needed. All other punctuation marks have
                     already been inserted.

1 Can you remember your previous four phone numbers, Kyle
2 ``I wish that this test was already over,'' John Smithers said
3 Sheryl asked, ``Have any of those chickens crossed the road yet''
4 Great You can see that these are the winning lottery numbers
5 Should these plants be moved into the shed for the season
6 Jackson exclaimed, ``This party is absolutely terrific''
7 Did Anne say, ``My coat is in the auditorium''
8 What is that extremely annoying sound
9 Please take that book to the bookmobile, Chauncey
   Let's see what surprises the workers have in store for us

   ``Was John Lewis with you during the experiment'' the professor asked
   her assistant

   Tell all of them to get down here immediately--or else

   Please call the housekeeper when you get a chance

   The office manager asked his maintenance official, ``When will you be
   able to have your workers wash these windows''

   ``Did William Shakespeare, the renowned playwright, really write all of
   those plays, or did somebody else write some, or most, or all of them''
   the English teacher asked her students

 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   147
  143 commas (part one)
  A comma probably has more rules and uses than any other punctuation mark.
  Below is an important comma rule.

 1 Use commas to separate items (words, phrases, and clauses) in a series.
        James enjoys playing tennis, soccer, and basketball. (words in a series)

        The troop traveled into the mountains, across the plains, and along
          the river. (phrases in a series)

        The car dealer made sure that the purchaser's car was clean, that the
          license plates were ready, and that the ownership papers had been
          signed. (clauses in a series)

      Note: If all the items in a series are joined by and, or, or nor, commas are
      not required.
        The chef's exquisite dishes include filet mignon and roast beef
          and lamb.

      Note: If the conjunction and joins words that constitute a unit, team, or
      such, do not separate that name. Yet, you will still need the commas to
      separate items in a series.
        Peanut butter and jelly, ham and eggs, and spaghetti and meatballs
          are the children's favorite foods.

      Note: Some writers choose not to include the final comma in a series if
      by leaving the comma out, the meaning is still clear.
        Our social studies class members studied the Korean War, the Civil
         War, World War I and World War II. (It is clear that the social
         studies students studied four wars.)




148    Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
144 commas (part two)
Here are some useful rules when you are working with commas.

2 Use a comma after Yes and No when these words start a sentence.
      Yes, we have the show's starting time.
      No, there are no bananas in that store.

3 Use a comma both after consecutive introductory prepositional phrases
  and after a long introductory prepositional phrase.
      In the middle of New York City, the traffic is very heavy during
        rush hour.
      In the World Series' final game that was played in 1960, the Pirates hitter
        whacked a home run over the left field wall.
   Note: A comma can be placed after a short introductory prepositional
   phrase if the sentence's meaning and flow are improved by the comma.
   Read the sentence aloud to see if a comma is justified.
      In the first instance, the dog was in the back of the van.
      Without Greg's assistance, Ricardo would have spent many hours on
        that project.

4 Use a comma after an introductory participle or participial phrase.
      Intrigued, the young child looked into the fishbowl.
      Motivated by their drama coach's remarks, the cast members worked
        even harder than before.

5 Use a comma after an introductory adverb clause.
      Before we started our vacation, we had the mechanic check out our car.
   Note: In most instances (unless the sentence's meaning is unclear),
   an adverb clause that follows an independent clause is not preceded
   by a comma.
      I cannot recall a single instance when Jimmy was inconsiderate.




  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   149
  145 commas (part three)
  Here are some additional helpful comma rules.

 6 Use a comma to separate twoseparate the two adjectives with athe word
   check if a comma is needed,
                               or more adjectives that precede noun. To

      and. If it sounds logical, a comma is required.
        She is an intelligent, fair leader.
        The draftee is a strong, athletic player.
      Note: In the sentence, ``We were served fried green tomatoes as part of
      our meal,'' fried is an adverb, not another adjective. Thus, a comma is
      not necessary.)

 7 Use a for, and, to separate independent clauses joined by the conjunc-
   tions
          comma
                   nor, but, or, and yet.
        The singer wanted to perform at Carnegie Hall, but her schedule
          prevented that.
        You can drive, or you can walk.
      Note: When you use the conjunctions for, so, and yet to join
      independent clauses, always use a comma before the conjunction. For
      the conjunctions and, nor, but, and or, a comma is not required as long
      as the independent clauses are relatively short, AND the sentence is
      understandable and clear without the comma.
        Our principal understood and she responded immediately.
         (no comma needed)

 8 Use a comma to set off a word or words in direct address.
        Ellie, would you like us to pull you on the float again?
        This situation, Eve, is drastic.
        Will you lend a hand here, Nicky?

 9 Use a comma to set off parenthetical (provides additional informationas,
   and is loosely connected to the sentence's content) expressions, such
      ``I believe,'' ``For example,'' ``On the other hand,'' ``In the first place,''
      ``As a matter of fact,'' ``To tell the truth,'' ``Of course,'' and ``However.''
        This, I believe, is the best method.



150    Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
146 commas (part four)
Here is a very important comma rule. Study it, and use it well in your writing.

   Use a comma to separate nonessential or nonrestrictive clauses, particip-
   ial phrases, and appositives. A nonessential or nonrestrictive element adds
   information that is not necessary to the sentence's basic meaning.
   · Nonessential or nonrestrictive clauses
        The debate, which was attended by two hundred people, was exciting.
          (The fact that two hundred people attended the debate is not
          essential to the sentence's basic meaning.)
     ESSENTIAL CLAUSES: (Each underlined clause restricts the italicized
     word that it modifies.)
        The dress that Mom wore to the dinner last night was a gift from
          Dad.
        A man who has confidence will go far.

   · Nonessential or nonrestrictive participial phrases
        My two buddies, posing for their high school reunion photo, have
         worked for the government for the past thirty years. (The fact
         that these two buddies are posing for their high school reunion
         photo is not essential to the sentence's meaning.)
     ESSENTIAL PARTICIPIAL PHRASES: (Each underlined phrase restricts
     the italicized word that it modifies.)
        These cards left on the table belong to Gino.
        The woman hailing the cab is my sister.

   · Nonessential or nonrestrictive appositives
        Stuart, my best friend, loves to laugh.
     ESSENTIAL APPOSITIVE PHRASES: (Each underlined appositive phrase
     restricts the italicized word that it modifies.)
        Has your music teacher, Mrs. Brennan, given you the assignment?
        The address, 1313 Mockingbird Lane, should ring a bell with televi-
          sion viewers of that era.

 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   151
  147 commas (part five)
  Here are some additional useful rules when working with the comma.
      Use a comma after the salutation of a friendly letter.
        Dear Marty,
        Dearest Mom,
      Use a comma after the closing in a friendly or business letter.
        Sincerely,
        Be well,
      Use a comma to separate items in dates and addresses.
        She was born on January 4, 1993, in Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
        The family's current address is 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue,
          Washington, DC.
      Note: A comma is not needed
      · between the month and the day--April 18, 2010
      · between the month and the year (when no day is offered)--
        January 2020
      · between the state (or state's abbreviation) and the ZIP Code--
        Canton, MA 02021
      · between the house or apartment number and the street--
        204 Joyner Court or Apartment 6A Twelfth Street
      Use a comma to separate the speaker from the speaker's
      direct quotation.
        Trey remarked, ``This blanket was already washed.''
        ``My car needs new tires,'' Gabriella said.
      Note: Place the period and comma within the closing quotation marks.
      Use a comma after a mild interjection.
        Oh, I didn't realize that you were here, Nana.
      Note: Use an exclamation mark after a strong interjection.
        Rats! I left my wallet at the beach.


152    Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
148 commas in action

Activity             Insert commas where needed. Each sentence needs at least
                     one comma.

1 Wendall would like to go fishing but his father needs his help on
  the farm.

2 If Julio had not corrected the error he would have earned a lower grade.
3 Because Julianne studied diligently for the examination she passed with
  flying colors.

4 The long exhausting journey finally ended.
5 My dad met my mom on June 14 1975.
6 Clara asked ``Are these your violin strings?''
7 The Angeles.members visited New Orleans Detroit Chicago and
  Los
      family


8 ``I moved from California to Utah last year'' the salesman declared.
9 Dear Nicolina (as the salutation of a friendly letter)
   Smitty will you please open that door for me?
   Mr. Pryal the esteemed English teacher knows the lyrics of many
   old songs.
   Our friends who are good bowlers will travel to Spain this fall.
   Since you look younger than twenty-one years old I will need to see
   some identification.
   Within a few weeks after her interview the movie actress purchased a
   home in Hollywood.
   As a matter of fact this is the way home.
   Hector married Louanna on August 7 2006.
   Stunned by the powerful punch the boxer retreated to his corner.
   Needless to say the Fourth of July celebration was joyous.
   Sincerely (as the closing of a letter)
   Yes this is the man I will marry next year.

 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   153
  149 some more commas
      in action

  Activity             Insert commas where they are required. Each sentence
                       needs at least one comma.

  1   After the initial stage of the project the manager made three changes.

  2   Your neighbor who has three dogs in his backyard is the local
      bank president.

  3   Yours truly (as the closing of a letter)

  4   Well you can probably get there by then.

  5   Excited by the news the cameraman sprinted to the scene.

  6   Dearest Dad (the salutation of a friendly letter)

  7   Can you read the next paragraph Rachel?

  8   ``This documentary is very informative'' Roger told Ray.

  9   To tell the truth my sister already knows about your plan.
      Because Eddie needs a ride I volunteered to take him.
      As soon as the song was played the children began to sing and dance.
      Yes you should begin the game without me.
      These dogs bark loudly and those cats love to scurry around the house.
      He lives in Richmond Virginia.
      Dan Marino who quarterbacked the Miami Dolphins for years was
      always a threat to pass for a touchdown.
      Joyce the Little League representative has been volunteering for
      many seasons.
      The skilled carpenter purchased nails hammers crowbars and putty
      at the local hardware store.
      Sincerely yours (as the closing of a letter)
      He was my first choice but the committee members thought differently.
      The meteorologist answered your brilliant intriguing question.

154   Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
150 comma matching contest

Activity

Match the reasons for using a comma in Column A with their examples in
Column B. Each answer is used only once. Write the letter from Column B
on the line in Column A. The first one is done for you.

 Column A                                     Column B
  1.     C     after the salutation of         A. In the middle of the night, the
       a friendly letter                          crickets were making loud noises.
  2.           after the closing of a
                                               B. Matthew asked, ``Are we meeting
       friendly or business letter
                                                  here this afternoon?''
  3.           to separate items in
       dates and addresses                     C. Dear Samantha,
  4.           to separate the
       speaker from the quotation              D. Hunted down by the police, the
                                                  criminal was finally caught.
  5.           to set off consecutive
       introductory prepositional               E. A considerate, intelligent person
       phrases                                     will inform you.
  6.           to separate nonessen-
       tial or nonrestrictive clause            F. Sincerely,
  7.           to separate two or              G. We shot the toothpaste commer-
       more adjectives that precede               cial, but it has not aired yet.
       a noun
  8.           to separate indepen-            H. Shawneeta, is that you in the
       dent clauses joined by a                   picture?
       conjunction
                                                I. I met you on August 30, 2007.
  9.           to set off words in
       direct address                           J. These veterans, who are going to
 10.           after an introductory               the banquet later, all served in the
       participial phrase                          Korean War.



 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   155
  151 the apostrophe
  Here are useful rules for the apostrophe. Learn them well, and use them in your writing.

 1 Use an apostrophe to form sthe possessivepossessive ofand plural nouns.
   Add an apostrophe and an to form the
                                             of singular
                                                          a singular noun.
         Joe + 's = Joe's car          flag + 's = flag's colors
         day + 's = day's effort       glass + 's = glass's cost

       Note: If a plural noun ends in s, just add an apostrophe.
         cars + ' = cars' interiors
         televisions + ' = televisions' locations
       Note: If a plural noun does not end in s, add 's to the word.
         mice + 's = mice's home
         women + 's = women's department
       Note: If a name of two or more syllables ends in an eez sound, the possessive is formed
       without an additional s.
         the tales of Ulysses = Ulysses' tales
         the speeches of Orestes = Orestes' speeches

 2 To make the possessivethe alast word of the name. name of a co-owned business or
   organization, add 's to
                           of compound word or the


         brother-in-law's shoes
         Jackson and Meyer's law firm



  Activity                Make each phrase possessive. Write your answer on the line provided.



  A.                                                  the pictures owned by Mary

  B.                                                  the coat owned by the sister-in-law of John

  C.                                                  the speech delivered by Les

  D.                                                  the space owned by Fred and Garrett

  E.                                                  the address of Demetrius


156     Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
152 more apostrophe situations
Here are more situations involving the use of the apostrophe. Review them,
and incorporate them into your writing.

1 Use an apostrophe in contractions (words that combine two words
  into one).
         had not = hadn't     were not = weren't you would = you'd
         would not = wouldn't I will = I'll      was not = wasn't

2 Form the plural of a lowercase letter by placing an 's after the letter.
      There are three a's in that word.
      Mind your p's and q's.
   You do not have to add an apostrophe to form the plural of capitalized
   letters, numbers, or symbols.
      We counted three Ts in that paragraph. (capitalized letters)
      How many 8s (or eights) are in that column? (numbers)
      Earl loves to use $s (or dollar signs) in his writing. (symbols)
3 Use an apostrophe to show where the letter(s) is left out in a word
  or number.
      The Class of '18 = The Class of 2018
      Let's = Let us
      Gregory's = Gregory is or Gregory has
4 Use an apostrophe to form the plural of an abbreviation that ends with
  a period.
      B.A.'s (or BAs) = Bachelors of Arts
      M.A.'s (or MAs) = Masters of Arts
      PhD.'s (or PhDs) = Doctors of Philosophy
      P.A.'s (or PAs) = Physicians Assistants

5 Use followed by a period. Itthealso acceptable to write the plural
  not
      an apostrophe to form
                               is
                                  plural of an abbreviation that is

   without the period.
      How many CD's (or CDs) do you own?
      How many different LSAT's (or LSATs) has Bertha taken?

  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   157
  153 working with apostrophes

  Activity

  On the line next to each number, form the possessive form of the person,
  place, or thing using an apostrophe.

  1              the scarf that belongs to the woman

  2              the scarf that belongs to Helen

  3              the scarves that belong to the women

  4              the bike that is owned by the boy

  5              the bike that is owned by Chris

  6              the bikes that are owned by the boys

  7              the room occupied by the baby

  8              the room occupied by the babies

  9              the opinions of everybody

                 the ideas of my uncle

                 the backpack belonging to someone

                 the home of my brother-in-law

                 the car owned by Jim and Nicole

                 the cars separately owned by Nicole and Jim

                 the magazine of this month


158   Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
154 the colon
1 Use a colon (:) to introduce a list or series of items.
     You should have the following books and supplies with you on the
       first day of class: Roget's Thesaurus, two pencils, a dictionary, and
       two notebooks.
     These are the eight parts of speech: noun, pronoun, adjective, verb,
       adverb, preposition, conjunction, and interjection.
   Note: A colon should not follow directly after a verb or a preposition.
   The following two sentences include incorrect uses of the colon.
     The two days of the weekend are: Saturday and Sunday.
     We saw our dog run into: the woods, the house, and the
       neighbor's backyard.
2 Use a colon after the salutation of a business letter.
      Dear Sirs:
      Dear Madam:
3 Use a colon between the hour and the minute of time.
      It is now 4:22.
      The train is due here at 5:08.
4 Use a colon between a title and a subtitle.
      Mary Shelley wrote the novel Frankenstein: or, the Modern Prometheus.
      Did William Shakespeare write Twelfth Night: Or What You Will?


Activity

Place colons where they are needed within these sentences.
A. Please bring the following items with you watch, ring, cell phone,
   and pen.
 B. Dear Madam (as the salutation of a business letter)
C. The following students have been selected for the varsity debate team
   Matthew, Hillary, and Sophia.
D. My grandfather saw the movie Superman The Movie in 1979.
 E. Were you there at 440 that afternoon?

  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   159
  155 the semicolon
 1 Use a semicolon unnecessary.independent clauses. In this case, be
   a conjunction is
                    to join two
                                The two independent clauses should
      closely related.
        Isaac is a champion discus thrower; he holds the state record. (This is
          an acceptable use of the semicolon.)
        Isaac is a champion discus thrower; his dad is a baker. (This is an
          unacceptable use of the semicolon.)
        The concert was not just good; it was fantastic! (This is acceptable.)
 2 Usecertain transitional words. Use a comma after these transitional
   by
       a semicolon between a compound sentence's clauses that are joined

      words and phrases. See the sample sentences below.

                                   accordingly in other words
                                    as a result    indeed
                                      besides      instead
                                  consequently   meanwhile
                                   for example    moreover
                                   for instance nevertheless
                                   furthermore    otherwise
                                     however        that is
                                      in fact     therefore

        The new tools are great; besides, they were perfect gifts for Dad.
        Your dance score was one of the highest in this early competition;
          consequently, you will now move on to the next round.

 3 Use a semicolon between items in a series--if the items in that series
   contain commas.
        This movie's special people include Missy Swit, lead; Kate Lewis, direc-
          tor; Morty Mulis, producer; and Freida Ling, cinematographer.
 4 To eliminate confusion,independent clauses. the coordinating con-
   junction that joins two
                           use a semicolon before

        At the beach we collected shells, wood, and seaweed; and then we
          barbequed, walked the shore, and made a campfire.

160    Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
156 colons and semicolons
    in context

Activity

Insert any colon or semicolon where needed. The other marks of punctuation
are correctly placed in these sentences.

1 Harriet loved to go to the shore her brother really enjoyed going
  with her.

2 The boater annoy the people on the beach. two hours in fact, he was
  starting to
              was speeding around the lake for


3 starring Chevy Chase One Flew movies include the following Vacation,
  My great-grandfather's favorite
                                  Over the Cuckoo's Nest, starring Jack
   Nicholson and Funny Girl, starring Barbra Streisand.

4 Our fitness instructor recommends these healthy foods carrots, peanuts,
  apples, grapes, and celery.

5 Let us plan to meet at 110 on the train platform.
6 (The secretary started her business letter with the following words)
      Dear General McNamee
      We would like to invite you . . .

7 The authorSurfingthe Sport Like No Others.that she plans to entitle her
  next book
             told
                    A
                        audience members


8 Ouroftour guide offered the Gateway to thethese placesSan Francisco, the
  tal   Alaska St. Louis,
                           the group trips to
                                              West and
                                                         Juneau, the capi-

   City by the Bay.

9 We need to phoneour goal of starting tomorrow. therefore we will
  step up our
              reach
                    campaign
                               $10,000 in two weeks

   The nurse spent much time with that one patient as a result, her time
   spent with the next few patients will be reduced.




 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   161
  157 quotation marks (part one)
  When working with quotation marks (`` ''), follow these rules. This is the first
  of three pages about quotation marks.

 1 Use quotation marks before and directly after a speaker's exact words.
        The lifeguard told the swimmers, ``Please move down between the
          green flags.''
      Note: Use a comma to separate the speaker's exact words from the sen-
      tence's other parts.
        ``Please move down between the green flags,'' the lifeguard told the
           swimmers.
      Note: You do not have to use quotation marks around an indirect quota-
      tion.
        The lifeguard told the beachgoers to move between the green flags if
          they wanted to go into the water.
      Note: A direct quotation usually begins with a capital letter. If the quo-
      tation is not in its entirety, it often begins with a lowercase letter.
        Mikki believes that ``honesty is its own reward.''

 2 If a direct quotationis identified, the second part begins into two parts
   because the speaker
                         that is a full sentence is broken up
                                                              with a
      lowercase letter.
        ``Since the flowers are starting to bloom,'' said Chris, ``we should not
           step into the garden.''
      Note: If the second part of a direct quotation is a complete sentence,
      start that part with a capital letter. Insert a period after the unquoted
      portion.
        ``This is beautiful!'' responded Mrs. Alsager. ``Keep it going!''
      Note: If a person's exact words are more than a single sentence and are
      not divided, use only a single set of quotation marks.
        ``Waves gently lapped the shore. Children played in the sand,'' the
          man reported.




162    Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
158 quotation marks (part two)
This is the second of three pages dealing with quotation marks. Know these
rules and include them in your writing.

3 Use amark if themark or anmark or the exclamation mark closing of the
  tion
        question
                   question
                             exclamation mark within the
                                                         is part
                                                                 quota-

   quotation.
      ``Is this the correct tool?'' the assistant asked the machinist.
      The soldier screamed to his comrade, ``Move away now!''
   Note: If a question mark or an exclamation mark is a part of the whole
   sentence (and not just a part of the direct quotation), place the mark
   outside the quotation marks.
      Did Mr. Boland say, ``You have only two choices left''? (The entire
        sentence, not the quotation, is a question.)
      I was so ecstatic when Jenny said, ``You are our choice for class rep''!
        (The entire sentence, not the quotation, is the exclamation.)

4 Use a comma, exclamationthe sentence. A period cannot do the same.
  quotation from the rest of
                             mark, or question mark to separate the direct

      ``Please help me lift this rug,'' Mom requested Roberta.
      ``This is absolutely awesome!'' the captain told her crew.
      ``Will it be sunny tomorrow?'' the news anchor asked her staff.

5 Place colons and semicolons outside the closing quotation mark.
      There are two main characters in O. Henry's story ``The Gift of the
        Magi'': Jim and Della.
      Karen remarked, ``These two cars are full of supplies for the picnic'';
        only then did we realize that there was no room for any additional
        passengers.




  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   163
  159 quotation marks
      (part three)
  This is the third of three pages dealing with quotation marks. Study these
  rules, and use them in your writing.

 6 When you are writing dialogue, start a new paragraph each time the
   speaker changes.
        ``We need to remodel the upstairs bathroom,'' Mom said to Dad.
        He asked her, ``How much do you think that this job will cost us? I
           think that I will probably be able to do most of the work.''
        ``Great!'' Mom replied. ``Let's talk about the project again tomorrow.''

 7 Use only the openingare quoting marks at themore than oneeach
   paragraph when you
                        quotation
                                   a passage of
                                                beginning of
                                                             paragraph.
      The only time to include the closing quotation marks is at the end
      of the concluding paragraph.
        ``The bridge was built after the immigrants began to come into the
           burgeoning city in large numbers. This bridge was not a luxury; it
           was a necessity. People demanded it, and the politicians responded
           quickly to their demands.
        ``Then the good times for construction workers began--and
           continued--for the next three decades. There was always work--
           and plenty of it. To be able to use a saw and hammer meant that
           you were able to feed your family.''

 8 Use quotation markspoems, andthe titles of the following: chapters,
   songs, articles, short
                          to enclose
                                     short stories.
        ``Before Hitting the Water'' (chapter) from Kayaking for Fitness
        ``America the Beautiful'' (song)
        ``More Strain, More Injuries'' (article)
        ``Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening'' (short poem)
        ``Beware of the Dog'' (short story)




164   Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
160 italics, hyphens,
    and brackets
1 Use italics (or an underline) for the titles of the following:
      books (Brain Games)
      comic strips (Pogo)
      full-length plays (The Crucible)
      long poems (The Aeneid)
      magazines (Sports Illustrated)
      movies (The Sound of Music)
      newspapers (New York Times)
      ships and planes (U.S.S. Constitution, The Spirit of St. Louis)
      television and radio programs (Law and Order, All Things Considered)
      works of art (Piet` )
                        a

2 Use a hyphen
    · to syllabicate words at the end of a line of typing or writing. Divide
      words of two or more syllables ONLY between syllables. Do not
      divide single-syllable words.
    · to separate portions of certain compound nouns, such as father-in-law
      and editor-in-chief.
    · between two words that comprise a single adjective (only when these
      words precede the noun that they are describing). Examples include
      moth-infected clothing and rosy-cheeked elf.
   Note: If a word that comprises a single adjective ends with -ly, a
   hyphen is not necessary. (The rudely behaved spectator was spoken to
   by the usher.)
3 Use brackets to enclose explanations, comments, or a correction within
  quoted or parenthetical material.
      The reporter told the audience, ``The New York Mets' first world
        championship [1969] was memorable for all New Yorkers.''
      William Shakespeare (known as the Bard of Avon [1564­1616]) wrote
       many comedies, histories, and tragedies.


  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   165
  161 parentheses, ellipsis marks,
      and dashes
  Use the following rules for these three punctuation marks.

 1 Parentheses ( ) are used to
      · enclose numbers or letters in a series within a sentence
          There are three different types of learners: (1) visual, (2) auditory,
            and (3) tactile-kinesthetic.
      · enclose extra materials
          Priscilla Smith (n´ e Franklin) is a talented orator.
                            e
          Marla's favorite U.S. president, John F. Kennedy (1961­1963), was
            our nation's thirty-fifth President.
      · enclose explanatory materials
          Her first year in office (2009) was a busy one indeed.

 2 Ellipsis marks ( . . . ) are used to
      · indicate that material has been omitted from a quotation
          ``The best that has happened . . . was all due to your efforts,''
             Michaela proudly told her brother, Nico.
      · indicate that a statement or series is not complete
          The rigorous examination includes essays on various topics (trade
            rights, antidiscrimination laws, . . . ) that challenge all of the law
            students.

 3 A dash (--) is used to
      · indicate a sudden break in the sentence
          That was a hard fact to believe--even for the most cynical among us.
      · indicate an interruption in speech
          ``Well--um--I just thought that the plan would work,'' the
            embarrassed boy told his parents.
      · highlight or explain a word or series of words in a sentence
          These excellent singers--Mike, Joan, Terri, and Marcia--will
            continue to work here at the resort for as long as they want.
166   Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
162 all sorts of punctuation
    problems

Activity

Insert the necessary punctuation where needed.


1 Will you please hand me that wrench asked Jimmy Bevy
2 She replied You can contribute any amount that you can afford We
  accept all donations


3 They will find Rex went on that this meal is very tasty
4 The storm arrives to her assistants We need to move this herd before
  the
       rancher said
                    Lets get to it immediately


5 We swam thirty laps yesterday Ricardo stated We will swim an addi-
  tional twenty laps this morning


6 I have never met a man Nicky said whom I respected more
7 Look out Here comes that vicious dog Mr Boyle warned his children
8 Did Ms Wright say Yvonne can do no wrong
9 Laverne screamed Youre going to knock over that expensive vase Betty
     Can you take this heavy package to Tom Ted asked Tim You will need
     your car to haul it



 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   167
  163 All the punctuation
      is missing!

  Activity

  All of the punctuation marks in these ten sentences are missing. Insert
  whatever punctuation (apostrophe, comma, colon, semicolon, quotation
  marks, italics, hyphen, brackets, parentheses, ellipsis marks, and dash) is
  needed to make these sentences flow better. Each mark of punctuation
  is used at least once. Retain all of the original words.

      1    Have you seen Rocky featuring Sylvester Stallone Lucy asked Malik

      2    There are several genres of literature that we will study here in college
           this semester 1 short stories 2 novels 3 poems and 4 plays

      3    The year Alfredo was born 1996 was the same year that his dad
           graduated from medical school

      4    Many subjects physics, English, civics . . . challenge students to
           work diligently

      5    These mummies have been in the museum for many years in fact they
           have been here since the museum's inception

      6    Please bring these items to the work site this morning hammer chisel
           drill and saw

      7    Miguels hat was found near the malls main office

      8    May I ask your sister in law to dance Ronaldo asked Paula

      9    ``I um think that well you can come with us now the shy manager
           informed Rita
           The conventioneers told of their 1967 actually 1968 summer
           experiences in Chicago that summer the professor informed
           her students




168       Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
164 first capitalization list
Here are names of people, places, and things to capitalize. This is the first
of two lists of names that require capital letters.
  Albums (Abbey Road, Grease)
  Awards (Emmys®, Oscars®)
  Bodies of water (Atlantic Ocean, Lake Superior)
  Books (The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, the Bible)
  Buildings and other structures (the Taj Mahal, Empire State Building)
  Businesses (Moe's Greeting Cards, Tom's Beverage)
  Car models (Toyota Camry, Nissan Sentra)
  CD's (Nannie's Tunes, Three Famous Composers)
  Chapters and other parts of a book (``My Life,'' ``Soccer'')
  Cities (Fresno, Tallahassee)
  Comic strips (Peanuts, For Better or Worse)
  Computer programs (Microsoft Word, Excel)
  Constellations (Aquarius, Libra)
  Continents (Africa, Asia)
  Counties (Norfolk, Dade)
  Countries (Spain, Ireland)
  Days (Thursday, Saturday)
  Essays (``Self Reliance,'' ``The Philosophy of Composition'')
  Family names (Uncle John, Cousin Moe)
  Galaxies (Milky Way, Andromeda)
  Governmental bodies (U.S. Senate, Department of the Interior)
  Historical documents (Bill of Rights, U.S. Constitution)
  Historical events and periods (Battle of Bunker Hill, the Renaissance)
  Holidays (Labor Day, Fourth of July)
  Holy days (Ramadan, Yom Kippur)
  Institutions (Marquette University, City College of New York)
  Islands (Aruba, Crete)
  Months (January, December)
  Monuments (Mount Rushmore, Lincoln Memorial)
  Mountains (Rocky Mountains, Appalachian Mountains)
  Movies (Rocky, The Outsiders)
  Musical works (Dark Side of the Moon, If I Were a Rich Man)
  Nationalities (Greek, Chinese)

  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   169
  165 second capitalization list
  Here are names of people, places, and things to capitalize.
      Organizations (Girl Scouts of America, American Bar Association)
      Parishes (Vernon Parish, Terrebonne Parish)
      Parks (Yellowstone National Park, Bryce Canyon National Park)
      Periodicals (Time, Newsweek)
      Planets (Saturn, Mercury)
      Plays (Death of a Salesman, The Master Builder)
      Poems (``Boy Wandering in Simms' Valley,'' ``Richard Cory'')
      Product names (Hostess Twinkies®, Evian® water)
      Races (Caucasian, Indian)
      Regions (Southeast, Northwest)
      Religions and their followers (Catholicism, Protestants)
      Religious celebrations (Easter, Rosh Hashanah)
      Roads (Lincoln Highway, US 1)
      Sacred writings (Talmud, Koran)
      School subjects (capitalize only languages and courses that have a number or letter after
        them) (English, Math A, Biology 101)
      Ships (U.S.S. Constitution, Monitor)
      Short stories (``The Ransom of Red Chief,'' ``Luck'')
      Spacecraft (Mir, Sputnik)
      Special events (Mother's Day, Oklahoma State Fair)
      Stars (Pollux, Castor)
      States (South Carolina, Texas)
      Streets (Winters Avenue, Mansfield Drive)
      Teams (San Diego Chargers, Boston Red Sox)
      Television and radio programs (Week in Review, Car Talk)
      Titles of people's names (Dr. Landerson, Mrs. Pennington)
      Towns (Clinton, Canton)
      Townships (Daggett Township, Duplain Township)
      Trains (Golden Gate, Tulsan)
      Video games (Chain Reaction, Crossword Puzzler)
      Videos (The History of Independence Day, Golfing)
      Works of art (Piet` , American Gothic)
                        a



170     Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
166 using capital letters
Here are some useful capitalization rules to follow.

1 Capitalize the first word of every sentence.
      Your poem was read at this morning's assembly.
      Begin the session now.

2 Capitalize the pronoun I as a word and in a contraction.
      This card is something that I cherish.
      I've a funny story to tell you.

3 Capitalize proper nouns and proper adjectives.
      South America--South American capitals
      Italy--Italian cities
      Emerson--Emersonian ideals

4 Capitalize the first word of a quoted sentence.
      ``Many surprises are awaiting you, Yogi.''

5 Capitalize the interjection O.
      O, say can you see, by the dawn's early light . . .

6 Capitalize the abbreviations of proper nouns.
      Mount Rainier . . . Mt. Rainier
      Twenty-third Street . . . Twenty-third St.
      Reverend Jones . . . Rev. Jones

7 Capitalize the first word of the salutation and the closing of friendly and
  business letters.
      Dear Mrs. Lowe,
      Sincerely yours,
      Respectfully,
      Dear Madam:


  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   171
  167 capitalize these (part one)

  Activity                 Draw three lines beneath each letter that requires a capital
                           letter.

      1    mike's cousin lives in norwood, massachusetts.

      2    will the pittsburgh penguins play the new york rangers this month?

      3    is 242 northfield ave. the correct address?

      4    we studied about the pacific ocean on wednesday and the atlantic
           ocean on friday.

      5    us 10 runs through minnesota.

      6    which is your sign--pisces or libra?

      7    hank hall joined the boy scouts of america in november.

      8    when will the members of the united states senate reconvene?

      9    gino's pizza palace is in the next town.

           when was the empire state building opened?

           how many oscars has meryl streep won?

           three hundred guests attended the gala labor day event thrown by
           uncle joe.

           john and mary, two americans, owned wakefield beverage.

           have you received your notes on protestantism and judaism?

           charles lindbergh piloted the spirit of st. louis from new york to paris
           in 1927.

172       Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
168 capitalize these (part two)

Activity             Draw three lines beneath each letter that needs to be
                     capitalized.

1 my relatives, uncle ted and aunt flo, traveled in a boeing airplane
     last fall.

2 you will be intrigued by the movie murder on the orient express.
3 the statue of liberty is a symbol of freedom.
4 the bible and the koran are popular books.
5 miguel owns a toyota venza and a nissan ultima.
6 pride and prejudice, jane eyre, and one flew over the cuckoo's nest are
     among herb's favorite novels.

7 mathematics, social studies, french, and english were hard classes
     for juliet.

8 we purchased tickets for two broadway musicals, jersey boys and
     billy elliot.

9 chapter one, ``how to be a success,'' is very well written.
     this month we will read and discuss three short stories--``the gift of
     the magi,'' ``the necklace,'' and ``the open window.''
     have you seen vincent van gogh's painting ``starry night,'' or edward
     hopper's painting ``nighthawks''?
     one of lisa's favorite films is citizen kane.
     my sisters especially enjoy two comic strips, ``archie''
     and ``family circle.''
     aunt gina and grandpa gino visited the grand canyon last october.
     yvonne attended cornell university in ithaca, new york.

 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   173
  169 challenging spelling words
  Here are over 150 challenging spelling words that you should study and use. In addition,
  look up the meaning of any word that is not familiar to you.

      absence             curiosity            ideally             nickel               seize
      acceptable          defendant            immature            niece                separate
      accidentally        definite             immigrate           noisy                sergeant
      accommodate         dilemma              interfere           nominal              sizable
      acquaint            disappear            interrupt           nonentity            success
      acquire             disaster             irregular           occasion             symbolize
      aerial              discipline           jaunty              occurred             symmetry
      already             eighth               jealous             occurrence           tendency
      amateur             emigrate             justification       omnipotent           thief
      analysis            emphasis             knowledge           operable             thorough
      analyze             emphasize            kowtow              paradigm             through
      apparent            exceed               liberal             parallel             thwart
      appearance          excessive            license             permanent            tonal
      argument            existence            likelihood          personal             tragedy
      assistance          flabbergast          loneliness          personnel            truly
      belief              foreign              lonely              persuasive           unified
      believe             fractious            loveable            pitiful              unique
      benefit             fragile              luxury              possess              unnecessary
      bureau              gauge                mammoth             prejudice            usually
      business            genuine              manageable          privilege            vicious
      calendar            grammar              manipulate          psychology           villain
      catastrophe         grateful             marriage            pursuit              violin
      category            gratitude            mileage             receipt              weight
      cemetery            grisly               miniscule           receive              weird
      changeable          guarantee            miserable           recommend            wield
      column              guilty               misspell            regrettable          willful
      committed           handkerchief         mortgage            reliable             yield
      condemn             height               municipal           reliance             zany
      conscience          heiress              muscle              resolution           zealous
      conscious           humane               neighbor            rhythm
      courageous          icicle               niceties            secede


174     Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
170 spell it right--and win
    the battle

Activity

On the line provided, write the corresponding letter of the correctly spelled
word in each pair. Then write those twenty letters, in order, on the line
beneath the last pair of words. If your letters are correct, you will spell out
a word that helps this activity's title make sense.
               1.             (b) unecessary        (c) unnecessary
               2.             (o) immigrate         (p) imigrate
               3.             (u) icicle            (v) iceikle
               4.             (m) minascule         (n) miniscule
               5.             (s) apparant          (t) apparent
               6.             (e) heiress           (f) hearess
               7.             (r) knowledge         (s) knowlidge
               8.             (p) existance         (r) existence
               9.             (d) comitted          (e) committed
             10.              (v) foreign           (w) foriegn
             11.              (n) analize           (o) analyze
             12.              (l) genuine           (m) genuinne
             13.              (t) tendoncy          (u) tendency
             14.              (s) predjudice        (t) prejudice
             15.              (h) dilema            (i) dilemma
             16.              (o) assistance        (p) assistence
             17.              (n) occurrence        (o) occurence
             18.              (a) misspell          (b) mispell
             19.              (r) interrupt         (s) interupt
             20.              (x) morgage           (y) mortgage

The twenty-letter word is                                                                         .


 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.       175
    SECTION FOUR
Show What You Know
Show What You Know
  171 Where did all the
      letters go?

  Activity             Each spelling word is missing one or more letters. Use the
                       spaces provided to fill in the letters.


                 1.    mile        ge                      21.    amat              r
                 2.    i       egular                      22.    a     quire
                 3.    colum                               23.    h         ress
                 4.    accom           odate               24.    exist         nce
                 5.    heig        t                       25.    bel           ve
                 6.    un      ecessary                    26.    wi      ld
                 7.    vill      in                        27.    we       rd
                 8.    n        ghbor                      28.    s     rgeant
                 9.    regre            able               29.    pre       udice
                10.    occurr           nce                30.    cons          ious
                11.    s       ze                          31.    appar          nt
                12.    o        asion                      32.    mor        gage
                13.    thor            gh                  33.    condem
                14.    paradi           m                  34.    gramm             r
                15.    nic      el                         35.    calend            r
                16.    min         scule                   36.    ben        fit
                17.    manag            able               37.    genu          ne
                18.    th     ef                           38.    licen         e
                19.    par      llel                       39.    dis      ipline
                20.    cem         t    ry                 40.    fore         gn


178   Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
172 grammar and Twenty
    Thousand Leagues Under
    the Sea
Activity

Here is the opening passage from Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea, a
novel by Jules Verne. Each sentence's number appears in parentheses before
the sentence. Answer the questions on the lines provided for you.

  (1) The year 1866 was marked by a bizarre development, an
  unexplained and downright inexplicable phenomenon that surely no
  one has forgotten. (2) Without getting into those rumors that upset
  civilians in the seaports and deranged the public mind even far inland,
  it must be said that professional seamen were especially alarmed.
  (3) Traders, ship owners, captains of vessels, skippers, and master
  mariners from Europe and America, naval officers from every country,
  and at their heels the various national governments on these two
  continents, were all extremely disturbed by the business.

1 Name the two verb phrases in the first sentence.
  and

2 What part of speech is especially in sentence two?
3 Why are there commas in between the first few words of sentence
  three?

4 Name three adjectives in the first sentence.
                    , and
                                                                                         ,


5 What word in the second sentence is acting as both an adjective and a
  pronoun?

6 Is the prepositionalor an adverb phrase? continents, in the third sen-
  tence, an adjective
                       phrase, on these two


7 The noun clause in the second sentence is
                                                                                                  .


 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   179
  173 grammar, mechanics,
      and Alice in Wonderland

  Activity

  Here are ten questions about grammar and mechanics in this one-sentence
  passage from Lewis Carroll's book, Alice in Wonderland. Answer the ques-
  tions on the lines provided. The four sections of the text are numbered in
  parentheses after each section.
      Alice was beginning to get very tired of sitting by her sister on the
      bank, and (1) of having nothing to do: once or twice she had peeped
      into the book her sister (2) was reading, but it had no pictures or con-
      versations in it, ``and what is the use (3) of a book,'' thought Alice,
      ``without pictures or conversations?'' (4)

      1    Name a proper noun in the first section of text.

      2    What is the conjunction in the first section of text?

      3    Is the prepositional phrase, by her sister, in the first section, an adjec-
           tive or an adverb phrase? (Circle one)

      4    What is the infinitive in the second section of text?

      5    What is the verb phrase in the second section of text?

      6    Once and twice, found in the second section of text, are both what part
           of speech?

      7    Name the three conjunctions in the third section of text.
                         ,                   , and

      8    Use, in the third section, is what part of speech?

      9    Why is there a comma after book in the fourth section?



           Why is the question mark inside the quotation marks in the last part
           of the fourth section of text?


180       Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
174 phrases, clauses, and
    sentences found in
    ``One Thousand Dollars''
Activity             Using this selection from O. Henry's short story, ``One
                     Thousand Dollars,'' answer each question. The passage has
                     been broken up into Sections A, B, and C.
 (Section A) ``One thousand dollars,'' repeated Lawyer Tolman solemnly
 and severely, ``and here is the money.''
 (Section B) Young Gillan gave a decidedly amused laugh as he fingered
 the thin package of new fifty-dollar notes.
 (Section C) ``It's such a confoundedly awkward amount,'' he explained,
 genially, to the lawyer. ``If it had been ten thousand a fellow might
 wind up with a lot of fireworks and do himself credit. Even fifty dollars
 would have been less trouble.''

1 The word repeated in the first section is written in what tense?
2 In Section A, solemnly and severely are both what part of speech?
3 Is the sentence inone) B, a simple, compound, or complex
  sentence? (Circle
                     Section


4 What is the subordinating conjunction in Section B's sentence?
5 Name the adjective phrase in Section B.
6 What word does genially describe in Section C?
7 Section C's sentence, ``It's such a confoundedly awkward amount,'' is
  a simple, compound, or complex sentence? (Circle one)
8 Section C's sentence thatcompound-complex sentence? (Circle is a
  compound, complex, or
                            begins with If and ends with credit,
                                                                 one)
9 Name the verb phrase in the last sentence of Section C.
     What is the antecedent of the pronoun himself in Section C?



 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   181
  175 find the mistake

  Activity                 Each sentence has one mistake. On the line before the sen-
                           tence, write the corresponding letter of the underlined
                           portion (A, B, or C) that contains the error.


      1         None of these folders has (A) your signature or (B) your address,
           (C) Mike.

      2         ``This mornings' (A) newspaper was delivered (B) at seven
           o'clock,'' (C) I told George.

      3         ``Some (A) of those grass clippings were taking (B) to the dump
           by the sanitation workers,'' (C) Thelma told Louise.

      4         The gift, a shell from the Atlantic Ocean, (A) was given to
           she and me (B) during their (C) party.

      5           Joanna borrowed (A) me a book that (B) she had already (C) read.

      6         Many of us had rode (A) down that path that you and I (B)
           scouted several weeks ago (C).

      7          Our local department store's (A) childrens' (B) section is staffed
           by friendly ladies (C).

      8         Me and Terry (A) gave (B) them over two hundred dollars' worth
           (C) of clothing.

      9       Someone (A) said that Leroy's uniform (B) shrinked (C) after
           Mom had placed it in the dryer.

                ``I think,'' (A) Justin remarked to Jonah, (B) ``that they will stay
           at the picnic with the other's.'' (C)

182       Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
176 five questions in five minutes
    (parts of speech, prepositional
    phrases, and clauses)

Activity

On the lines provided, answer these five questions in five minutes.

1 What part of speech joins words or groups of words?
2 Explain how a pronoun can be just a pronoun and how it can be a
  pronoun-adjective.




3 Usingitthe same prepositional phrase well as an adverbsentences, show
  how can be an adjective phrase as
                                       in two different
                                                         phrase.




4 Which of the following your answer. start a sentence--adjective,
  adverb, or noun? Circle
                          clauses cannot


5 Down can be used as how many different parts of speech? List them.

 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   183
  177 five questions in five
      minutes (sentences
      and usage)
  Activity

  Circle the correct answers within five minutes. Get ready. Go!

  1   Which sentence is a complex sentence?
      a. The maintenance worker, and her supervisor attended the meeting.
      b. While Rome burned, Nero fiddled.
      c. The man washed his car that was in the driveway, and his wife
         mowed the lawn.
  2   Which sentence is a compound sentence?
      a. Are you going to the show with the rest of the class members?
      b. If you can pick the correct number, you will win a trip to Europe.
      c. My mom is tall, and my dad is strong.
  3   What is the past participle of the verb bring?
      a. brang
      b. brought
      c. brung
  4   Is the subject-verb agreement correct in this sentence? Most of the
      garbage pails has been emptied already.
      a. Yes
      b. No
  5   Circle all the words that are irregular verbs.

      a. talk            f. win
      b. grow           g. laugh
      c. find           h. remember
      d. smell           i. sit
      e. run             j. teach


184   Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
178 five questions in five
    minutes (mechanics)

Activity

Circle the correct answers in five minutes. A question can have more than a single answer.
Ready? Go!

1 Circle all those that should be in quotation marks.
    a. song titles
    b. titles of book chapters
    c. short story titles
    d. titles of magazine articles
    e. titles of short poems

2 Capital letters should be used for which of these?
    a. titles of novels
    b. names of the seasons
    c. days of the week
    d. names of planets
    e. proper adjectives

3 Which sentences illustrate the correct use of the comma?
    a. Because the weather is nasty, the young students must stay indoors.
    b. In my opinion, this method has more benefits than the other ones.
    c. He went home to Louisiana, after that.

4 Which words are spelled correctly?
    a. iregular
    b. villian
    c. occasion
    d. apparent

5 Which answers illustrate the correct use of the apostrophe?
    a. Helen's bike--for the bike that belongs to Helen
    b. the children's book--for the book that is designed for children
    c. Sue and Charley's house--for the house that is co-owned by Sue and Charley
    d. the senator's proposal--for the proposal that the senators made together

 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   185
  179 five questions in five
      minutes (verbals and
      subject complements)
  Activity

  Answer all of these questions within five minutes. Circle the answers. There
  may be more than one answer for any of these questions. Get set? Go!

  1   Which verbal ends in -ing and acts like a noun?
      a. gerund
      b. infinitive
      c. participle
  2   The underlined words in the sentence, ``To win the art contest was
      Melissa's goal,'' form what type of verbal phrase?
      a. gerund
      b. infinitive
      c. participle
  3   Which sentence contains an underlined predicate nominative?
      a. Louis felt uneasy at the debate.
      b. Nancy was intelligent.
      c. Kyle was the captain.
  4   Which sentence contains both a direct and an indirect object?
      a. When the singer entertains her audiences, the crowds applaud
         enthusiastically.
      b. The bluegrass fiddler gave his wife a new car.
      c. Most of these riddles can be solved if you really think about it.
  5   Which sentence contains an underlined complete subject?
      a. Without his trusty friend by his side, Pete seemed lost.
      b. The intelligent officer made a wise decision in an instant.
      c. Walking into the crowded train station, the passenger searched for
         the right track.


186   Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
180 five questions in five
    minutes (confusing
    and sound-alike words)
Activity

Answer these five questions within five minutes. Circle the correct answers or
write your responses on the lines provided. Ready? Go!

1 quite by writing two difference between theone includingwords quietquiet
  Show you know the
                       illustrative sentences,
                                               sound-alike
                                                           the word
                                                                      and

    and the other including the word quite.




2 whether? would you use for the outdoor conditions--weather or
  Which word


3 of the word principal used correctly in the sentence, The principal export
  Is
     that country is coffee?    Yes        No

4 Which word--affect, effect--can be used as both a verb and a noun?
5 Show you know the difference between the often confused words cite
  and site by writing two illustrative sentences, one including the word
    cite, and the other including the word site.




  Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.   187
                                   ANSWER KEY
                                   ANSWER KEY


      Section One: Grammar
      1. The Noun

      1 Rose, pet, office                          4 Joshua, bridge, lighthouse
      2 newspaper, table, classroom                5 computer, technician, Tuesday
      3 group, hours, plan
      5. Do You Know Your Personal Pronouns?

      1 We                  5 yours                9 mine                     We and they

      2 her                 6 they                      him                   us

      3I                    7 Theirs                    Our                   she, you

      4 her                 8 him                       us



      6. Reflexive, Demonstrative, and Interrogative Pronouns

      1 Who (INT), this (DEM), herself (REF)
      2 those (DEM), yourself (REF)
      3 Whom (INT), these (DEM)
      7. Singular and Plural Nouns and Pronouns
      The singular nouns or pronouns are in numbers 1, 5, 6, 7, 9, 13, 15, 16, 18,
      and 20.
      The plural nouns or pronouns are in numbers 2, 3, 4, 8, 10, 11, 12, 14, 17, and 19.




188
8. The Adjective
(Answers will vary.)


11. Is It an Action, Linking, or Helping Verb?
Sentences 4, 6, 7, 10, and 11 include action verbs.
Sentences 1, 5, 8, 12, and 13 include linking verbs.
Sentences 2, 3, 9, 14, and 15 include helping verbs.

15. The Coordinating Conjunction

1 for              2 yet               3 but           4 or       5 so
16. The Correlative Conjunction
(These are possible answers.)

1 Whether . . . or
2 Either . . . or; Both . . . and; Neither . . . nor
3 both . . . and; either . . . or; neither . . . nor
4 neither . . . nor
5 Not only . . . but also
17. The Subordinating Conjunction
(These are possible answers. There could be others.)

1 since            2 as if             3 when          4 Unless   5 whenever
18. Combining Ideas with the Subordinating Conjunction
(These are possible answers. There could be others.)

1 When the bell rang, the students moved to the next period.
2 Unlessgame. finish your science project, you cannot play your
  video
         you


3 We were watching the nightly news when we received a phone call from my aunt.
4 My cat, Belinda, started to hiss when the veterinarian approached.

                                                                     Answer Key   189
      5 You will want to try an even harder puzzle after you solve this
        challenging puzzle.

      6 Stand here while I take your picture.
      7 If Johann gets a ride, he will go to the concert.
      8 Francois explored the surroundings as his friends asked him questions.
             ¸

      9 The garbageearly morning. out in the street after the garbage collectors emptied the
        cans in the
                     cans were left


          My brother, Eduardo, turned pale when he saw a ghost.


      19. The Interjection
      (Answers will vary.)


      20. Parts-of-Speech Review (Part One)
      Nouns are found in sentences 1, 3, 10, 17, and 18.
      A pronoun is found in sentence 6.
      Adjectives are found in sentences 5, 12, 15, and 20.
      Verbs are found in sentences 2, 11, 16, and 19.
      Adverbs are found in sentences 4 and 13.
      Prepositions are found in sentences 8 and 14.
      A conjunction is found in sentence 9.
      An interjection is found in sentence 7.


      21. Parts-of-Speech Review (Part Two)
      Nouns are found in sentences 1, 8, and 16.
      Pronouns are found in sentences 5, 14, and 20.
      Adjectives are found in sentences 12 and 18.
      Verbs are found in sentences 4, 7, and 17.
      Adverbs are found in sentences 2, 3, and 15.
      Prepositions are found in sentences 6 and 11.
      Conjunctions are found in sentences 9, 10, and 19.
      An interjection is found in sentence 13.




190       Answer Key
22. Parts-of-Speech Parade
(These are possible answers.)

1 This part of the trip is easy.
2 We must part now, but we shall see each other again very soon.
3 The network televised three presidential debates that year.
4 This Olympic match will be a televised event.
5 Lower this crate carefully.
6 This lower electric outlet is better.
7 I cannot go for I must sit with my younger siblings.
8 Manny grabbed for the ring during the carousel ride.
9 Before you go, please give me your phone number.
    George stood before the crowd.



23. Filling in the Parts of Speech

1 adjective (adj)               6 adverb (advb)             adjective (adj)

2 conjunction (c)               7 verb (v)                  conjunction (c)

3 pronoun (pro)                 8 noun (n)                  adjective (adj)

4 interjection (int)            9 pronoun (pro)             verb (v)

5 preposition (prep)                preposition (prep)      adverb (advb)


24. What's Missing? (Parts-of-Speech Review)
Nouns are found in sentences 8 and 13.
A pronoun is found in sentence 3.
Adjectives are found in sentences 5, 11, and 12.
Verbs are found in sentences 9, 14, and 15.
An adverb is found in sentence 1.
Prepositions are found in sentences 4 and 10.
Conjunctions are found in sentences 2 and 7.
An interjection is found in sentence 6.




                                                                       Answer Key   191
      25. Fun with Literary Titles (Parts-of-Speech Review)
      Nouns are underlined in titles 3, 10, 13, and 16.
      Pronouns are underlined in titles 11 (pronoun/adjective) and 18.
      Verbs are underlined in titles 1 and 6.
      Adjectives are underlined in titles 4, 5, 9, 11 (pronoun/adjective), 12, 14, and 17.
      Prepositions are underlined in titles 2, 8, 19, and 20.
      Conjunctions are underlined in titles 7 and 15.
      (There are no adverbs or interjections.)

      26. Parts-of-Speech Matching

      1D                 4O                 7I                     C                  A

      2F                 5E                 8N                     J                  H

      3K                 6B                 9M                     L                  G


      Section Two: Usage

      27. Complete and Simple Subjects

      1 Complete subject: Threatening skies; Simple subject: skies
      2 subject: engineers Many engineers from neighboring communities; Simple
        Complete subject:


      3 Complete subject: Huge trucks; Simple subject: trucks
      4 Complete subject: The Padres; Simple subject: Padres
      5 Complete subject: The talented actress; Simple subject: actress
      28. Complete and Simple Predicates

      1 Complete predicate: heard the blaring sirens; Simple predicate: heard
      2 Complete predicate: were crying during the awards ceremony; Simple predicate:
        were crying

      3 Complete predicate: give their best efforts all the time; Simple predicate: give
      4 Complete predicate: yelled at the speeding motorist; Simple predicate: yelled
      5 be chosenpredicate: will be chosen as this year's recipient; Simple predicate: will
        Complete



192        Answer Key
30. The Direct Object

1 brother               3 sting                5 wager                7 sweater
2 sign                  4 string               6 beet

31. The Indirect Object

1 Indirect object: her; Direct object: compliment
2 Indirect object: me; Direct object: money
3 Indirect object: Mom; Direct object: dinner
4 Indirect object: you; Direct object: newspaper
5 Indirect object: her; Direct object: secret
32. The Object of the Preposition
(The prepositional phrase is given and the object or objects of the
preposition are underlined.)


1 for the trip                 5 from China                    8 of the puppets
2 for the occasion             6 after dinner                  9 by Christina and Carla
3 to their home                7 by community
                                 volunteers
                                                                   for you and Moe

4 without me
33. Objects and 8­7­5
The direct objects are found in sentences 1, 5, 8, 10, 14, 17, 18, and 20.
The indirect objects are found in sentences 2, 6, 12, 13, 15, 16, and 19.
The objects of the preposition are found in sentences 3, 4, 7, 9, and 11.

34. Subject Complements--Predicate Nominatives and Predicate Adjectives
(Answers will vary.)

35. Predicate Nominative, Predicate Adjective, or Neither?
The predicate nominatives are in sentences 1, 4, 12, 13, and 15.
The predicate adjectives are in sentences 2, 5, 7, 8, and 9.

                                                                             Answer Key   193
      There are no predicate nominatives or predicate adjectives in sentences 3, 6, 10, 11,
      and 14.


      37. The Verb Phrase
      (Answers will vary.)


      38. The Prepositional Phrase
      (The italicized word is the object of the preposition.)

      1 without him                                  6 in her backyard
      2 throughout the neighborhood                  7 during the movie
      3 Beyond the river                             8 with their equipment
      4 of the sailors; aboard the ship              9 of the boats; along the river
      5 In the meantime                                   of the women; except Denise;
                                                          at the meeting

      39. The Adjective Phrase
      Numbers 2 and 3 are YES; numbers 1, 4, and 5 are NO.


      40. The Adverb Phrase
      (These are possible answers.)

      1 on Tuesday morning                      4 after much discussion
      2 into the living room                    5 In the morning
      3 by themselves
      41. Adjective and Adverb Phrases' Review
      Sentences 1, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11, 13, 16, 17, and 19 include adjective phrases.
      Sentences 2, 3, 6, 7, 10, 12, 14, 15, 18, and 20 include adverb phrases.

      42. Prepositional Phrases' Review

      1 ADVB--by the maintenance workers
      2 ADVB--in a few minutes
      3 ADJ--to tomorrow night's concert
194        Answer Key
4 ADVB--within every sentence
5 ADVB--during their investigation
6 ADVB--in fact
7 ADJ--in this tank
8 ADVB--Without much fanfare
9 ADVB--in her van
    ADVB--instead of something else
    ADJ--with the basket
    ADJ--from Hester's living room
    ADVB--on duty
    ADVB--near our house
    ADVB--with both hands
    ADVB--in the bay
    ADJ--in the ocean
    ADVB--for a very long time
    ADJ--of surprise
    ADVB--into the heavens

43. The Appositive
(Answers will vary.)


44. Appositive, Verb, or Prepositional Phrase?
Sentences 2, 7, 8, 9, and 14 include appositive phrases.
Sentences 1, 5, 6, 10, and 12 include verb phrases.
Sentences 3, 4, 11, 13, and 15 include prepositional phrases.

46. Participial Phrase or Not?
Sentences 2, 3, 6, 8, 9, 12, 13, and 14 contain participial phrases.
Sentences 1, 4, 5, 7, 10, 11, and 15 do not contain participial phrases.

48. Gerund or Not?
Sentences 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 12, 13, and 14 contain gerund phrases.

                                                                           Answer Key   195
      50. The Many Uses of the Infinitive Phrase


      1 ADVB--to meet his brother
      2 N--to revisit Europe
      3 N--To collect the entire series of presidential cards
      4 ADVB--to display their artwork
      5 ADJ--to teach well
      6 N--to listen to Broadway tunes
      7 ADVB--to buy some Italian hero sandwiches
      8 ADJ--to invite to the ceremony
      9 N--to call you last night
          ADVB--to participate in the contest
          ADJ--to improve your performance
          ADJ--to hold the musical instrument
          ADJ--to memorize the poem
          ADVB--to find the correct answer
          N--To do all of her illustrations well


      51. Verbal Phrase Review


      1 P--helping the English 11 students
      2 I--to introduce the contestants
      3 I--To learn the Greek alphabet
      4 G--Participating in the Indy 500 this year
      5 G--drawing on the board
      6 P--Skateboarding most of the morning
      7 I--to watch
      8 P--Knowing how to get back to its nest
      9 G--Watching the bathers swim
          P--recognizing his mistakes
          G--Running after his kite


196       Answer Key
    G--Talking on the cell phone
    I--to catch the taxi
    P--held in New York City
    I--to win his town's art contest


52. Matching the Phrases in Context

Selection One
1D          2C             3B          4A       5E          6F           7G
Selection Two
1E          2G             3F          4D       5A          6C           7B
53. Showing What You Know About Phrases

1D          2C             3G          4A       5E          6F           7B
54. Happy in Ten Different Ways
(These are possible sentences.)

1 We witnessed the parents' joy during the happy event. (prepositional phrase)
2 The happy sailing instructor cheered her students on during the regatta. (adjective)
3 Staying happy is not that easy for all people. (gerund phrase)
4 Happy after the victory, the excited participant hugged her teammates. (participial
  phrase)

5 Steve chose to remain happy even during the most challenging days and nights.
  (infinitive phrase)

6 Joe Burderi,phrase) photographer, warmly greeted the students before the shoot.
  (appositive
               the happy


7 adjective)
  These merchants were happy while the customers shopped in their stores. (predicate


8 Happy is an adjective. (subject of the sentence)
9 The woman with the happy children is Vera's aunt. (adjective phrase)
    The hostess was in a happy mood during the show's taping. (adverb phrase)

                                                                          Answer Key     197
      55. Writing with Variety
      (These are possible answers.)

      1 The dolphin in the larger pool amazed the children with his antics.
      2 The dolphin was in the larger pool.
      3 Walking across the beach, the fisherman carried his bait and tackle.
      4 Alex's goal is to memorize the meanings of these fifty words.
      5 Walking quickly across the beach was fun for the physically fit woman.
      6 Joe DiMaggio, the Yankee Clipper, wore number five for the New York Yankees.
      7 Four aviators who partook in the discussion answered all of our questions.
      8 When the librarian ordered the books, she knew they would be big hits with
        the children.

      9 Josephine immediately knew that today would be her lucky day.
          In the afternoon John likes to run around the lake.


      56. Phrases Finale
      Sentences 1, 3, 4, 8, 11, 12, 14, and 15 are true statements.
      Sentences 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, and 13 are not true statements.

      58. The Adverb Clause

      1 While Rome burned                    4 Even though Marcelle was tired
      2 Until the weather conditions improve 5 if you have the custodian's permission
      3 before we did
      59. Nailing Down the Adverb Clause
      The adverb clauses are found in sentences 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 11, 13, and 14.

      61. Recognizing Adjective Clauses
      (The adjective clause is listed first, the relative pronoun second, and the word that is
      being described by the relative pronoun last.)

      1 that you will play tonight-- that--instrument
      2 who has sixteen home runs--who--batter
      3 that your dad purchased--that--motorcycle
198       Answer Key
4 for whom this award has been named--whom--president
5 that you submitted-- that--answers
6 who won last year's contest--who--Miguel
7 where the hide-and-seek game began last night--where--spot
8 which I have not watched--which--films
9 when most people should be getting ready for bed--when--hour
    whom I have already contacted--whom--graduates
    who is a very competent podiatrist-- who--Dr. Gavigan
    that the committee has questioned-- that--proposals
    that has an interesting origin--that--word
    who chose to leave the session--who--Those
    to whom I have told this personal information--whom--person


63. The Many Uses of the Noun Clause
Noun clauses used as subjects are underlined in sentences 3, 7, 8, and 14.
Noun clauses used as direct objects are underlined in sentences 1, 5, and 11.
Noun clauses used as indirect objects are underlined in sentences 6 and 10.
Noun clauses used as objects of the preposition are underlined in sentences 4, 12, and
13.
Noun clauses used as predicate nominatives are underlined in sentences 2, 9, and 15.


64. Adjective, Adverb, and Noun Clauses

1q                3e                5t                 7o                9e
2u                4s                6i                 8n                       r


The answers spell out questioner.


65. Identifying Phrases and Clauses

1C                4D                7B                     H                    G

2A                5E                8D                     E                    E

3G                6F                9I                     F                    A


                                                                              Answer Key   199
      66. Do You Know Your Phrases and Clauses?

      1E                4H                7A                    D              I

      2A                5B                8G                    D              C

      3G                6I                9B                    F              F


      67. Putting Clauses into Action
      (These are possible answers. There may be others.)

      1 My sister, who is in the fifth grade, is tall.
      2 As soon as the bell rang, three mice ran throughout the maze.
      3 Last Tuesday, we visited the restaurant that is in the Sheldon Park Mall.
      4 What I would like to buy are these two magazines.
      5 Because Monday night's storm dropped ten inches of snow, school was canceled on
        Tuesday morning.

      6 Whenever Lucy tells us scary ghost stories, we get frightened.
      7 The deputy mayor will give whoever wins the potato sack race a blue ribbon as the
        prize.


      69. Starting the Sentence

      1E           2F           3A          4D             5G       6B             7C
      70. It's All About Form

      1H                3G                5D               7F              9I
      2C                4E                6A               8B                  J


      72. What's What? Sentences, Fragments, and Run-On Sentences
      Numbers 1, 4, 7, 11, and 15 are sentences.
      Numbers 2, 5, 6, 9, and 14 are fragments.
      Numbers 3, 8, 10, 12, and 13 are run-on sentences.


      73. Making Sense (and Sentences)
      (These are possible answers.)


200       Answer Key
1 Mount Rushmore, located in South Dakota, is fabulous.
2 Before the storm started, we moved the tables and chairs into the shed.
3 If you think that it is a workable plan, let's go with it.
4 Oliver is a great friend who never speaks badly about anybody.
5 The funny James Short just arrived.
6 My friends and I like to get wonderful exercise by skateboarding.
7 While Nigeria.
  about
         the repairman fixed the dishwasher, we watched the documentary


8 After the author wrote for seven consecutive hours, she was exhausted.
9 Looking into the car's window, the police officer spotted the evidence.
    We like all the songs that the entertainer sang.

74. Types of Sentences by Purpose
(These are possible answers.)

I like chocolate ice cream. (declarative sentence)
Do you like vanilla ice cream? (interrogative sentence)
We won! (exclamatory sentence)
Clean the table after you have finished eating. (imperative sentence)

75. ``Purposeful'' Sentences
The declarative sentences are numbers 2, 6, 9, 14, and 17.
The interrogative sentences are numbers 1, 5, 11, 13, and 20.
The exclamatory sentences are numbers 8, 10, 12, 15, and 18.
The imperative sentences are numbers 3, 4, 7, 16, and 19.

77. Simple and Compound Sentences
The simple sentences are numbers 2, 5, 6, 9, and 10.
The compound sentences are numbers 1, 3, 4, 7, and 8.

78. Complex Sentences
Part One (The main clause is underlined.)

1 After his assistant arrives, Van will go home.
2 Select a hat that will block the sun well.
                                                                            Answer Key   201
      3 Rob returned the library book as soon as he found it in his locker.
      4 When my pencil broke during the exam, Sheila lent me hers.
      5 Isaac gazed at the computer screen while you were reading the schedule.
      Part Two: Answers to A, B, and C will vary.


      79. Compound-Complex Sentences
      (These are possible insertions.)

      1 that my dad and uncle built
      2 that an operation was unnecessary
      3 I look for their admirable traits
      4 that we had hired; the bride looked nervous
      80. Know the Sentence's Structure?
      The simple sentences are numbers 2, 5, 8, and 14.
      The compound sentences are numbers 1, 6, 10, and 13.
      The complex sentences are numbers 3, 7, 9, 12, and 15.
      The compound-complex sentences are numbers 4 and 11.


      81. Subject and Verb Agreement

      1 drive (P)              4 win (P)                 7 do (P)       9 are (P)
      2 reads (S)              5 recalls (S)             8 is (S)            were (P)

      3 line (P)               6 attracts (S)
      83. Knowing Your Prepositional Phrases and Agreement
      (The subject is listed first; the verb follows.)

      1 buildings-- are               6 persons--interest           antiques--have

      2 men--were                     7 cans--have                  monster--frightens

      3 drawing--seems                8 note-- was                  Several--excite

      4 residents--select             9 Particles--annoy            pair--belongs

      5 Both--are                          relative-- lives         notes--need



202        Answer Key
84. Pronouns and Their Antecedents
(The antecedent is listed first; the pronoun is listed after it.)

1 wound; itself                    4 Jim, Joe; they
2 girls; their                     5 cousins; they
3 Luca; he
86. Showing What You Know About Pronouns and Their Antecedents
(The antecedent is listed before its corresponding pronoun.)

1 anybody; his or her            6 Everybody; his or her            most; their

2 none; it                       7 Several; their                   few; their

3 Some; their                    8 one; his or her                  Any; their

4 any; their                     9 someone; his or her              Many; they

5 Neither; itself                    All; them                      Each; its


88. Indefinite Pronouns and Agreement
(The number--singular or plural--is listed first; the subject is listed second; and the
verb is listed last.)

1 (P) Most--pass                 6 (S) someone--Has                 (P) few--swim

2 (P) None--have                 7 (S) Each--was                    (P) several--Have

3 (S) Everyone-- is              8 (P) all--Were                    (S) Neither--was

4 (P) both--Do                   9 (S) More--is                     (P) Both--have

5 (P) Several--want                  (S) Nothing-- is               (S) No one--reads


89. Writing with Indefinite Pronouns
(These are possible answers.)

1 Neither of us wants to miss the concert.
2 A few of the dishes need washing.
3 Most of the puzzle has been completed.
4 Most of the tickets have been collected.
                                                                                  Answer Key   203
      5 Someone in these rooms has left this package on the table.
      6 Some of this newspaper is in the other room.
      7 Some of the cards feel sticky.
      8 Is any of the homework completed?
      9 Somebody found Lester's cell phone in the locker room.
          Are all of the dresses in this department on sale today?


      92. Working with Compound Subjects

      1 was             4 was             7 occupy               is               were

      2 have            5 are             8 Do                   are              are

      3 are             6 has             9 Has                  is               is


      95. Making the Wrong Right

      1 One of my friends is here in this room with the rest of us.
      2 The pillow is too hard on my neck.
      3 These oranges from Florida are juicy.
      4 A few of the painters at that table have finished their work.
      5 Before she started her workout, Lupita was listening to the broadcast.
      6 The university officials are now admitting more students.
      7 Proponents favor patients' concerns. of training doctors how to be more
        receptive to their
                           this new methodology


      8 Then the physician inserts (or inserted) the fluid into the other vial.
      9 The film festival that was held in the mountains was well attended.
          Concert attendees admire that singer who really knows how to entertain her
          audience members.
          The number of graduates is higher this year.
          The people in our neighborhood in Queens are very friendly.
          You do not have to be at the gate that early.
          Some soldiers are on our train heading for Portland, Oregon.
          They do not have the winning ticket in last night's lottery.



204       Answer Key
96. Knowing Your Subject-Verb Agreement

1 are             5 meet            9 exchange             is                  need

2 indicates       6 has                  captures          are                 provides

3 are             7 leaves               attends           have                attend

4 makes           8 leave                is                help                is


97. Subject-Verb Agreement Parade

1 have            5 are             9 is                   weren't             is

2 is              6 was                  doesn't           are                 is

3 are             7 have                 was               has                 are

4 don't           8 is                   are               are                 has


98. Practicing Agreement
(These are possible sentences.)

1 Rick and his pals went to the city last night.
2 Most of the animals stayed in their cages during the hailstorm.
3 They forget to take their sunglasses with them.
4 Anybody who wouldweek. to go on the field trip should bring his or her money to
  the main office this
                        like


5 Physics is a very challenging class.
6 Both the girls and their brother want to go to this restaurant for dinner.
7 Herman thought that he could move the bundles by himself.
8 My favorite team is the Detroit Tigers.
9 Here is tonight's plan.
    Either my dad or his friends are going to go fishing with us.

99. How Well Do You Know Agreement?

1 is                   5 them                  9 are                    has

2 her                  6 don't                      need                is

3 was                  7 his or her                 is                  was

4 are                  8 are                        is

                                                                              Answer Key   205
      101. Selecting the Correct Verb Tense

      1 aired                           9 invite
      2 reviewed                           sang

      3 helped                             been replaced

      4 supposed                           quacking

      5 needed                             has been reviewing

      6 sliced                             had fallen

      7 imagining                          has been painting

      8 have been moved
      103. Working with Irregular Verbs from Part One

      1 came            4 drunk           7 went                chosen        fell

      2 drawn           5 held            8 grew                begun         begin

      3 cost            6 felt            9 gotten              found         brought


      105. Working with Irregular Verbs from Part Two

      1 wear            4 sung            7 sat                 told          torn

      2 wrote           5 sent            8 take                written       won

      3 lost            6 spoken          9 shrank              swam          run


      106. Irregular Verbs in Context

      1 won             4 drawn           7 brought             rode          sank

      2 shrank          5 froze           8 began               given         driven

      3 led             6 caught          9 gave                risen         sent


      107. Correct or Incorrect?

      1 caught              4 run                  8 kept                 given

      3 sank                6 written              9 did                  sung


      The verbs in numbers 2, 5, 7, 10, 12, 13, and 14 are correct.


206       Answer Key
108. Helping Out with Irregular Verbs
(This paragraph shows the correct irregular verbs. Other writing errors may still be
present.)

  Last summer, we went to the Rocky Mountains for our family vacation. On the
  way there, we sang many songs and kept a log of our journey. After Dad had
  driven three hundred miles on that first day, Mom and he decided to stop in a
  hotel for the afternoon and night. The hotel had an indoor swimming pool. Since
  last year's bathing suit had not torn or lost its color, I wore it in the hotel's pool
  where my brother and I swam for a while. Mom brought us some snacks and
  drinks that we ate and drank by the pool. I also bought some ice cream bars that
  I had seen in the snack shop. Later that evening, after all of us ate a good dinner,
  we went to our rooms to enjoy a good night's sleep.


110. Busy with the Verb ``Be''

1 have                 6 were                      was                     Is

2 Were                 7 Were                      been                    were

3 are                  8 wasn't                    are                     Were

4 Were                 9 been                      are                     Am

5 be                       wasn't                  Weren't                 are


111. The Nominative Case

1S                2 PN               3S                   4 PN             5A
114. The Possessive Case and Pronouns
(Answers will vary.)


115. Indefinite Pronouns and the Possessive Case

1 everybody                    5 everyone's                   9 Nobody's
2 Somebody's                   6 Somebody else                     Somebody else

3 nobody                       7 somebody else
4 nobody else's                8 Anyone else's
                                                                                 Answer Key   207
      116. Using the Possessive Case

      1 Lesley's house               6 a dollar's value               his suggestions

      2 Joe and Jim's house          7 the machinists' salaries       Ulysses' store

      3 Joe's and Jim's two
        houses
                                     8 my father-in-law's
                                       motorcycle
                                                                      its address
                                                                      Tom's bike
      4 that woman's car             9 the committee's plan           Thomas's bike
      5 the women's cars                 the committees' plans



      125. Matching Up the Confusing Words

      1C               4M                 7D                      F                  K

      2L               5O                 8A                      B                  N

      3G               6H                 9J                      E                  I



      126. Which Is the Correct Word?

      1 Take               5 It's                  9 infer                    have

      2 lend               6 quotations                personal               notorious

      3 in                 7 pour                      than                   Unless

      4 let                8 uninterested              set



      127. Select the Correct Word

      1 May                5 aide          9 scent                            anywhere

      2 liable             6 further         right                            Teach

      3 farther            7 fewer           Then                             rite

      4 beside             8 immigrated to   affect


      Part Two: The answers will vary.


      128. Double Negatives

      1 Linda can have no friends over tonight. or Linda can't have any friends over
        tonight.


208       Answer Key
2 advice. doesn't ever give bad health advice. or The nurse never gives bad health
  The nurse


3 I hadn't noticed anybody in the room. or I had noticed nobody in the room.
4 This pen has no ink left in it. or This pen doesn't have ink left in it.
5 After exchangingAfter exchanging their presents, my friends didmore to celebrate
  the occasion. or
                    their presents, my friends didn't do anything
                                                                     nothing more to
    celebrate the occasion.

130. Revising Sentences That Have Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers
(These are possible changes.)

1 To move this heavy package, you need strength.
2 Walking quickly, we crossed the road.
3 Laughing loudly, Emma read the cartoon.
4 While I was washing the dishes, my cell phone rang.
5 Bob saw the bow glued to the present.
6 Looking under the bed, I spotted my birthday gift.
7 The car moved along the highway that extended for over three hundred miles.
8 I saw a star shining in the distance.
9 I ate my hamburger that had been wrapped in silver foil.
    Driving his motorcycle, Hal noticed a kangaroo.

131. Transitive and Intransitive Verbs
The transitive verbs are in sentences 2 and 3.
The intransitive verbs are in sentences 1, 4, and 5.

132. Do You Know Your Transitive and Intransitive Verbs?
The sentences that include transitive (T) verbs are numbers 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 13, 17, and 20.
The sentences that include intransitive (I) verbs are numbers 2, 5, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16,
18, and 19.

133. Active and Passive Voices
The sentences written in the active voice are numbers 1 and 4.
The sentences written in the passive voice are numbers 2, 3, and 5.

                                                                                  Answer Key       209
      138. Making Your Mark with Sound-Alike Words

      1F                 4G                 7P                    N            N

      2I                 5E                 8R                    T            G

      3N                 6R                 9I                    I            S


      The fifteen-letter word is fingerprintings.


      139. Regular Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs

      1 smartest        2 nicest           3 bright         4 smoother 5 longest
      140. Irregular Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs

      1 most/least frightened
      2 more/less rigorous
      3 happier
      Section Three: Mechanics

      142. Working with Periods, Question Marks, and Exclamation Marks

      1 Can you remember your previous four phone numbers, Kyle?
      2 ``I wish that this test was already over,'' John Smithers said.
      3 Sheryl asked, ``Have any of these chickens crossed the road yet?''
      4 Great! You can see that these are the winning lottery numbers.
      5 Should these plants be moved into the shed for the season?
      6 Jackson exclaimed, ``This party is absolutely terrific!''
      7 Did Anne say, ``My coat is in the auditorium''?
      8 What is that extremely annoying sound?
      9 Please take that book to the bookmobile, Chauncey.
          Let's see what surprise the workers have in store for us.
          ``Was John Lewis with you during the experiment?'' the professor asked
          her assistant.
          Tell all of them to get down here immediately-- or else!


210        Answer Key
    Please call the housekeeper when you get a chance.
    The office manager asked his maintenance official, ``When will you be able to have
    your workers wash these windows?''
    ``Did William Shakespeare, the renowned playwright, really write all of those plays,
    or did somebody else write some, or most, or all of them?'' the English teacher
    asked her students.


148. Commas in Action

1 Wendall would like to go fishing, but his father needs his help on the farm.
2 If Julio had not corrected the error, he would have earned a lower grade.
3 Because Julianne studied diligently for the examination, she passed with
  flying colors.

4 The long, exhausting journey finally ended.
5 My dad met my mom for the first time on June 14, 1975.
6 Clara asked, ``Are these your violin strings?''
7 The family members visited New Orleans, Detroit, Chicago, and Los Angeles.
8 ``I moved from California to Utah last year,'' the salesman declared.
9 Dear Nicolina, (as the salutation of a friendly letter)
    Smitty, will you please open that door for me?
    Mr. Pryal, the esteemed English teacher, knows the lyrics of many
    old songs.
    Our friends, who are good bowlers, will travel to Spain this fall.
    Since you look younger than twenty-one years old, I will need to see some
    identification.
    Within a few weeks after her interview, the movie actress purchased a home
    in Hollywood.
    As a matter of fact, this is the way home.
    Hector married Louanna on August 7, 2006.
    Stunned by the powerful punch, the boxer retreated to his corner.
    Needless to say, the Fourth of July celebration was joyous.
    Sincerely, (as the closing of a letter)
    Yes, this is the man I will marry next year.

                                                                            Answer Key     211
      149. Some More Commas in Action

      1 After the initial stage of the project, the manager made three changes.
      2 Your neighbor, who has three dogs in his backyard, is the local bank president.
      3 Yours truly, (as the closing of a letter)
      4 Well, you can probably get there by then.
      5 Excited by the news, the cameraman sprinted to the scene.
      6 Dearest Dad, (the salutation of a friendly letter)
      7 Can you read the next paragraph, Rachel?
      8 ``This documentary is very informative,'' Roger told Ray.
      9 To tell the truth, my sister already knows about your plan.
          Because Eddie needs a ride, I volunteered to take him.
          As soon as the song was played, the children began to sing and dance.
          Yes, you should begin the game without me.
          These dogs bark loudly, and those cats love to scurry around the house.
          He lives in Richmond, Virginia.
          Dan Marino, who quarterbacked the Miami Dolphins for years, was always a threat
          to pass for a touchdown.
          Joyce, the Little League representative, has been volunteering for many seasons.
          The skilled carpenter purchased nails, hammers, crowbars, and putty at the local
          hardware store.
          Sincerely yours, (as the closing of a letter)
          He was my first choice, but the committee members thought differently.
          The meteorologist answered your brilliant, intriguing question.

      150. Comma Matching Contest

      1C                   3I               5A                7E              9H
      2F                   4B               6J                8G                    D


      151. The Apostrophe

      A. Mary's pictures                     D. Fred and Garrett's space
      B. John's sister-in-law's coat         E. Demetrius' address
      C. Les's speech

212       Answer Key
153. Working with Apostrophes

1 the woman's scarf            7 the baby's room                 my brother-in-law's
                                                                 home
2 Helen's scarf                8 the babies' room                Jim and Nicole's car
3 the women's scarves          9 everybody's opinions            Nicole's and Jim's cars
4 the boy's bike                       my uncle's ideas
                                                                 this month's magazine
5 Chris's bike                         someone's backpack

6 the boys' bikes
154. The Colon

A. Please bring the following items with you: watch, ring, cell phone, and pen.

B. Dear Madam: (as the salutation of a business letter)

C. The following students have been selected for the varsity debate team: Matthew,
   Hillary, and Sophia.

D. My grandfather saw the movie Superman: The Movie in 1979.

E. Were you at the site at 4:40 that afternoon?

156. Colons and Semicolons in Context

1 Harriet loved to go to the shore; her brother really enjoyed going with her.
2 The boater people on the around the lake for two hours; in fact, he was starting to
  annoy the
              was speeding
                            beach.

3 Chevy Chase; One Flew favorite movies includestarring Jack Nicholson; and Funny
  My great-grandfather's
                         Over the Cuckoo's Nest,
                                                 the following: Vacation, starring

    Girl, starring Barbra Streisand.

4 Our fitness instructor recommends these healthy foods: carrots, peanuts, apples,
  grapes, and celery.

5 Let us plan to meet at 1:10 on the train platform.
6 (The secretary started her business letter with these words)
         Dear General McNamee:
         We would like to invite you . . .

7 The A Sport Like No Others. members that she plans to entitle her next book Surf-
  ing:
       author told the audience


                                                                            Answer Key     213
      8 OurLouis, guide offered to the West; and San Francisco, Juneau, the capital of Alaska;
        St.
            tour
                  the Gateway
                                the group trips to these places:
                                                                 the City by the Bay.

      9 We need to reachstarting tomorrow. in two weeks; therefore, we will step up our
        phone campaign
                         our goal of $10,000


          The nurse spent much time with that one patient; as a result, her time spent with
          the next few patients will be reduced.


      162. All Sorts of Punctuation Problems

      1 ``Will you please hand me that wrench?'' asked Jimmy Bevy.
      2 Shedonations.'' can contribute any amount that you can afford. We accept
        all
            replied, ``You


      3 ``They will find, ``Rex went on, ``that this meal is very tasty.''
      4 The rancher saidto ither assistants, ``We need to move this herd before the storm
        arrives. Let's get
                            to
                               immediately.''

      5 ``We swam thirtymorning.''
        twenty laps this
                         laps yesterday,'' Ricardo stated. ``We will swim an additional


      6 ``I have never met a man,'' Nicky said, ``whom I respected more.''
      7 ``Look out! Here comes that vicious dog,'' Mr. Boyle warned his children.
      8 Did Ms. Wright say, ``Yvonne can do no wrong''?
      9 Laverne screamed, ``You're going to knock over that expensive vase, Betty!''
          ``Can you take this heavy package to Tom?'' Ted asked Tim. ``You will need your car
          to haul it.''


      163. All the Punctuation Is Missing
      (These are possible answers. There may be others that are acceptable.)

      1 ``Have you seen Rocky featuring Sylvester Stallone?'' Lucy asked Malik.
      2 There arestories, (2) novels,literature that we(4) plays. here in college this semester:
        (1) short
                  several genres of
                                       (3) poems, and
                                                        will study


      3 The yearschool. was born (1996) was the same year that his dad graduated from
        medical
                 Alfredo


      4 Many subjects (physics, English, civics . . . ) challenge students to work diligently.
      5 Thesesince the museum's inception.museum for many years; in fact, they have been
        here
               mummies have been in the



214       Answer Key
6 Please bring these after drilltheoptional.) this morning: hammer, chisel, drill, and
  saw. (The comma
                     items to
                                 is
                                    work site


7 Miguel's hat was found near the mall's main office.
8 ``May I ask your sister-in-law to dance?'' Ronaldo asked Paula.
9 ``I--um--think that--well--you can come with us,'' the shy manager informed
  Rita.
    ``The conventioneers told of their 1967 [actually 1968] experiences in Chicago that
    summer,'' the assistant professor informed her students.

167. Capitalize These (Part One)

1 Mike's cousin lives in Norwood, Massachusetts.
2 Will the Pittsburgh Penguins play the New York Rangers this month?
3 Is 242 Northfield Ave. the correct address?
4 WeFriday. about the Pacific Ocean on Wednesday and the Atlantic Ocean
  on
      studied


5 US 10 runs through Minnesota.
6 Which is your sign--Pisces or Libra?
7 Hank Hall joined the Boy Scouts of America in November.
8 When will the members of the United States Senate reconvene?
9 Gino's Pizza Palace is in the next town.
    When was the Empire State Building opened?
    How many Oscars has Meryl Streep won?
    Three hundred guests attended the gala Labor Day event thrown by Uncle Joe.
    John and Mary, two Americans, owned Wakefield Beverage.
    Have you received your notes on Protestantism and Judaism?
    Charles Lindbergh piloted The Spirit of St. Louis from New York to Paris in 1927.


168. Capitalize These (Part Two)

1 My relatives, Uncle Ted and Aunt Flo, traveled in a Boeing airplane last fall.
2 You will be intrigued by the movie Murder on the Orient Express.
3 The Statue of Liberty is a symbol of freedom.
                                                                             Answer Key   215
      4 The Bible and the Koran are popular books.
      5 Miguel owns a Toyota Venza and a Nissan Ultima.
      6 Pride andnovels. Jane Eyre, and One Flew over the Cuckoo's Nest are among Herb's
        favorite
                  Prejudice,


      7 Mathematics, social studies, French, and English were hard classes for Juliet.
      8 We purchased tickets for two Broadway musicals, Jersey Boys and Billy Elliot.
      9 Chapter One, ``How to Be a Success,'' is very well written.
          This month we will read and discuss three short stories--``The Gift of the Magi,''
          ``The Necklace,'' and ``The Open Window.''
          Have you seen Vincent Van Gogh's painting ``Starry Night,'' or Edward Hopper's
          painting ``Nighthawks''?
          One of Lisa's favorite films is Citizen Kane.
          My sisters especially enjoy two comic strips, ``Archie'' and ``Family Circle.''
          Aunt Gina and Grandpa Gino visited the Grand Canyon last October.
          Yvonne attended Cornell University in Ithaca, New York.

      170. Spell It Right--And Win the Battle
      The correctly spelled words spell the twenty-letter word counterrevolutionary.

      Section Four: Show What You Know
      171. Where Did All the Letters Go?
       1. mileage            11. seize               21. amateur             31. apparent
       2. irregular          12. occasion            22. acquire             32. mortgage
       3. column             13. thorough            23. heiress             33. condemn
       4. accommodate        14. paradigm            24. existence           34. grammar
       5. height             15. nickel              25. believe             35. calendar
       6. unnecessary        16. miniscule           26. wield               36. benefit
       7. villain            17. manageable          27. weird               37. genuine
       8. neighbor           18. thief               28. sergeant            38. license
       9. regrettable        19. parallel            29. prejudice           39. discipline
      10. occurrence         20. cemetery            30. conscious           40. foreign



216        Answer Key
172. Grammar and Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea

1 was marked, has forgotten
2 adverb
3 These are items in a series.
4 The adjectives are bizarre, unexplained, and inexplicable.
5 those
6 adjective
7 that professional seamen were especially alarmed
173. Grammar, Mechanics, and Alice in Wonderland

1 Alice                         5 had peeped
2 and                           6 adverb
3 adverb phrase                 7 but, or, and
4 to do                         8 noun
9 The comma separates the speaker's exact words from the other parts of
  that sentence.
    The quotation is a question.


174. Phrases, Clauses, and Sentences Found in ``One Thousand Dollars''

1 past tense                         6 explained
2 adverb                             7 simple
3 complex                            8 complex
4 as                                 9 would have been
5 of new fifty-dollar notes               fellow



175. Find the Mistake

1A                3B                 5A                7B           9C
2A                4B                 6A                8A                 C



                                                                          Answer Key   217
      176. Five Questions in Five Minutes (Parts of Speech, Phrases, and Clauses)

      1 conjunction
      2 If a pronoun is only replacing the name ofa aperson, place, thing, ororidea, it itisisa
        simply a pronoun. If a pronoun describes
                                                      person, place, thing,      idea,

          pronoun-adjective.

                This is fun. (pronoun only)
                This cat is lost. (pronoun-adjective)

      3 Ninatoys on the stairs were in Nina's way. (adjective phrase)
        The
             fell on the stairs. (adverb phrase)

      4 adjective clause
      5 Downof speech.noun, verb, adjective, adverb, or verb. Thus, it can be five different
        parts
               can be a



      177. Five Questions in Five Minutes (Sentences and Usage)

      1b             2c              3b              4b             5 b, c, e, f, i, and j
      178. Five Questions in Five Minutes (Mechanics)

      1 a, b, c, d, and e            3 a and b                       5 a, b, and c
      2 a, c, d, and e               4 c and d
      179. Five Questions in Five Minutes (Verbals and Subject Complements)

      1a                 2b                 3c                 4b                  5b
      180. Five Questions in Five Minutes (Confusing and Sound-Alike Words)

      1 quite: We should be quiet during the ceremony. victory.
        quiet:
               The fans were quite excited after their team's


      2 weather
      3 Yes
      4 effect
      5 site: The restaurant will be located on cite several relatedlibrary.during the trial.
        cite: The experienced lawyer chose to
                                                this site near the
                                                                      cases




218        Answer Key
NOTES
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NOTES
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                           extra homework, or regular daily lessons. In addi-
                           tion, all the reproducible lessons are designed to                     "Jack Umstatter's The Grammar Teacher's
                           be non-intimidating for students, and the author                        Activity-a-Day is a powerful grammar resource
                           has included helpful tips on how to best use each                       for classroom teachers. Loaded with clear,
                           specific topic or lesson in the classroom.                              concise definitions, examples, and practice
                                                                                                   activities, this is a valuable tool for all teachers,
                           The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day contains                           not just those who teach writing."
                           · 26 lessons and activities that cover the eight                       --Tina S. Kiracofe, curriculum supervisor,
                             parts of speech                                                        Augusta County Schools, Virginia

                                                       JACK UMSTATTER, M.A., taught English for more than 30 years at both the middle school and
                                                       high school levels. Selected Teacher of the Year several times, he is the best-selling author of
                                                       numerous books, including 201 Ready-to-Use Word Games for the English Classroom, Brain
                                                       Games!, Grammar Grabbers!, and Got Grammar?, all published by Jossey-Bass. Umstatter is a
Photo by John Borland




                                                       professional development workshop leader, training teachers and students across the nation on
                                                       reading, writing, and poetry strategies.
                                                                                                                                                 EDUCATION
                                                                                                                                     $19.95 U.S. | $23.95 Canada




                                                                                          www.josseybass.com




                        Cover design by Michael Cook



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