JOSSEY-BASS TEACHER GRADES 512 The Grammar Teacher's ACTIVITY-A-DAY 180 Ready-to-Use Lessons to Teach Grammar and Usage JACK UMSTATTER 5-Minute FUNDAMENTALS FUNDAMENTALS
Titles in the Jossey-Bass Education 5-Minute FUNdamentals Series THE MATH TEACHER'S PROBLEM-A-DAY, GRADES 4-8 Over 180 Reproducible Pages of Quick Skill Builders Judith A. Muschla, Gary Robert Muschla · ISBN 978-0-7879-9764-9 THE READING TEACHER'S WORD-A-DAY 180 Ready-to-Use Lessons to Expand Vocabulary, Teach Roots, and Prepare for Standardized Tests Edward B. Fry, Ph.D. · ISBN 978-0-7879-9695-6 THE WRITING TEACHER'S LESSON-A-DAY 180 Reproducible Prompts and Quick-Writes for the Secondary Classroom Mary Ellen Ledbetter · ISBN 978-0-470-46132-7 THE SPELLING TEACHER'S LESSON-A-DAY 180 Reproducible Activities to Teach Spelling, Phonics, and Vocabulary Edward B. Fry, Ph.D. · ISBN 978-0-470-42980-8 THE GRAMMAR TEACHER'S ACTIVITY-A-DAY, GRADES 5-12 Over 180 Ready-to-Use Lessons to Teach Grammar and Usage Jack Umstatter · ISBN 978-0-470-54315-3 THE ALGEBRA TEACHER'S ACTIVITY-A-DAY, GRADES 5-12 Over 180 Quick Challenges for Developing Math and Problem-Solving Skills Frances McBroom Thompson · ISBN 978-0-470-50517-5
JOSSEY-BASS TEACHER JOSSEY-BASS TEACHER Jossey-Bass Teacher provides educators with practical knowledge and tools to create a positive and lifelong impact on student learning. We offer classroom-tested and research-based teaching resources for a variety of grade levels and subject areas. Whether you are an aspiring, new, or veteran teacher, we want to help you make every teaching day your best. From ready-to-use classroom activities to the latest teaching framework, our value-packed books provide insightful, practical, and comprehensive materials on the topics that matter most to K12 teachers. We hope to become your trusted source for the best ideas from the most experienced and respected experts in the field.
DEDICATION DEDICATION To my teacher, colleague, and friend, Ira Finkel. I sat in your classroom and learned so much from your words and dedication to your profession. Then I learned even more about teaching from you as your Dowling College colleague. You were the best--the teacher that all students should have at least once in their lives, the fellow educator that we all truly admired. Thanks for your inspiration . . .
The GRAMMAR Teacher's Activity-a-Day 180 Ready-to-Use Lessons to Teach Grammar and Usage Grades 512 Jack Umstatter
Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. All rights reserved. Published by Jossey-Bass A Wiley Imprint 989 Market Street, San Francisco, CA 94103-1741--www.josseybass.com No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or oth- erwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400, fax 978-646-8600, or on the Web at www.copyright.com. Requests to the publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, 201-748-6011, fax 201-748-6008, or online at www.wiley.com/go/permissions. Permission is given for individual classroom teachers to reproduce the pages and illustrations for classroom use. Reproduction of these materials for an entire school system is strictly forbid- den. Readers should be aware that Internet Web sites offered as citations and/or sources for further information may have changed or disappeared between the time this was written and when it is read. Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives or written sales materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation. You should consult with a professional where appropriate. Neither the publisher nor author shall be liable for any loss of profit or any other commercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages. Jossey-Bass books and products are available through most bookstores. To contact Jossey-Bass directly call our Customer Care Department within the U.S. at 800-956-7739, outside the U.S. at 317-572-3986, or fax 317-572-4002. Jossey-Bass also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. ISBN 978-0-470-54315-3 Printed in the United States of America FIRST EDITION PB Printing 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
THE AUTHOR THE AUTHOR Jack Umstatter taught English on both the middle school and senior high school levels for thirty-five years. He also taught at Dowling College and Suffolk County Community College (New York). In 2006, he retired from the Cold Spring Harbor School District where he had co-chaired the English department. Mr. Umstatter graduated from Manhattan College with a B.A. in English and completed his M.A. degree in English at Stony Brook University. He earned his educational administration degree at Long Island University. Jack has been selected Teacher of the Year several times in his school district, was elected to Who's Who Among America's Teachers, and has also appeared in Contemporary Authors. A contributing writer for the Biography Channel, he now conducts teacher training workshops and performs demonstration lessons in classrooms across the country. Mr. Umstatter's publications include Hooked on Literature (1994), 201 Ready-to-Use Word Games for the English Classroom (1994), Brain Games! (1996), Hooked On English! (1997), the six-volume Writing Skills Curriculum Library (1999), Grammar Grabbers! (2000), English Brainstormers! (2002), Words, Words, Words (2003), Readers at Risk (2005), and Got Grammar? (2007), all published by Jossey-Bass/Wiley. vii
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank the folks at Jossey-Bass, especially vice-president and publisher, Paul Foster, and editor, Margie McAneny, for their continued support, confidence, and guidance. Their assistance and friendship over the years has been invaluable. I applaud and thank Diane Turso, my proofreader, for her meticulous work and careful review of this and other books that I have written. Thanks to all my students, past and present, for making my teaching experiences both memorable and fulfilling. As always, thanks to my wife, Chris, and my two daughters, Maureen and Kate, for their perpetual love and inspiration that mean so much. viii
ABOUT THIS BOOK ABOUT THIS BOOK Contrary to what some out there are touting, grammar is not a lost art--nor should it be! Like the planet and the people who live on it, the English language is constantly evolving and changing. Some argue that this is for the better; some feel that it is not so healthy a change. Yet, the grammatical structure of the English language remains pretty much the same and has certainly not lost its importance. In fact, the constructors of local, state, national, college entrance exams, including the SAT Reasoning Test, the ACT, and even the Graduate Record Exam (used for graduate school admissions), have placed more emphasis on grammar and its components, as evidenced by the questions and tasks currently found on these highly regarded assessments. Acknowledging the importance of grammar, usage, and mechanics on not only a student's academic profile, but also, and perhaps more significantly, on a student's ability to use language to communicate effectively and intelligently, The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day: 180 Ready-to-Use Lessons to Teach Grammar and Usage was created to assist students to learn, exercise, and appreciate the many intriguing aspects of the English language. Though each of the 180 reproducible, ready-to-use lessons and activities that cover a wide range of grammatical components and more can be done within a short window of time, the long-lasting effects of these minutes will reap benefits for all of your students. These learners will speak more cogently, listen more astutely, and write more powerfully. Grammar will no longer be a foe, a force to be feared; instead, it will be an ally, a powerful friend who furnishes comfort and inspires confidence. ix
CONTENTS CONTENTS How to Use this Book · xv Section One Grammar · 1 1. the noun 15. the coordinating 2. types of nouns conjunction 3. the pronoun 16. the correlative conjunction 4. personal pronouns 17. the subordinating 5. Do you know your personal conjunction pronouns? 18. combining ideas with 6. reflexive, demonstrative, the subordinating and interrogative pronouns conjunction 7. singular and plural nouns 19. the interjection and pronouns 20. parts-of-speech review 8. the adjective (part one) 9. the noun-adjective-pronoun 21. parts-of-speech review question (part two) 10. the verb 22. parts-of-speech parade 11. Is it an action, linking, or 23. filling in the parts of helping verb? speech 12. the adverb 24. What's missing? 13. the preposition (parts-of-speech review) 14. compound prepositions 25. fun with literary titles and the preposition-adverb (parts-of-speech review) question 26. parts-of-speech matching x
Section Two Usage · 29 27. complete and simple 47. the gerund and gerund subjects phrase 28. complete and simple 48. Gerund or not? predicates 49. the infinitive and infinitive 29. compound subject and phrase compound predicate 50. the many uses of the 30. the direct object infinitive phrase 31. the indirect object 51. verbal phrase review 32. the object of the preposition 52. matching the phrases in 33. objects and 875 context 34. subject complements-- 53. showing what you know predicate nominatives and about phrases predicate adjectives 54. happy in ten different ways 35. Predicate nominative, 55. writing with variety predicate adjective, or 56. phrases finale neither? 57. introducing clauses 36. introducing phrases 58. the adverb clause 37. the verb phrase 59. nailing down the adverb 38. the prepositional phrase clause 39. the adjective phrase 60. the adjective clause 40. the adverb phrase 61. recognizing adjective 41. adjective and adverb clauses phrases review 62. the noun clause 42. prepositional phrases 63. the many uses of the noun review clause 43. the appositive 64. adjective, adverb, and noun 44. Appositive, verb, or clauses prepositional phrase? 65. identifying phrases and 45. the participle and clauses participial phrase 66. Do you know your phrases 46. Participial phrase or not? and clauses? Contents xi
67. putting clauses into action 86. showing what you know 68. what good writers do about pronouns and their antecedents 69. starting the sentence 87. indefinite pronouns 70. it's all about form 88. indefinite pronouns and 71. sentences, fragments, and agreement run-on sentences 89. writing with indefinite 72. What's what? sentences, pronouns fragments, and run-on sentences 90. compound subjects (part one) 73. making sense (and sentences) 91. compound subjects (part two) 74. types of sentences by purpose 92. working with compound subjects 75. ``purposeful'' sentences 93. subject-verb agreement 76. sentences by design situations (or construction) 94. more subject-verb 77. simple and compound agreement situations sentences 95. making the wrong 78. complex sentences right 79. compound-complex 96. knowing your subject-verb sentences agreement 80. Know the sentence's 97. subject-verb agreement structure? parade 81. subject and verb 98. practicing agreement agreement 99. How well do you know 82. agreement involving agreement? prepositional phrases 100. regular verb tenses 83. knowing your prepositional phrases and agreement 101. selecting the correct verb tense 84. pronouns and their antecedents 102. irregular verbs (part one) 85. agreement between 103. working with irregular verbs indefinite pronouns and from part one their antecedents 104. irregular verbs (part two) xii Contents
105. working with irregular verbs 124. confusing usage words from part two (part eight) 106. irregular verbs in context 125. matching up the confusing 107. Correct or incorrect? words 108. helping out with irregular 126. Which is the correct word? verbs 127. select the correct word 109. the verb ``be'' 128. double negatives 110. busy with the verb ``be'' 129. misplaced and dangling 111. the nominative case modifiers 112. the objective case 130. revising sentences that have 113. the possessive case misplaced and dangling modifiers 114. the possessive case and pronouns 131. transitive and intransitive verbs 115. indefinite pronouns and the 132. Do you know your transitive possessive case and intransitive verbs? 116. using the possessive case 133. active and passive voices 117. confusing usage words 134. sound-alike words (part one) (part one) 118. confusing usage words 135. sound-alike words (part two) (part two) 119. confusing usage words 136. sound-alike words (part three) (part three) 120. confusing usage words 137. sound-alike words (part four) (part four) 121. confusing usage words 138. making your mark with (part five) sound-alike words 122. confusing usage words 139. regular comparison of (part six) adjectives and adverbs 123. confusing usage words 140. irregular comparison of (part seven) adjectives and adverbs Section Three Mechanics · 145 141. periods, question 142. working with periods, marks, and exclamation question marks, and marks exclamation marks Contents xiii
143. commas (part one) 159. quotation marks (part 144. commas (part two) three) 145. commas (part three) 160. italics, hyphens, and 146. commas (part four) brackets 147. commas (part five) 161. parentheses, ellipsis marks, 148. commas in action and dashes 149. some more commas in 162. all sorts of punctuation action problems 150. comma matching contest 163. All the punctuation is 151. the apostrophe missing! 152. more apostrophe situations 164. first capitalization list 153. working with apostrophes 165. second capitalization list 154. the colon 166. using capital letters 155. the semicolon 167. capitalize these (part one) 156. colons and semicolons in 168. capitalize these (part two) context 169. challenging spelling words 157. quotation marks (part one) 170. spell it right--and win the 158. quotation marks (part two) battle Section Four Show What You Know · 177 171. Where did all the letters go? 177. five questions in five minutes 172. grammar and Twenty (sentences and usage) Thousand Leagues Under 178. five questions in five minutes the Sea (mechanics) 173. grammar, mechanics, and 179. five questions in five minutes Alice in Wonderland (verbals and subject 174. phrases, clauses, and complements) sentences found in ``One 180. five questions in five minutes Thousand Dollars'' (confusing and sound-alike 175. find the mistake words) 176. five questions in five minutes Answer Key 188 (parts of speech, prepositional phrases, and clauses) xiv Contents
HOW TO USE THIS BOOK HOW TO USE THIS BOOK The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day: 180 Ready-to-Use Lessons to Teach Grammar and Usage is divided into four sections of reproducible grammar, usage, and mechanics pages. The first section, Grammar, features 26 lessons and activities that cover the eight parts of speech in detail. Usage, the second section, includes 114 lessons and activities. Here students will study important topics including sentence parts, phrases, clauses, sentence design and purpose, agreement, cases, and confusing and sound-alike words. The 30 lessons and activities in the last major section, Mechanics, focus on punctuation, capitalization, and spelling, three essential elements of effective writing. Show What You Know, the short, final section, serves as a check on what the students have studied. These 10 activities allow students to display their knowledge of all the topics covered within the book's pages. Each of the 180 reproducible lessons and activities will take up only a few minutes of time in the already crowded curriculum that you and your students will cover during the year. If the pages inspire greater interest and discussion, go with it, for that is the desired teachable moment. Use these pages as needed. They do not have to be done sequentially. So, if you need a lesson or an activity on commas, use the Table of Con- tents to select your specific need. Simply flip to the page(s), and you are ready to go. You can use these pages for introduction, warm-up, review, reinforce- ment, remediation, or assessment. They are appropriate for whole class, small-group, or individualized instruction. Select what is most appropri- ate and beneficial for your students. An added plus is the Answer Key that will save you valuable time, a teacher's dream! xv
In short, the ready-to-use lessons and activities in The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day will help your students improve their grammatical skills, enjoy learning about the English language, and gain confidence in the process. Isn't that what we all want for our students? Jack Umstatter xvi How to Use This Book
SECTION ONE Grammar Grammar
1 the noun A noun, the first of the eight parts of speech, is the name of a person, place, thing, or idea. person: Darlene, boy, mayor, worker, scientist, assistant place: Los Angeles, dock, home, park thing: automobile, tool, balloon, penguin, tree idea: freedom, independence, enmity, thoughtfulness A singular noun is the name of only one person, place, thing, or idea. Examples of singu- lar nouns include woman, auditorium, bicycle, and honesty. A plural noun is the name of more than one person, place, thing, or idea. Examples of plural nouns include teammates, cities, houses, and freedoms. Activity Underline the three nouns in each of the following sentences. 1 Rose carried her pet into the office. 2 The newspaper was left on the table in the classroom. 3 The group spent many hours discussing the new plan. 4 Joshua saw the bridge and the lighthouse. 5 Her computer was repaired by the technician on Tuesday. Challenge For each of these four letters, list four nouns, each having at least four letters. b: m: g: t: 2 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
2 types of nouns A noun is the name of a person, place, thing, or idea. There are singular nouns that name ONE person (player), place (room), thing (towel), or idea (love), and there are plural nouns that are the names for MORE THAN ONE person (play- ers), place (rooms), thing (towels), or idea (loves). There are other types of nouns that are good to know. They include the following. 7 Common nouns begin with a lowercase (or small) letter since they name any person, place, thing, or idea. They are nonspecific. Some sin- gular common nouns include actor (person), lounge (place), stick (thing), and kindness (idea). Plural common nouns include men (persons), head- quarters (places), computers (things), and liberties (ideas). 7 Proper nouns begin with an uppercase (or capital) letter because they name specific persons, places, things, and ideas. Proper nouns include President Harry Truman (person), Eiffel Tower (place), American Federation of Teachers (thing), and Theory of Relativity (idea). 7 Concrete nouns name a person, place, thing, or idea that can be per- ceived by one or more of your senses (seeing, hearing, touching, tasting, and smelling). Popcorn, thunder, rainfall, skunk, windmill, and hair are concrete nouns. 7 Abstract nouns name an idea, feeling, quality, or trait. Examples of abstract nouns include pity, weakness, humility, and elation. 7 Collective nouns name a group of people or things. Some collective nouns are squad, assembly, team, jury, flock, and herd. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 3
3 the pronoun The pronoun, the second of the eight parts of speech, is a word that takes the place of a noun. 7 In the sentence, ``Felipe is an intelligent student,'' the noun, Felipe, can be replaced by the singular pronoun he. Thus, the new sentence reads, ``He is an intelligent student.'' 7 In the sentence, ``We offered the baseball tickets to Rita and Drew,'' the nouns, Rita and Drew, can be replaced by the plural pronoun, them. The new sentence will now read, ``We offered the baseball tickets to them.'' There are several types of pronouns. Personal pronouns refer to people, places, things, and ideas. I, me, you, your, they, us, and it are all personal pronouns. Reflexive pronouns are formed by adding ``-self'' or ``-selves'' to cer- tain personal pronouns. They ``reflect'' back to the person or thing mentioned in the sentence. Myself, himself, herself, itself, yourself, your- selves, and themselves are reflexive pronouns. There is no such word as theirselves. Demonstrative pronouns can be singular or plural. They point out a specific person, place, or thing. This, that, these, and those are demon- strative pronouns. Interrogative pronouns, like their name suggests, are used when ask- ing a question. Who, whom, which, and whose are interrogative pro- nouns. Indefinite pronouns do not refer to a specific person, place, or thing. Some indefinite pronouns are another, both, everyone, most, no one, and several. 4 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
4 personal pronouns A personal pronoun refers to people, places, things, and ideas. 7 A first-person personal pronoun refers to the one (or ones) speaking. The singular first-person pronouns are I, me, my, and mine. The plural first-person personal pronouns are we, our, ours, and us. We told our story. I offered my opinion to the reporters. Ours is the less expensive model. The new family moved next door to us. 7 A second-person personal pronoun refers to the one (or ones) spoken to. The singular and plural second-person personal pronouns are the same three words--you, your, and yours. Can you bring your book back here today? The present will be given to you. This award is yours. 7 The third-person personal pronoun is the one (or ones) spoken about. The singular third-person personal pronouns include he, his, him, she, her, hers, it, and its. The plural third-person personal pronouns include they, their, theirs, and them. He and she wanted to take their children on a vacation. They asked him and her if the house had kept its appeal. Do you think that they will think that this car is theirs? Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 5
5 Do you know your personal pronouns? Activity Underline the appropriate personal pronoun in each of these fifteen sentences. 1 (We, Us) love to read books. 2 Most of these dresses had belonged to (her, hers). 3 (I, Me) will be waking up early tomorrow. 4 Emma has finished (her, mine) piano lesson. 5 Is this sweater (your, yours)? 6 You and (they, us) were invited to the graduation ceremony. 7 (Their, Theirs) is the cutest dog in this show. 8 Please pass the ball to (him, his). 9 Her grade is higher than (mine, him). Does this instrument belong to (him, hers)? (Our, Ours) car needs an inspection. Were you able to hear (us, we) from that spot? (We and they, Us and them) will meet at the movies. Please help (they, us) lift this heavy box. Listen to what (she, her) is telling (you, your) about the ship's cargo. 6 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
6 reflexive, demonstrative, and interrogative pronouns A reflexive pronoun is formed by adding ``-self'' or ``-selves'' to a personal pronoun. 7 Reflexive pronouns include the first-person pronouns, myself and our- selves. The second-person pronouns are yourself and yourselves. The third-person pronouns are himself, herself, itself, and themselves. The young lady carried in all her packages by herself. They relied upon themselves to finish the daunting task. Will he remember to help himself to the food on the table? 7 Demonstrative pronouns point out a specific person, place, thing, or idea. This, that, these, and those are demonstrative pronouns. This birthday card is intriguing. These crossword puzzles sure are stumpers! Are those stars always visible to us? 7 Interrogative pronouns introduce questions. What, which, who, whom, and whose are interrogative pronouns. Whose bicycle is this? Which of these is the correct answer, Paula? Whom did you ask to watch your dog while you went on vacation? Activity Underline the reflexive (REF), demonstrative (DEM), and interrogative (INT) pronouns in these sentences. Above each of those pronouns, indicate its type by using the three-letter code. 1 Who can learn this dance by herself? 2 Will you complete those problems by yourself? 3 Whom can I ask for help with these directions? Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 7
7 singular and plural nouns and pronouns A singular noun or pronoun is a word that refers to one person, place, thing, or idea. 7 Singular nouns include car, desk, pool, friend, computer, video, geography, and poetry. 7 Singular pronouns include he, she, it, I, me, mine, my, his, and her. A plural noun or pronoun refers to more than one person, place, thing, or idea. 7 Plural nouns include women, bottles, games, crafts, cylinders, and instru- ments. 7 Plural pronouns include they, them, we, our, ours, their, theirs, themselves, and us. Activity Write the letter S for singular or P for plural on the line next to each word. 1. fan 11. lights 2. their 12. families 3. ourselves 13. I 4. licenses 14. muscles 5. herself 15. gasoline 6. swimmer 16. myself 7. it 17. them 8. bats 18. its 9. graveyard 19. we 10. few 20. slide 8 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
8 the adjective The adjective, the third of the eight parts of speech, modifies (qualifies or limits the meaning of) a noun or pronoun. An adjective can answer any one of these questions: What kind? Which one? How many? or How much? In addition to regular adjectives such as tall, muscular, beautiful, and intelli- gent, there are two specific types of adjectives--the proper adjective and the compound adjective. 7 A proper adjective is formed from a proper noun. Examples of proper adjectives include French onion soup, the Belgian detective, Orwellian philosophy, and the Kenyan landscape. 7 A compound adjective is composed of two or more words. Examples include part-time referee, eight-foot tree, and fifteen-year-old musician. 7 Note: Do not hyphenate an adjective preceding an adverb that ends in -ly. Some of these instances are smartly dressed politician and nicely groomed model. Activity Write an appropriate adjective in each blank. 1 new school rules. Many of the students voiced their displeasure with the 2 meet. These geese were searching for a place to 3 ward to their coach's speech. and , the losing team did not look for- 4 Although the boss was , her workers felt . 5 people attended the play's performance. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 9
9 the noun-adjective-pronoun question When is a specific word a noun? an adjective? a pronoun? Great questions! 7 Sometimes, a noun is used as an adjective. This is true for the word gar- den in the sentence, ``The garden display attracted many visitors'' since garden describes the type of display. 7 Examples of when a noun is a noun and when it acts as an adjective are found in the following sentences. Joseph left his empty glass on the table. (noun) Joseph left his cup on the glass table. (adjective) The ball sailed through the window. (noun) The ball sailed through the window pane. (adjective) 7 Sometimes, a pronoun is simply a pronoun. In other instances, it is an adjective and a pronoun at the same time and is then called a pronoun-adjective. Several of the watches were expensive. (Several is simply a pronoun since it replaces the names of various watches.) Several watches were expensive. (Several is a pronoun-adjective that describes the noun watches.) Many of these computers were recently purchased. (Many is a pro- noun that replaces the names of the computers.) Many computers were recently purchased. (Many is a pronoun- adjective that describe the noun computers.) Some of the roads were repaired. (pronoun only) Some roads were repaired. (pronoun-adjective) Activity On a separate sheet of paper, write three additional examples of the noun- adjective-pronoun concept featured on this page. 10 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
10 the verb The verb, the fourth of the eight parts of speech, is an action word. Since all good writing starts with strong verbs, this part of speech is very important. The three basic types of verbs are the following: 7 The action verb tells what action the sentence's subject (or doer) per- forms, is performing, has performed, or will perform. Our lawyer speaks frequently with her clients. This lawyer has spoken with some clients this week. These attorneys will be speaking soon. 7 The linking verb connects (or links) a subject (or doer) to a noun, pro- noun, or adjective in the sentence. The words that follow a linking verb answer the question ``What?'' Common linking verbs are am, is, are, was, be, being, appear, grow, seem, smell, stay, taste, turn, sound, remain, look, feel, and become. These chickens are hungry. Selena is the club president. Note: To tell the difference between an action verb and a linking verb, substitute a form of the verb be. If the new sentence seems logical, the verb that you replaced is probably a linking verb. Sylvia sounded the alarm. (action verb) Sylvia sounded nervous. (linking verb) 7 The helping verb assists the main verb in a sentence. One or more helping verbs can assist the main verb. If a sentence is a question, answer the question, and the helping verb will precede the main verb. This mechanic will repair the auto this morning. These mechanics will be inspecting the auto this afternoon. Has the mechanic spoken with you yet? Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 11
11 Is it an action, linking, or helping verb? Activity Indicate the action verbs by writing A on the line before the sentence. Do the same for the linking verbs (L) and the helping verbs (H). There are at least three examples of each of these verbs within these fifteen sentences. 1 Last night's audience members seemed more enthusiastic than tonight's audience members. 2 Warren is going to ask his sister for some advice. 3 Can you remember your teacher's first name? 4 This talented surfer rode the wave all the way to the shore. 5 Since Vicki had not eaten much today, her dinner tasted especially delicious. 6 The doctor examined each patient twice. 7 Hustle to first base, Charles! 8 My niece quickly grew bored with the dull cartoon. 9 Much of the required information will be reviewed during the three-week course. Listen to exactly what the director is telling you. Hear what I have to say. This is the correct answer. Greta felt tired after the grueling boot camp exercises. Each of these fifteen doctors was interviewed by the county health officials. Will you be able to help me move these books today? 12 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
12 the adverb The adverb, the fifth part of speech, modifies (qualifies or limits) verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. An adverb can answer any of these four questions--Where? When? How? To what extent? 7 Adverbs modify verbs: Henry swam brilliantly. (How did Henry swim?) The train then came down the line. (When did the train come down the line?) The runner fell down. (Where did the runner fall?) 7 Adverbs modify adjectives: The day was almost perfect. (To what extent was the day perfect?) Some older people were quite happy with the club's proposal. (How happy were they?) 7 Adverbs modify adverbs: Sonny, swallow your food very slowly. (How slowly should Sonny swallow his food?) The architect worked quite methodically. (How methodically did the architect work?) Though many adverbs end with -ly, these thirty-three adverbs below do not. again almost alone already also always away even ever here just later never not now nowhere often perhaps quite rather seldom so sometimes somewhat somewhere soon then there today too very yesterday yet Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 13
13 the preposition The preposition, the sixth part of speech, is a word that shows the relation- ship between a noun (or a pronoun) and another word in the sentence. Mollie walked into her aunt's house. (Into connects walked and house.) My mom exercises quietly in the morning. (In connects the idea of exercises and morning.) The professor placed the book underneath the large desk. (Underneath connects the idea of placed and desk.) Note: To remember many of the one-word prepositions listed in the following box, remember the sentence, ``The plane flew the clouds.'' Any word that can be logically placed into that blank is a preposition. Then simply memorize those few that do not work in that sentence (aboard, as, but, concerning, despite, during, except, like, of , out, since, till, until, with, and without), and you will know your prepositions! aboard about above across after against along among around as at before behind below beneath beside besides between beyond but by concerning despite down during except for from in inside into like near of off on onto opposite out outside over past since through throughout till to toward under underneath until up upon with within without 14 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
14 compound prepositions and the preposition-adverb question A compound preposition has the same function as the regular, one-word preposition. It connects a noun (or pronoun) to another word in the sen- tence. The sole difference with the compound preposition is that it contains more than one word! according to ahead of apart from as of aside from because of by means of in addition to in back of in front of in place of in spite of instead of in view of next to on account of out of prior to According to the author, this event happened in 1334. We sat next to him. In addition to the shed, we will also have to paint the basement floor. We had a great time in spite of the nasty weather. The Preposition-Adverb Question The same word can be an adverb in one sentence and a preposition in another sentence. How do you tell the difference? Simple! Both an adverb and a preposition answer the same questions--When? Where? How? To what extent?--but only the adverb does it in a single word. The preposition needs other words to answer the same questions. I walked around. (adverb) (Where did I walk? around) I walked around the block (preposition). (Where did I walk? around the block) The terrified dog scampered past (adverb). (Where did the dog scamper? past) The terrified dog scampered past us (preposition). (Where did the dog scam- per? past us) Kenny, look beyond (adverb). (Where should Kenny look? beyond) Kenny, look beyond your present troubles (preposition). (Where should Kenny look? beyond his present troubles) Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 15
15 the coordinating conjunction The conjunction, the seventh part of speech, connects words or groups of words. In the sentence, ``The video producer and the singer selected an inter- esting location for the shoot,'' the conjunction and connects the two nouns producer and singer. Similarly, in the sentence, ``You can swim or jog during the afternoon class,'' the conjunction or joins the two verbs swim and jog. A coordinating conjunction is a single connecting word. The seven coor- dinating conjunctions are for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so. An easy way to remember these seven conjunctions is the acronym FANBOYS, in which the first letter of each conjunction is used. Activity Underline the coordinating conjunction in each of these sentences. 1 I will not be able to go to the field for I have not completed my science project. 2 Paola would like to be here with us, yet she has to watch over her younger sisters today. 3 This seems like a terrific plan, but I am not sure that the town can afford such a high tab. 4 Perhaps you or your neighbors will be able to organize the block party this year. 5 Do you think that we should put the paint on now so it will have time to dry? 16 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
16 the correlative conjunction Just as the coordinating conjunction does, the correlative conjunction joins words or groups of words. Here are the five pairs of correlative conjunctions. Whether . . . or Either . . . or Neither . . . nor Not only . . . but also Both . . . and Note: Using only the first letter of the first word in each pair of correlative conjunctions, the mnemonic WNBEN will help you to remember these correlative conjunctions. Whether the shark swims near the town beach or remains out at sea is the mayor's concern in the movie. Neither the Olympics nor the World Series attracted the expected number of television viewers this year. Emma likes to play both basketball and soccer. You may select either the vacation or the car for your prize. Not only will Desiree donate money to her favorite charity, but she will also volunteer at the group's annual fund-raiser. Activity Select a pair of correlative conjunctions to complete each sentence. 1 still broken will affect our work schedule. the machine has been repaired if it is 2 invitation to perform at the graduation party. magician will accept our the ventriloquist the 3 Marcelle enjoys playing with dogs cats. 4 The competent writer uses poor word choice vague details in her articles. 5 will Olivia attend the meeting, she will chair the proceedings. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 17
17 the subordinating conjunction The subordinating conjunction joins larger groups of words within sen- tences. It begins adverb clauses (groups of words that answer the questions When? Where? How? To what extent?). The subordinating conjunction can also be used to combine the ideas found in several sentences. Here are the subordinating conjunctions, followed by sample sentences. after although as as far as as if as long as as soon as as though because before even though if in order that since so that than though unless until when whenever where wherever while Because Grandma was upset, she asked to be left by herself. After Andy parked his new car, his sister asked for a ride. The driver stopped her vehicle where the passengers were standing. Our goalie, Caroline, looked as if she could block any shot. We will probably have to finish unless you know someone who could do it for us. Activity Use a subordinating conjunction to complete each sentence. Use each con- junction only once. 1 We had not seen our old friends they moved away several years ago. 2 These chimpanzees looked they were displeased with the zookeeper. 3 house.the turn Make you see the tall oak trees in front of the large white 4 Mom warned us. `` you behave yourselves, you will not be able to go to the movies,'' 5 I cannot stop from laughing Garrett tells us his funny stories. 18 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
18 combining ideas with the subordinating conjunction Activity Use an appropriate subordinating conjunction to combine each pair of ideas or sentences. Insert punctuation where it is needed. Write your answers on a separate sheet of paper. Feel free to add or delete words, but keep the same ideas. 1 The bell rang. The students moved to the next period. 2 You finish your science project. You cannot play your video game. 3 We aunt. watching the nightly news. We received a phone call from my were 4 My cat, Belinda, started to hiss. The veterinarian approached my cat. 5 You will want to try an even harder puzzle. You solve a challenging puzzle. 6 I take your picture. Stand here. 7 Johann gets a ride. Johann will go to the concert. 8 Francois explored the surroundings. His friends asked him questions. ¸ 9 The garbage cans in theleft outmorning. emptied the cans were early in the street. The garbage collectors Eduardo was pale. Eduardo saw a ghost. Eduardo is my brother. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 19
19 the interjection The interjection, the eighth part of speech, expresses strong emotions or feelings. Often found at the beginning of a sentence, an interjection is usually followed by either an exclamation mark (for strong emotions) or a comma (for mild emotions). An interjection can also be used to protest or command. Though interjections can stand alone, they are often contained within larger groups of words. Wow! That was a close call. (strong emotion) Oh, you are correct. (mild emotion) Note: Good writers choose their interjections wisely for they know that too many interjections can decrease the writing's power and total effect. Here is a list of the most common interjections. aw ahem bravo darn dear me eh eek gee golly goodness gracious gosh hello hey hi hurrah hurray no oh oh no oops phew psst rats ugh whoa wow yea yeh yes yippee Activity Write a sentence for each of these five interjections. 1 gosh 2 oops 3 yippee 4 hurrah 5 oh no 20 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
20 parts-of-speech review (part one) Activity Identify each underlined word's part of speech. An answer can be used more than once. Use these abbreviations on the line before each sentence: n = noun; pro = pronoun; adj = adjective; v = verb; advb = adverb; prep = preposition; c = conjunction; and int = interjection. 1 Each of the programs was taped. 2 Joanna programs her television equipment. 3 Fluffy, the family's cat, was looking down the well. 4 I feel well. 5 Dad bought training wheels for my brother's bicycle. 6 They have been training at this site. 7 Hey! Are you complaining about our group's meeting? 8 All of the contestants but Monica were scheduled. 9 These geese wanted to cross the street, so the tourists escorted them. We all helped to shovel the snow. Will it snow tomorrow? The snow shovel is out in the barn. The elderly man fell down. We chased him down the street, but we were unable to catch him. They made a down payment on a new car. The coach told Mitch to down the ball. The quarterback attempted a pass on the second down. Will you be able to move that large box by yourself? He had to solve the problem in a hurry. Uncle Erik gave Rick box seat tickets to the Yankees' game. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 21
21 parts-of-speech review (part two) Activity Identify each underlined word's part of speech. An answer can be used more than once. Use these abbreviations on the line before each sentence: n = noun; pro = pronoun; adj = adjective; v = verb; advb = adverb; prep = preposition; c = conjunction; and int = interjection. 1 Foolish decisions can cause trouble. 2 She gained fame quickly as a journalist. 3 You will soon know how difficult this is. 4 Please dispose of your garbage. 5 We can do this by ourselves. 6 Tomas entered into the competition. 7 Brianna becomes hysterical whenever she hears a funny joke. 8 Rachel is an heiress to a large fortune. 9 He and I can carry that bundle. You or they will be able to assist. The choir members walked onto the stage. Murphy is a silly dog some of the time. Yippee! I do not have to go to bed yet. It is my all-time favorite movie. Gary was so athletically talented that he was recruited by several colleges. This is the story of a seven-time award winner. Maurice is preparing for his lab experiment. The family room has been remodeled in a modern d´ cor. e I would love to attend the ceremony, but I already have another commitment. Both of these comedians will be appearing at local clubs this fall. 22 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
22 parts-of-speech parade Activity Use each word as indicated. Write your answers on a separate sheet of paper. 1 Use part as a noun. 2 Use part as a verb. 3 Use televised as a verb. 4 Use televised as an adjective. 5 Use lower as a verb. 6 Use lower as an adjective. 7 Use for as a conjunction. 8 Use for as a preposition. 9 Use before as a subordinating conjunction. Use before as a preposition. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 23
23 filling in the parts of speech Activity Fill in each blank with one word that logically fits the sentence's sense. Then, on the line preceding the sentence, write the word's part of speech using the code letters--noun (n), pronoun (pro), adjective (adj), verb (v), adverb (advb), preposition (prep), conjunction (c), and interjection (int). 1 A mouse ran through our garage. 2 Either the doctor procedure to you. the nurse will explain the 3 Lucille is the gymnast the floor exercise. scored a perfect ten on 4 ! That bicyclist almost crashed into the parked car. 5 The brave soldier ran skirmish. the field during the 6 Creative writers entertain their readers quite . 7 Two police officers town officials. the building looking for the 8 One of the most important busy street. is found on that 9 number. of the guitar players stayed late to rehearse the the barn we spotted several sheep. The machinist selected her tool from the cabinet. Peanut butter jelly is my cousin's lunch time treat. Take your photo album to the party, Benny. The singing group was into the Music Hall of Fame. It had rained often lately that we cannot play our last scheduled game. 24 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
24 What's missing? (parts-of- speech review) Activity Insert a word in each blank. On the line before the sentence, write the inserted word's part of speech. 1 Christie had challenging situation. shied away from a 2 Either Brian with these problems. Madeline will help you 3 Nobody can do all of this by . 4 several hours, many of us were very nervous after hearing the news. 5 These singers captured first place in the most recent contest. 6 space? ! You can fit that car into this small 7 Catherina sees that movie, she cries. 8 Those talented stories to major publishers. sold many of their 9 Thursday the week. Marcia's favorite day of The motorist drove the long road. Helen's actors were waiting for the director's advice. Our professor is very and friendly. is my favorite Canadian province. you help the older woman with her situation? We think that she had the record for the mile run. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 25
25 fun with literary titles (parts-of-speech review) Activity Identify the part of speech of each underlined word in these literary titles. 1 And Then There Were None 2 The Taming of the Shrew 3 Silent Spring 4 The Blue Lagoon 5 Tender Is the Night 6 Thereby Hangs a Tale 7 Romeo and Juliet 8 The Cat in the Hat 9 The Old Man and the Sea Writing About Your Life Our Town The Chocolate Wars Arms and the Man Far From the Madding Crowd Twelfth Night, or What You Will The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn A Winter's Tale Anything Goes The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy A Room With a View 26 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
26 parts-of-speech matching Activity Match the items in these two columns that deal with parts of speech. Each item in Column A is a word, suffix, or group of words. Write the correct letter from Column B on the line next to its corresponding number in Column A. Each answer is used only once. Column A Column B 1. past A. a collective noun and an adjective 2. activate B. suffix used primarily for nouns 3. specific C. can be used as a noun, a verb, and 4. calculated an adjective 5. -able D. can be used as a noun, a 6. -ion preposition, or an adjective 7. -ly E. a suffix used primarily for 8. invent, invention, adjectives and inventive F. a verb only 9. is, being, was G. a compound preposition 10. snow H. a subordinating conjunction 11. during I. suffix used for adverbs 12. swift, swiftly, swiftness J. a one-word preposition 13. fleet K. an adjective 14. whether L. consecutively, a word's adjective, 15. aside from adverb, and noun forms M. linking verbs N. consecutively, a word's verb, noun, and adjective forms O. an adjective and a past-tense verb Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 27
SECTION TWO Usage Usage
27 complete and simple subjects 7 The complete subject (the noun or pronoun that performs the action) contains all the words that help to identify the main person, place, thing, or idea in the sentence. The complete subject in each sentence is italicized. Many teachers and two principals from our school attended the musical concert. Giraffes and monkeys in the local zoo captured the children's interest yesterday. This novel's last few chapters are replete with great sensory language. 7 The simple subject is the main word within the complete subject. The simple subject is italicized in each of these sentences. This taco from the local store was quite tasty. Some people never cease to amaze me. These two swimmers graduated from the same high school. Around the corner is the local theater. Activity In each sentence, underline the complete subject and circle the simple subject. 1 Threatening skies changed our picnic plans. 2 Many engineers from neighboring communities have visited our sanitation plant over the last few years. 3 Huge trucks blocked our roadway for an hour during last week's terrible snowstorm. 4 The Padres will win the championship in our local softball league this season. 5 The talented actress signed autographs for thirty minutes after the play. 30 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
28 complete and simple predicates 7 A complete predicate is the main verb (action) along with all of its modifiers. The complete predicate is italicized in these sentences. Each of the seven contestants will be flying to Los Angeles next week. The talented mechanic fixed our car yesterday afternoon. My sister, a hairdresser, studied hard for her state licensing examinations. Can you recall his name? 7 A simple predicate (verb) is the main word or phrase that tells some- thing about the subject (doer) of the sentence. The simple predicate is italicized in these sentences. Izzy roamed the neighborhood last night. The students cheered loudly for our lacrosse team. Youngsters really enjoy that activity. Will he star in the school play? Activity Underline the complete predicate and circle the simple predicate. 1 The citizens heard the blaring sirens. 2 Babies were crying during the awards ceremony. 3 Talented musicians give their best efforts all the time. 4 An angry bystander yelled at the speeding motorist. 5 Who will be chosen as this year's recipient? Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 31
29 compound subject and compound predicate 7 A compound subject is two or more subjects in a sentence. These subjects are joined by a conjunction and share the same verb. The com- pound subject is underlined in each sentence. Happy, Sleepy, and Doc knew Snow White. The horses and the king's men could not put Humpty Dumpty back together again. She and I will go to the dance tomorrow night. 7 A compound predicate (verb) is two or more verbs that are joined by a conjunction and share the same subject. The compound predicates are underlined in each sentence. An experienced pilot studies and knows about air currents. All of these cars were made and sold in our country. Hearing the exciting announcement, the audience members loudly cheered and whistled. Note: In the sentence, ``Renata waxed her car, and then she parked it in the garage,'' the two verbs waxed and parked are not compound predicates (or verbs) since they do not share the same subject. Renata and she (though the same person) are different subjects (in different parts of the same sentence). Activity On a separate sheet of paper, use each pair of words as com- pound predicates or verbs. 1 walked, talked 4 remembered, responded 2 ran, hid 5 ran, threw, caught 3 earned, donated 32 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
30 the direct object A direct object is a noun or pronoun that receives the action of a transitive verb (a verb that has an object) or shows the result of that action. A direct object answers the question ``What?'' or ``Whom?'' after the transitive verb. In these sentences, the transitive verb is underlined, and the direct object is italicized. My neighbor asked us an interesting question. (What?) The television set required repair. (What?) Tyler edited three errors in her essay. (What?) They oiled the skates before lacing them up. (What?) We guided him during the mountain climb. (Whom?) James met Mr. Hunt in the school's main office. (Whom?) Activity Lucky Seven: Fill in the direct object with a word having these first and last letters and the total number of letter within the parentheses. The first one is done for you. 1 The man greeted his brother (7). 2 The baseball coach gave the man on base a s n (4). 3 This bee gave off a painful s g (5). 4 Pull the kite's s g (6). 5 that horse. reckless gambler, placed a large w Johnson, a r (5) on 6 supermarket. a b Sylvia selected t (4) from the vegetable section of the 7 Seymour found his old woolen s r (7) in the closet. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 33
31 the indirect object An indirect object is a noun, pronoun, or word group that answers the ques- tion ``to whom?'' or ``for whom?'' after the action verb. An indirect object precedes a direct object in the sentence. In each sentence, the indirect object is italicized, and the direct object is underlined. Mr. Higgins gave Penny an award. (To whom was the award given?--Penny) Laura gave us a challenging problem. (To whom did Laura give the challenging problem?--us) Their efforts earned them a handsome reward. (Earned a handsome reward for whom?--them) Can Harold purchase his mother a new home? (Purchase a new home for whom?--his mother) Note: Remember the difference between an indirect object and an object of the preposition. The comedian told her a joke. (The indirect object is her, and the direct object is joke.) The comedian told the joke to her. (The direct object is joke, and the object of the preposition is her. There is no indirect object.) Activity Circle the indirect object, and underline the direct object in each sentence. 1 Hillary's minister gave her a compliment. 2 Lance lent me some money to attend the concert. 3 Dad cooked Mom a delicious dinner last night. 4 Have they brought you the newspaper yet? 5 Will you please tell her the secret? 34 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
32 the object of the preposition The object of the preposition is the noun or pronoun that follows a prepo- sition and completes the prepositional phrase. The prepositional phrase can also include modifiers. In the sentence, ``The orange juice box was in the new refrigerator,'' the prepositional phrase is ``in the new refrigerator.'' This phrase answers the question ``Where (is the orange juice box)?'' The object of the preposition is refrigerator. The modifier, or describer, is new. The compound objects of the preposition are two or more objects, such as ``Mom (and) Dad'' in the sentence, ``The party was paid for by Mom and Dad.'' Activity In each sentence below, underline the prepositional phrase, and circle the object of the preposition. 1 Our plans for the trip will need to change now. 2 We will need to change our plans for the occasion. 3 Unless the Grant family adds more space to their home, they will probably have to move. 4 Can you find your way home without me? 5 The picture sent from China is breathtaking. 6 Will Jermaine be willing to walk the dog after dinner? 7 This playground was built by community volunteers. 8 All of the puppets were bought immediately. 9 The puppets were sold by Christina and Carla. Was he waiting long for you and Moe? Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 35
33 objects and 875 Activity Twenty objects are underlined. There are eight direct objects (DO), seven indirect objects (IO), and five objects of the preposition (OP). Write the two-letter code on the line before each sentence. 1 Two Navy officials award Hugo a medal. 2 His physician told Brian the best way to lose weight. 3 Sylvester gave his sister a gift during the ceremony. 4 The cartoons on the large screen entertained us. 5 All of the directors gave the young starlet good suggestions. 6 Frank gave Jim a hard time. 7 After his win, the racer celebrated with friends. 8 Give Nancy your bike for this leg of the trip. 9 The scientist brought the experiment's results to his colleagues. Patsy brought her friends more cold lemonade. Brad Lawrence, the hotel's owner, went to the chiropractor last Wednesday. Our principal, Mr. Hartill, taught us a valuable lesson. Ms. Bossi gave Mr. Shierant the keys to the gymnasium. Please bring the book back to Bobbie Brennan. Show me the correct method. Has Yvonne ever given her sister the secret that we share? Wilma walked Dino along the dusty path. They found the situation quite alarming. I showed Christine the city's new plans. Seth remembered the answer after his test had been collected. 36 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
34 subject complements-- predicate nominatives and predicate adjectives A subject complement is a word or group of words within the complete predicate that either identifies (with a predicate nominative) or describes (with a predicate adjective) the subject (doer of the action). There are two types of subject complements--the predicate adjective (the describer) and the predicate nominative (the identifier). As an example, in the sentence, ``Our Town is a play written by Thornton Wilder,'' the complete predicate, is a play written by Thornton Wilder, includes play (predicate nominative), the word that identifies what Our Town is. In the sentence, ``The play was interesting and inspirational,'' the complete predicate, was interesting and inspirational, includes the words interesting and inspirational (two predicate adjectives) to describe what the play was. The subject complement is underlined in these sentences. O'Hare is a very busy airport. (predicate nominative) Mike Smith is a terrific friend. (predicate nominative) Indiana's capital city is Indianapolis. (predicate nominative) She was the first president of that association. (predicate nominative) Mitchell's report was factually correct. (predicate adjective) The lake's water was crystal clear. (predicate adjective) Gary's parents and grandparents are quite successful in the business world. (predicate adjective) The basement was moldy, dusty, and unpainted. (predicate adjectives) Activity Fill in each blank with a predicate nominative or a predicate adjective. 1 My uncle's observations are generally . 2 Kathy's new car is . 3 Unfortunately, the movie was a(n) . 4 The name of our school's principal is . 5 The capital city of Wyoming is . Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 37
35 Predicate nominative, predicate adjective, or neither? Activity Five of the underlined words are predicate nominatives (PN); five are predicate adjectives (PA); and five are neither (NE). On the line before each sentence, write the two-letter code to indicate your answer. 1 Elizabeth Bennet is her favorite literary character. 2 She is very agile as a dancer. 3 All of the musicians in the orchestra recalled their favorite experiences. 4 The younger man is our new state senator. 5 Last year's festival held in the state capital's fields was fair. 6 These experienced carpenters displayed great craftsmanship over the last few months. 7 The immediate effects of the new legislation are widespread. 8 The message that he tried to interpret was cryptic. 9 Today's weather conditions are cold and rainy. Monty and his buddies saw the kayaks in the store's large window. I had to meet my counselor, Mr. Wilhelm, after lunch. The most talented scientists in our school are Tameka and Jose. Tom L. Morgan is the architect in this photograph. We had never seen them perform before last night. This past drought was a huge problem for the farmers. 38 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
36 introducing phrases A phrase is a related group of words that functions as a part of speech and does not contain both a subject and a verb. 7 Verb phrases do not contain a subject. Examples of verb phrases include has been laughing, will remain, and does believe. 7 Prepositional phrases, such as the adjective phrase and the adverb phrase, do not have a subject or a verb. Examples of prepositional phrases are in the beginning, at the end, and after the trial. 7 Participial phrases function as adjectives. In the sentence, ``Walking home after the movie, Joe felt happy,'' the participial phrase is Walking home after the movie, and the participle is Walking. 7 Gerund phrases function as nouns. Gerund phrases can be used as subjects, predicate nominatives, direct objects, indirect objects, and objects of the preposition. In the sentence, ``Walking home from the movies was a good time for Joe and his friends,'' the gerund phrase used as a subject is Walking home from the movies. 7 Infinitive phrases function as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs. In the sentence, ``To beat the old record was Nina's goal,'' the infinitive phrase is To beat the old record, and the infinitive is To beat. 7 Appositive phrases describe or identify another noun or pronoun in the sentence. In the sentence, ``Lake Harris, our favorite vacation spot, is off the beaten path,'' the appositive is spot, and the appositive phrase is our favorite vacation spot. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 39
37 the verb phrase A verb phrase is the main verb and one or more helping verbs. Common helping verbs include these words in the box. am are be been being can could did do does doing had has have having is may might must shall should was were will would The verb phrases are underlined in these sentences. Many doctors have been concerned about the new flu. Some of the new stamps were purchased by the collector. The collector had purchased the new stamps. We had never witnessed such a hysterical scene. (Never is an adverb modifying the main verb, witnessed, and is not part of the verb phrase.) Will you remember my address and phone number? (You is the pronoun subject of the sentence and is not part of the verb phrase.) Is Emma practicing her piano now? (Emma is the sentence's subject and is not part of the verb phrase.) The runner had not been passed by any of the other contestants. (Not is an adverb and is not part of the verb phrase.) Activity Use each of the verb phrases in a sentence. 1 had been writing 2 will go 3 can be replaced 40 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
38 the prepositional phrase A prepositional phrase begins with a preposition and usually ends with a noun or a pronoun. The prepositional phrase is underlined in each sentence. The elderly man went to the doctor's office today. In the morning, the elementary school students perform their exercises. These magicians performed many tricks for the children. Tomas walked into the dark house. The word that ends the prepositional phrase is the object of the preposition. In each of these sentences, the prepositional phrases are underlined, and the objects of the preposition are italicized. All of the trees had been pruned by the workers. Someone in this office has borrowed the stapler from Markisha. Will you show your necklace to your grandparents? Activity Underline the prepositional phrases and circle the object of the preposition in each of these ten sentences. There may be more than one prepositional phrase in the sentence. 1 She was lonesome without him. 2 They were jogging throughout the neighborhood. 3 Beyond the river is a beautiful park. 4 All of the sailors climbed aboard the ship. 5 In the meantime, please watch my backpack. 6 Therese had never seen such a sight in her backyard. 7 There was very little talk during the movie. 8 These men with their equipment are experts. 9 Some of the boats were moving along the river. All of the women except Denise will be at the meeting. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 41
39 the adjective phrase An adjective phrase is a prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or a pronoun. This phrase answers the question Which one? The adjective phrase follows right after the noun or pronoun that it modifies or describes. Generally, if you cannot logically move the prepositional phrase within the sentence, it is most often an adjective phrase. Remember that an adjective phrase contains no verb. The adjective phrases are underlined in these sentences. Some programs at our local library were requested last year. (Which programs? the ones in our local library) These women in this photograph are my aunts. (Which women? the ones in the photograph) The programs on her favorite television station are often repeated. (Which programs? the ones on her favorite television station) Activity If the underlined prepositional phrase is an adjective phrase, write YES on the line before the sentence. If it is not, write NO. 1 In the morning the cook prepares many different meals. 2 The car in our driveway was recently purchased. 3 These cameras near the office building are huge. 4 We were more than happy with the new arrangements. 5 Nicole has been traveling on many business trips lately. 42 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
40 the adverb phrase A prepositional phrase that answers any of these questions--When? Where? How? Why? Under what conditions? or To what degree?--is an adverb phrase. If you can logically move the prepositional phrase within the sentence, it is probably an adverb phrase. Remember that an adverb phrase contains no verb. The adverb phrases in these sentences are underlined. We walked after dinner. (When?) The little boys and girls ran into the hallway. (Where?) Audrey, one of the chaperones, certainly handled herself with class yesterday. (How?) John built the wooden shed with much assistance. (Under what conditions?) The underdog candidate won the state election by a landslide. (To what degree?) Activity In each of these sentences, insert an adverb phrase that answers the ques- tion in the parentheses found after the sentence. Do not include any verbs within these adverb phrases! 1 The hilarious cartoon aired . (When?) 2 Wendy followed the older child . (Where?) 3 None of these young children could lift the heavy packages . (How?) 4 (Why?) The championship boxing match was canceled . 5 we like to jog with our friends. (When?) Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 43
41 adjective and adverb phrases review Activity On the line before each sentence, write ADJ if the underlined prepositional phrase is an adjective phrase or ADVB if it is an adverb phrase. 1 The magician with his rabbit entertained the crowd. 2 With the rabbit, the magician entertained the crowd. 3 During the storm we were quite frightened. 4 The noise during the storm frightened us. 5 Some information in this book helped me with my report. 6 Sean left his pencil in this book. 7 We found the missing coins on the track. 8 The shoes on the track are Roberta's. 9 The news program at five o'clock features local stories. We ate dinner at five o'clock. These planes directly above us are moving quite rapidly. The planes moved very fast above us. These plans for the new recreation center are fabulous! Much money was donated for the new recreation center. In the taxi cab, we had a heated conversation. Our conversation in the taxi cab was heated. The benches in our backyard are brand new. Dad moved the benches into our backyard. Have you met our new senator from Vermont? We are four hours away from Vermont. 44 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
42 prepositional phrases review Activity Underline the prepositional phrase in each sentence. Then write ADJ on the line before the sentence if the phrase is an adjective phrase or ADVB if it is an adverb phrase. 1 The lawn was seeded today by the maintenance workers. 2 We will open the museum's doors in a few minutes. 3 Tickets to tomorrow night's concert will be sold starting this morning. 4 There is a hint within every sentence. 5 Several investigators asked us questions during their investigation. 6 In fact, I do remember that funny incident. 7 Water in this tank must be drained often. 8 Without much fanfare the actress greeted her admiring fans. 9 The student finished reading the book that was in her van. The Senior Citizens Center requested donations instead of something else. Barbara's bicycle with the basket should be moved soon. The view from Hester's living room is breathtaking. No lifeguard is on duty now. Such a wondrous event had not taken place near our house. Grab the rope with both hands. The buoy was bobbing in the bay. The buoys in the ocean were bobbing. We had waited for a very long time. Rachel's look of surprise confused us. The minister looked up into the heavens. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 45
43 the appositive An appositive is a noun or pronoun (often with modifiers) that is placed beside another noun or pronoun to explain or identify it. Essentially, an appositive is an additional word or group of words used to tell more about who (or what) that noun or pronoun is. No verb appears in an appositive phrase. In each sentence below, the appositive phrase is underlined, and the apposi- tive is italicized. Michelle Rogers, the lifeguard at Smith's Beach, made three saves last month. ``The Ugly Duckling,'' Hans Christian Andersen's story, has entertained many children over the years. My daughter's car, a Toyota, has certainly served her well. The Little Red Deli, our neighborhood store, is more than seventy-five years old. Eleven, Joe's house number, is also his uniform's number. The cheetah, the fastest land animal, sprinted across the plains. Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, the famous author, won many writing awards. Activity Insert an appositive phrase into each of these five sen- tences. Remember that verbs are not included in apposi- tives or appositive phrases. 1 I just finished reading my favorite book, . 2 Our class members recently visited Arizona's capital city, . 3 Barack Obama, , attended Harvard College. 4 quickly each year. December, , seems to go by very 5 to college. friend, Juan's best , won a scholarship 46 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
44 Appositive, verb, or prepositional phrase? Activity Indicate whether the underlined phrase is an appositive (A), verb (V), or prepositional (P) phrase by writing the corresponding letter on the line before the sentence. 1 The machinist was elated with his substantial raise. 2 LeBron James, an NBA star, can easily score against most of his opponents. 3 Lupita played well in the second half of the soccer game. 4 The boxer used his most powerful weapon, the left hook, very often during the match. 5 Some of the marchers had been exhausted by the hot sun during the parade. 6 Will you lend me your eraser for next period's class? 7 Abraham Lincoln, a man of many talents, was the sixteenth U.S. president. 8 ``Red, the color of my aunt's car, is also my favorite color,'' Mitch stated. 9 Patsy, a mischief maker, creates havoc for her family members. Warren has never forgotten his sisters' birthdays. These ducks in the photograph are so cute together. Physics has been Jeremy's most challenging class this semester. The crowd cheered throughout the concert. Marty, a World War II veteran, was John's uncle. James Short had kept the prized autograph in a safe place. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 47
45 the participle and participial phrase 7 A word that looks like a verb, but functions as an adjective, is a participle. A participle is a type of verbal, a word that is formed from a verb, but functions as another part of speech. Common endings for participles are -ing (reading), -ed (returned), -en (broken), -d (said), -t (lent), and -n (woven). Each italicized word in these sentences is a participle. Mom's puzzling answer confused us. These squandered opportunities will not come again soon. This forgotten soldier will be honored by the townspeople next weekend. The paid workers were happy with their salaries. Steve's unsent messages were still stored in his computer. A driven athlete will push herself to the limit. 7 A participial phrase consists of the participle, its modifiers, and other words needed to complete the idea begun by the participle. This type of phrase generally follows immediately after or right before the noun it describes. The participial phrase is underlined in each sentence. Leaving the press conference, the politician felt confident about her answers. A memo sent to all the employees was well received. The teacher's best lesson delivered to his eighth graders dealt with literary allusions. My dad's present, bought by his sisters, was a gold watch. Acclaimed by many critics as the year's best movie, The Sound of Music won many awards. The Sound of Music, acclaimed by many critics as the year's best movie, won many awards. 48 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
46 Participial phrase or not? Activity Indicate whether the underlined group of words in each sentence is a participial phrase by writing PART on the line before the sentence. If it is not, write NO on the line. 1 The tourists were waiting for the leader's directions. 2 Startled by the loud noise, the parakeet excitedly flew around the cage. 3 The birds soaring above us were enjoying themselves. 4 Leaving her child at nursery school on the first day of class was not easy for Mrs. Plunkett. 5 It was difficult for Perkins to remember his neighbor's telephone number. 6 The director speaking to the cast members is Mr. Flores. 7 Burning leaves in one's backyard is illegal in our village. 8 The screens placed into their windows by Patsy had been repaired by Doug Hayes. 9 Reading three newspapers a day, Christine enjoyed herself on Cape Cod that week. Frolicking with the dogs was fun for Luke's cat. Our goalie was congratulated by all of us. The young boy running with his friends is my nephew. Guided by her trusty dog, Debbie found her way to the market. A book read by many high school students is To Kill a Mockingbird. The gymnast had struggled with her challenging routine. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 49
47 the gerund and gerund phrase 7 A gerund, the second type of verbal, ends in -ing and functions as a noun. A gerund's uses are many--subject, direct object, subject comple- ment (predicate nominative), appositive, and object of the preposition. If a gerund or the entire gerund phrase is removed from the sentence, the remaining words will not form a complete, logical sentence. The underlined word in each sentence is a gerund. Its use is within the parentheses that follow the sentence. Learning is fun for Kate and Moe. (subject) Marcia loves sewing. (direct object) A fun time for Rachel is reading. (predicate nominative) His passion, traveling, inspired him in many ways. (appositive) Geraldine has a love for traveling. (object of the preposition) 7 A gerund phrase includes the gerund, its modifiers, and the words that complete the idea begun by the gerund. In each sentence, the gerund is italicized, and the gerund phrase is underlined. Shopping for new dresses excites Terry Anne. (subject) The orchestra members enjoy rehearsing for long periods of time. (direct object) Tommy's passion is running long distances. (predicate nominative) Joanna's love, running, kept her very fit. (appositive) Can you pass the test by studying very hard this month? (object of the preposition) Note: Remember that the same phrase can have several uses. The man signaling to you is my grandfather. (participial phrase) Signaling to you was not difficult. (gerund phrase) The player passing the soccer ball is James. (participial phrase) Passing the soccer ball was hard for that man. (gerund phrase) 50 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
48 Gerund or not? Activity Ten of these underlined groups of words are gerund phrases. Place a check- mark on the line next to those ten sentences that contain gerund phrases. 1 The dog groomer was brushing Murphy's hair. 2 Making this work will be fairly easy for Kate. 3 Brushing Murphy's hair, the dog groomer seemed to be enjoying herself. 4 Latoya's sister enjoys watching sci-fi movies. 5 Thomas Edison's passion was experimenting in the lab. 6 Launching his boat this summer was a thrill for Jimmy. 7 My uncle recalled walking two miles to school with his friends each morning. 8 These artists working on the mural will finish soon. 9 Monique's arms were tired from lifting all these heavy weights at the gym. Rex's favorite hobby is collecting stamps. Trying to reach his friends by telephone, Willy looked forward to telling them the good news. Hubie detested making loud noises. James enjoys playing his guitar. Illustrating books was fun for Maureen. After that, the commentator was interviewing the country's new leader. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 51
49 the infinitive and infinitive phrase 7 The third type of verbal, in addition to the participle and the gerund, is the infinitive. An infinitive is composed of the word to plus a verb. Examples of the infinitive include to remember, to cuddle, to pacify, and to yodel. Infinitives can function as nouns, adjectives, and adverbs. To succeed is Ted's goal. (noun--subject of the sentence) Franklin's goal was to succeed. (noun--predicate nominative) Melissa wanted to succeed. (noun--direct object) Kelly has the drive to succeed. (adjective--Which drive? the drive to succeed) Kelly will endeavor to succeed. (adverb--How will Kelly endeavor? to succeed) 7 An infinitive phrase is composed of the infinitive, its modifiers (or describers), and all the other words that are needed to complete the idea begun by the infinitive. To stay up later was the child's wish. (noun--subject) Lorene desired to be a doctor. (noun--direct object) My cousin's goal was to make the New York Yankees. (noun-- predicate nominative) Henry's ultimate goal was to make other people happy. (noun-- predicate nominative) The musical to see is Oklahoma! (adjective--Which musical? Oklahoma!) The strong lifeguard swam out to save the struggling swimmer. (adverb--Why did the lifeguard swim out? to save the struggling swimmer) 52 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
50 the many uses of the infinitive phrase Activity Underline the infinitive phrase in each sentence. Then indicate on the line before the sentence if the infinitive phrase is used as a noun (N), adjective (ADJ), or adverb (ADVB). 1 Claudio left early to meet his brother. 2 Haley's dream is to revisit Europe. 3 To collect the entire series of presidential cards is my goal. 4 All the students were excited to display their artwork. 5 Kate's determination to teach well is quite obvious. 6 Patsy likes to listen to Broadway tunes. 7 We walked to the pizza parlor to buy some Italian hero sandwiches. 8 My relatives were the most important people to invite to the ceremony. 9 Eloise did try to call you last night. Sheilah was very excited to participate in the contest. The best way to improve your performance is no secret. Is this the proper way to hold the musical instrument? The finest way to memorize the poem is through practice. Lenka opened the book to find the correct answer. To do all of her illustrations well was Maureen's goal. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 53
51 verbal phrase review Activity Underline the verbal phrase in each sentence. Then, in the space before the sentence, indicate if the phrase is a participial (P), gerund (G), or infinitive (I) phrase. 1 The teacher helping the English 11 students is Mr. Pryal. 2 The emcee wanted to introduce the contestants. 3 To learn the Greek alphabet was the young scholar's goal. 4 Participating in the Indy 500 this year was fun for the veteran driver. 5 These primary-grade students enjoy drawing on the board. 6 Skateboarding most of the morning, Jason did not tire easily. 7 This speaker is the one to watch. 8 Knowing how to get back to its nest, the oriole started on his journey. 9 Watching the bathers swim occupied the man's time this morning. A man recognizing his mistakes should correct them. Running after his kite was a chore for the little boy. Talking on the cell phone was a distraction for the motorist. She ran across the crowded city street to catch the taxi. The crossword puzzle contest held in New York City was well attended again last year. One day Marcellino hopes to win his town's art contest. 54 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
52 matching the phrases in context Activity Match the underlined, numbered phrase in each selection with its name and code found in the box. The same code letters will be used in both selections. Each letter is used only once in each selection. All letters are used in both selections. A = verb phrase E = infinitive phrase B = adjective phrase F = gerund phrase C = adverb phrase G = appositive phrase D = participial phrase (SELECTION ONE) Driving the golf ball more than two hundred yards (1), Phil wanted to do the same on the next hole (2) in this tournament (3). He had played (4) well last week here at Green Valley Golf Course, but he wanted today to be special (5). Putting the ball accurately on these greens (6), a difficult task (7), would take great skill. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. (SELECTION TWO) Have you ever wanted to visit Ireland (1), the home of many talented writers (2)? Going to a foreign country (3) can be a wonderful opportunity. Many people traveling in tour groups (4) like that the trip has already been planned (5) for them. Others choose to tour by themselves (6). No matter how you go, visiting Ireland is the experience of a lifetime (7). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 55
53 showing what you know about phrases Here is a quick activity that allows you to display your skills with phrases. Do your best! Activity Match the items in Column A with those in Column B. Use each number and letter only once. Column A Column B 1. verb phrase A. a noun or pronoun that is placed beside another noun or pronoun to identify or describe it 2. adjective phrase B. a verb form that ends in -ing and functions as a noun 3. adverb phrase C. a prepositional phrase that modi- fies a noun or a pronoun D. includes at least one main verb 4. appositive and one or more helping verbs E. a verb form that functions as an 5. participial adjective F. a verb form that can be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb 6. infinitive G. a prepositional phrase that mod- ifies a verb, an adjective, or an 7. gerund adverb 56 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
54 happy in ten different ways Activity Here are ten tasks to check on your knowledge of various grammar topics that you have covered in class thus far. Every sentence will include the word happy! Write your sentences on a separate sheet of paper. 1 Use happy within a prepositional phrase. 2 Use happy as an adjective that describes the sentence's subject. 3 Use happy as part of a gerund phrase. 4 Use happy within a participial phrase. 5 Use happy within an infinitive phrase. 6 Use happy as part of an appositive phrase. 7 Use happy as a predicate adjective. 8 Use happy as the subject of a sentence. 9 Use happy as part of an adjective phrase. Use happy within an adverb phrase. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 57
55 writing with variety Activity Here is your chance to show how you can use many different types of word and sentence constructions in your writing. Underline each phrase or clause that you use in each sentence. Write your answers on a separate sheet of paper. 1 Write a sentence that contains an adjective phrase. 2 Write a sentence that contains an adverb phrase. 3 Write a sentence that starts with a participial phrase. 4 Write a sentence that ends with an infinitive phrase. 5 Write a sentence that starts with a gerund phrase. 6 Write a sentence that includes an appositive phrase. 7 Write a sentence that includes an adjective clause. 8 Start a sentence with an adverb clause. 9 End a sentence with a noun clause. Write a sentence that contains two adverb phrases. 58 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
56 phrases finale Activity Write True or False on the line before each statement. 1 A prepositional phrase can function as an adjective or an adverb. 2 ``Because of'' is not a preposition. 3 A gerund phrase can function as a noun. 4 The noun or pronoun that generally ends a prepositional phrase is called the object of the preposition. 5 A gerund phrase can be removed from the sentence, and the sentence will still make sense. 6 ``Called out at third base'' is an example of a gerund phrase. 7 ``We went to the dance'' includes a prepositional phrase that functions as an adjective. 8 There are three types of verbals--the participle, the gerund, and the infinitive. 9 ``The candidate to choose is Juan Ramos'' includes a participial phrase. An adjective phrase can include a verb. A prepositional phrase acting as an adjective generally follows right after the word it modifies. ``To see the beauty of nature'' is an example of an infinitive phrase. In the sentence, ``Removing the furniture from the upstairs rooms was not easy,'' the phrase ``Removing the furniture from the upstairs rooms'' is a participial phrase. A pronoun can be the object of the preposition. The phrase ``of the majority'' is a prepositional phrase. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 59
57 introducing clauses A clause is a group of words that has both a subject and a verb. Any simple sentence is a clause. Unlike phrases, clauses include both a subject and a verb. The specific types of clauses are the following: 7 A main or independent clause is a group of words that can stand alone. ``Jeremiah was a bullfrog'' is such a clause. 7 A subordinate or dependent clause is a group of words that cannot stand alone. This clause needs to be accompanied by a main or independent clause to make sense. In the sentence, ``Moe went to the department store after she finished her drawings,'' the subordinate or dependent clause is after she finished her drawings, and the main or independent clause is Moe went to the department store. The three types of subordinate or dependent clauses are these: 7 The adverb clause is a group of words that functions as an adverb. In the sentence, ``While Nick was riding his bike, he saw his friends walking along the street,'' the adverb clause is While Nick was riding his bike. 7 The adjective clause is a group of words that functions as an adjective. In the sentence, ``Doris is the woman who designed the mural,'' the adjective clause who designed the mural describes the woman. 7 The noun clause is a group of words that functions as a noun. In the sentence, ``This is what the doctor recommended to me,'' the noun clause is what the doctor recommended to me. The clause functions as a predicate nominative. 60 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
58 the adverb clause An adverb clause functions as an adverb. This clause answers any of these questions--How? When? Where? Why? How much? How often? It has a subject and a verb, but it cannot stand alone as a complete thought. It needs to be joined with an independent or main clause to make sense. An adverb clause starts with any of the following subordinating conjunctions: after although as as if as long as as soon as as though because before if in order that once provided that since so that than though unless until when whenever where wherever while Each adverb clause is underlined in the following sentences: After the captain docked the large ship, her crew members cheered. (When?) Because his arm was aching, Mr. Hopkins went to the doctor. (Why?) You can go with us if you would like to do so. (How?) Monica is more intelligent than she thinks she is. (How much?) Activity Underline the adverb clause in each sentence. 1 While Rome burned, Nero fiddled. 2 Until the weather conditions improve, the boat will not leave the pier. 3 Hector entered the room before we did. 4 Even though Marcelle was tired, she still completed her workout. 5 You can enter the building if you have the custodian's permission. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 61
59 nailing down the adverb clause Activity Ten of these sentences contain adverb clauses. The other five do not. Place a checkmark on the line next to those sentences that contain an adverb clause. 1 Do you know when the movie will finish? 2 Because I am tired, I will not participate. 3 Emma left the game before me. 4 Fiona stayed here while we went fishing. 5 Unless I am incorrect, this is their house. 6 Some of the antelopes that were here have been relocated. 7 Larry looked as if he had seen a ghost. 8 Before the band played, we left to get a snack. 9 Did they see where Terry went? Have you seen the principal since then? Though the officer stopped them, she did not ticket them. My brother seemed so tall at that time. Even though you are younger than they are, you are more talented. Because the exam is tomorrow, I must study tonight. After the contest, we will go for a nice meal. 62 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
60 the adjective clause An adjective clause (a group of words with at least one subject and one verb) is a subordinate or dependent clause that functions as an adjective. This type of clause answers the question, Which one? Relative pronouns, such as who, whom, which, and that, begin adjective clauses. At times, words such as where or when can also begin adjective clauses. If you delete the adjective clause from a sentence, you will still have a full (though less informative) sentence. In the following sentences, the adjective clause is underlined. Notice the word that begins the clause. This extremely intelligent geologist, who is also a talented juggler, has been asked to visit the State Assembly later this month. The street that you live on is scheduled to be repaved next month. The movie director, whom you read about last week, will be promoting her new film throughout Europe. There are essentially two types of adjective clauses--restrictive and unrestric- tive clauses. 7 A restrictive (or essential) adjective clause offers essential information that is necessary to complete the sentence's thought. An example of this is, ``The trophy that was presented to you is enormous.'' Here, the adjective clause that was presented to you restricts the information to just that trophy. 7 An unrestrictive (or nonessential) clause simply offers more information about the noun it describes. In the sentence, ``The trophy, which was made in Canada, was presented to you,'' the adjective clause which was made in Canada is nonessential to the sentence. It just offers more information about the trophy. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 63
61 recognizing adjective clauses Activity Underline the adjective clause in each sentence. Then circle the relative pronoun. Finally, draw a line from the relative pronoun to the word (or words) that the clause modifies. 1 Will this be the only instrument that you will play tonight? 2 This next batter, who has sixteen home runs, is only twenty years old. 3 The motorcycle that your dad purchased should be cleaned often. 4 Our former college president for whom this award has been named will be in attendance this evening. 5 Have the answers that you submitted been reviewed yet? 6 Miguel, who won last year's contest, is seeded first in this year's competition. 7 This is the exact spot where the hide-and-seek game began last night. 8 Some films, which I have not watched, were made in black and white. 9 This is the hour when most people should be getting ready for bed. A few graduates whom I have already contacted will help with the reunion. Doctor Gavigan, who is a very competent podiatrist, practices in New England. These proposals that the committee has questioned will be discussed again at next month's meeting. A word that has an interesting origin is curfew. Those who chose to leave the session can get the information next time. The only person to whom I have told this personal information is you. 64 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
62 the noun clause A noun clause (a group of words that has at least one subject and one verb) is a subordinate or dependent clause that functions, as its name suggests, as a noun. It can be a subject, direct object, indirect object, object of the preposition, or a predicate nominative. This type of clause often starts with any one of these words--how, that, what, whatever, when, where, whether, which, whichever, who, whoever, whom, whomever, whose, and why. The noun clause is underlined in each of these sentences. Its function within the sentence follows in the parentheses. What you thought about that candidate is correct. (subject) The paleontologist remembers when he met you at the conference. (direct object) Will these older folks recall how they were part of a terrific generation? (direct object) Remind whoever is on your discussion panel that we will meet tomorrow morning in the library. (indirect object) Give whoever needs that information the correct numbers. (indirect object) Mr. Bellington reminded us of where we should obtain the necessary papers for our licenses. (object of the preposition) My children's request is that you wear your silly tie to the birthday party. (predicate nominative) The lady's wish is that you bring her some pansies and daisies. (predicate nominative) Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 65
63 the many uses of the noun clause Activity Indicate the function of the underlined noun clause in each sentence. Write the correct letter codes on the line preceding each sentence. Each function is used at least once. S = subject IO = indirect object PN = predicate nominative DO = direct object OP = object of the preposition 1 These math teachers taught us whatever we needed to know for the exam. 2 The winner will be whichever speller correctly spells the most words. 3 When the next door will open is puzzling to all of us. 4 Give the survey's results to whoever asks for them. 5 The family's housekeeper scrubbed whichever floors were dirty. 6 I asked whomever I wanted to come to the dance. 7 Whatever time you decide to leave is fine with me. 8 That these clams cannot be opened more easily frustrates Samantha. 9 Winning the raffle prize was what excited him the most. Winnie presented whoever had earned fifty tickets with a certificate. My younger brother forgot that he needed to pick up the shirt from the cleaners. You may travel with whomever you desire. Fred is very aware of what you meant. What was on the screen was very intriguing. Working diligently for many years is why Dr. Hutter is a leader in the field of dentistry. 66 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
64 adjective, adverb, and noun clauses Activity Circle the correct letter of the underlined clause, and then write that letter on the line before the sentence. Finally, write these ten consecutive letters on the line below the last sentence to spell out an interesting ten-letter word. 1 Whenever you need a lift, call me. (b) adjective clause (q) adverb clause (j) noun clause 2 Give this ticket to whomever needs to get in here. (a) adjective clause (k) adverb clause (u) noun clause 3 The trampoline that is in your backyard is great fun. (e) adjective clause (p) adverb clause (y) noun clause 4 I will assist you as soon as I can. (e) adjective clause (s) adverb clause (c) noun clause 5 Can you read while others are talking around you? (h) adjective clause (t) adverb clause (d) noun clause 6 This is the computer that you bought. (i) adjective clause (c) adverb clause (w) noun clause 7 Pia decided that she will go to college this semester. (a) adjective clause (i) adverb clause (o) noun clause 8 Mr. Jones, who is my mayor, will be here this evening. (n) adjective clause (b) adverb clause (m) noun clause 9 These magnificent mountains that we just saw are breathtaking. (e) adjective clause (u) adverb clause (n) noun clause I understand what you mean by that. (y) adjective clause (t) adverb clause (r) noun clause The ten-letter word is . Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 67
65 identifying phrases and clauses Activity Identify the underlined group of words by writing the code letter that is found within the box below. Write the letter on the line before the sentence. Each letter is used at least once. A = adjective phrase D = infinitive phrase G = adverb clause B = adverb phrase E = participial phrase H = adjective clause C = gerund phrase F = appositive phrase I = noun clause 1 Writing so many plays kept Tennessee Williams very busy for many years. 2 That man with the golden retriever is Hank's best friend. 3 Unless I have enough vacation time, I will not be able to share that summer rental with them. 4 This presiding officer knows how to attract good workers. 5 The musician signing autographs in the lobby has been there for a while. 6 Joe Edwards, my boss in the factory, is intelligent. 7 On the next day, all the penguins returned to the site. 8 To reach the North Pole was the explorer's goal. 9 Arnold told Juanita that she would probably get the promotion. These are certainly the times that try men's souls. Touching the finish line before the others, the talented swimmer won the race. The doctor's advice, more rest, should be followed. The lions roared while the cats purred. Running in place, the soldier felt fit. These children on the bus need to sit quietly. 68 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
66 Do you know your phrases and clauses? Activity Fifteen groups of words are underlined in these sentences. Identify the name of each group with its name from the phrases and clauses listed below. Write the code letter on the blank next to each sentence. Each letter is used at least once. A. Verb phrase D. Infinitive phrase G. Adverb clause B. Prepositional phrase E. Appositive phrase H. Adjective clause C. Participial phrase F. Gerund phrase I. Noun clause 1 Win's birthday is April 23rd, the same day as Shakespeare's birthday. 2 The mural had been painted by the school's eighth graders. 3 Until Lucinda's grades improve, she will not be allowed to participate in school sports. 4 We followed along on the trail that eventually led to the canteen. 5 In the interim, let us continue to work. 6 Philosophy is what Naomi will study in graduate school. 7 Will the egret return to this location? 8 I like to visit my former neighborhood whenever I can. 9 The key can be found in the upper drawer. To collect both old and new stamps was Henry's hobby. Derek wanted to win the World Series again. Cleaning up the garage kept John busy last Saturday. This situation is what the director desired. Walking down the darkened stairway, the policewoman was very careful. Finding so many colorful shells was stimulating for Felicia. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 69
67 putting clauses into action Activity Combine these ideas in each number as requested within the parentheses. Discuss your answers with your classmates. 1 (adjective clause) My sister is tall. My sister is in the fifth grade. 2 (adverb clause) The bell rang. Three mice ran throughout the maze. 3 (adjective clause) We visited the restaurant last Tuesday. It is in the Sheldon Park Mall. 4 (noun clause) Here are two magazines. I would like to buy these two magazines. 5 (adverb clause) School The storm dropped ten inches of snow. was a big snow- storm on Monday night. was canceled on Tuesday morning. There 6 (adverb clause) stories. us scary stories. These stories are about ghosts. We get frightened by her Lucy tells 7 (noun clause)the prize. will win the potato sack race. The deputy mayor will give a blue ribbon as Someone 70 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
68 what good writers do Good writers utilize effective sentence starters to interest their readers. You can do the same. By using different starters, you use variety, a trait of strong writing. Here are seven ways to start your sentences. 1 Gerund or gerund phrase Learning was crucial for the new student. (gerund) Finishing his art project on time brought Andy great relief. (gerund phrase) 2 Participle or participial phrase Smiling, Mom welcomed her guests into our house. (participle) Jumping from the side of the pool, the young boy was enjoying himself. (participial phrase) 3 Infinitive or infinitive phrase To laugh is good for your health. (infinitive) To win the trophy was the boater's goal. (infinitive phrase) 4 Prepositional phrase In the evening, Shirley and her friends play bridge. (prepositional phrase) After an hour the cat felt better. (prepositional phrase) 5 Adverb Slowly, the children exited the school bus. (adverb) Intelligently, these scientists debated the heated topic. (adverb) 6 Adverb clause Because the weather will be good for surfing, we plan on hitting the beach tomorrow. (adverb clause) Although the doctor will not be in this evening, her assistant can see you. (adverb clause) 7 Adjective Awed, the circus attendees watched the trapeze artist in action. (adjective) Bright and curious, the scholarship students performed their experiments. (two adjectives) Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 71
69 starting the sentence Activity Match these seven ways to start a sentence found in Column A with the appropriate example of that technique found in Column B. Each answer is used only once. Write the correct letter in the blank in Column A. Column A Column B 1. Gerund phrase A. To skate in challenging com- petitions was Sasha's goal. B. Brilliantly, Sasha had attained 2. Participial phrase her life's goal by skating in challenging competitions. C. Satisfied, Sasha had achieved 3. Infinitive phrase her life's goal by skating in challenging competitions. D. For her life's goal, Sasha 4. Prepositional phrase wanted to skate in challeng- ing competitions. E. Skating in challenging com- 5. Adverb clause petitions was Sasha's goal. F. Skating in challenging compe- titions, Sasha had brilliantly 6. Adverb attained her goal. G. After Sasha had skated in challenging competitions, she 7. Adjective had attained her life's goal. 72 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
70 it's all about form Activity Match these ten sentences in Column A with their content descriptions in Column B. Write the corresponding letter on the line after the number in Column A. Each is used once. As an example, if the sentence reads, ``I left my glove with you,'' the content description will read ``Pronoun subject--past-tense verb--direct object--prepositional phrase.'' Column A Column B 1. After the debate con- A. Verb--direct object cluded, the judges made their (modifier)--adverb phrase decision. B. Pronoun subject--future-tense 2. To understand the trans- verb--adverb--adjective lator was the students' goal. C. Infinitive phrase as subject-- 3. Sitting on the old verb--predicate nominative wooden dock, the elderly fish- erman was enjoying his day. D. Gerund phrase--verb--predicate nominative (with two modifiers) 4. These old films will be shown in the community E. Subject (with two modifiers)-- room. future-tense verb--adverb phrase 5. Watching the business F. Subject--adjective clause-- channel throughout the day is verb--adverb--adjective my neighbor's routine. G. Participial phrase--subject-- 6. Let more air into the verb phrase--direct object room. H. Adverb clause--subject-- 7. The play that Arthur past-tense verb--direct object Miller wrote years ago is still popular. I. Proper noun subject-- verb--consecutive prepositional 8. They will be very happy. phrases 9. Helene was running at top speed during the race. J. Proper noun subject-- verb--adverb 10. Isaac slept soundly. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 73
71 sentences, fragments, and run-on sentences A sentence can be a word (Stop!) or a group of words that must contain a subject (doer), a verb (action), and a complete thought. 7 In the sentence, ``Lorina washed her face,'' the subject is Lorina, the verb is washed, and the group of words makes a complete thought. A fragment is a group of words that might lack a subject or a verb and does not make a complete thought. 7 ``During the trial'' is a fragment since there is no subject, verb, or complete thought. 7 ``Vicki running next to her sister'' is another fragment because, though it has a subject, (Vicki), and possibly a verb (running), the group of words does not make a complete thought. Thus, it is not a sentence. 7 The group of words ``After these stray dogs were placed in the pound'' is also a fragment. It has a subject (dogs) and a verb (were placed), but there is no complete thought. A run-on sentence is two (or more) sentences incorrectly written as a single sentence. 7 ``The sofa is comfortable, the chair is too'' is an example of a run-on sentence because two complete sentences are incorrectly joined (or spliced) by a comma. 7 Sometimes run-on sentences have no punctuation at all! An example of this is, ``Princeton University is a fine place of higher learning it is located in New Jersey.'' Here, there are really two sentences that have been mistakenly joined or spliced into one. 74 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
72 What's what? sentences, fragments, and run-on sentences Activity Five sentences (S), five fragments (F), and five run-on sentences (ROS) are found in these fifteen groups of words. Write the appropriate code letter(s) on the line next to the group of words. 1 Have you already visited that famous London museum? 2 At the beginning of the movie. 3 Let's open the presents, we want to see what you have been given. 4 Last year we photographed some of the events. 5 Again after all of the applause. 6 Before they started their photography business. 7 Please handle these expensive vases with care. 8 The men fixing the heater need more time, they can bill us more if they need to do so. 9 During the celebration held at the plaza. Bring the empty cartons back from the factory they can be used again. While you dial Molly's number, the rest of us can continue to set the table. There are too many people in this elevator, who can take another one so this one is not so crowded? Several telephone operators tried to assist me finally I gave up. Leaving through the back door in the middle of the night last August. We would really like to accept your invitation. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 75
73 making sense (and sentences) Activity All ten groups of words are either fragments or run-on sentences. On a separate sheet of paper, write a logical, grammatically correct version of those words. You can add or delete words, but keep the main idea intact. Here is an example: ``An unfamiliar car in the driveway.'' This can be changed to ``We noticed an unfamiliar car in the driveway.'' 1 Mount Rushmore is fabulous it is located in South Dakota 2 Before the storm started 3 If you think that it is a workable plan 4 Oliver is a great friend he never speaks badly about anybody 5 James Short just arrived he is funny 6 Skateboarding is wonderful exercise my friends and I like to go skateboarding 7 While the repairman fixed the dishwasher 8 This author had written for seven consecutive hours she was exhausted 9 Looking into the car's window The entertainer sang many songs we like all of them 76 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
74 types of sentences by purpose Sentences have different purposes. Some make statements. Some ask questions. Others give commands, and still others express strong feelings. Here are the four types of sentences by purpose: 7 A declarative sentence makes a statement or expresses an opinion. Use a period at the end of a declarative sentence. Andy Murray has a great will to win. The commentator laughed at his own mistake. 7 An interrogative sentence asks a question and ends with a question mark. Are you using the saw today, Mitch? May the other people come along with us? 7 An exclamatory sentence expresses strong feeling and ends with an exclamation mark. This is just the way to do it! That is great news! 7 An imperative sentence gives a command (strong emotion) or makes a request (mild emotion). Use an exclamation after the imperative sentence that contains a strong emotion, and a period after one that contains a mild emotion. Stop that foolish talk now! Please take the empty plate away now, Ira. Activity Write an example of each type of sentence on the appropriate line. Declarative sentence Interrogative sentence Exclamatory sentence Imperative sentence Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 77
75 ``purposeful'' sentences Activity Knowing a sentence's design by purpose is helpful. Each of these sentences is either a declarative (DEC), an interrogative (INT), an exclamatory (EXC), or an imperative (IMP) one. Write the appropriate three-letter combination next to its corresponding type of sentence. Each type of sentence appears five times. 1 Have you read this newspaper article? 2 We are late for the meeting. 3 Stop that right now! 4 Remember to watch your step as you leave the room. 5 Are the packages here yet? 6 Professor Franklin said that the situation would improve. 7 Leave those old plates in the closet. 8 That dessert was awesome! 9 Painting is a relaxing hobby. These are the best seats in the stadium! Are the barbers and the beauticians working late tonight? I can hardly bear to hear more stressful news right now! Is this sweater yours? Tough decisions will be made during the next few weeks. That speeding car just missed hitting the bicyclist! Hand me the wrench please, Reggie. She will probably start up the grill now. These disgusting mice have to be around here! Please carry my valise into the next room, Louis. Will you remember to lock the doors behind you? 78 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
76 sentences by design (or construction) Activity Sentences are constructed by purpose (declarative, interrogative, exclamatory, and impera- tive sentences) as well as by design. The four types of sentences by design (or construction) are the simple, the compound, the complex, and the compound-complex sentence. 7 A simple sentence consists of one independent (or main) clause (group of words). My report should be longer. Joanna and Anna brought their children home. I cannot easily forget that ceremony. 7 A compound sentence consists of two or more independent (or main) clauses that are closely related in meaning. The sun broke through the clouds, and the children went outside to play. (This is a good compound sentence because the clauses are related.) The sun broke through the clouds, and the television needs to be replaced. (This is not a good compound sentence because the clauses are totally unrelated.) 7 A complex sentence has one main (or independent) clause and one (or more) subordinate (or dependent) clauses. This is the same method that the doctors used last year. (The subordinate clause is underlined.) If you can help us out, we would be very grateful. (The subordinate clause is underlined.) 7 A compound-complex sentence has two (or more) main (or independent) clauses and one (or more) subordinate (or dependent) clauses. [The public address announcer correctly pronounced the player's difficult name], and [the umpire signaled to the batter] who was standing by the dugout. (The subordinate clause is underlined, and the two main clauses are in brackets.) Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 79
77 simple and compound sentences Activity There are five simple (S) and five compound (C) sentences in these ten sentences. Write the appropriate letter on the line next to the sentence. 1 The exciting performer approached the microphone, and the crowd waited expectantly. 2 This operation will take only two hours. 3 Walter signaled for the waiter, and the waiter walked over to the table. 4 Tom, the repairman, entered the office, and his helper brought in the tools. 5 Scratching his head, the musical conductor looked quite confused. 6 The experienced stuntman is capable of performing many difficult maneuvers. 7 Trey's mother-in-law would also like to go to the dance recital, but she already has an appointment that night. 8 Our team's catcher, Jillian, is very agile, and she is also a dedicated captain and player. 9 Priscilla watched the sunset from her bay window across the serene lake in Massachusetts. Can you believe that story? 80 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
78 complex sentences A complex sentence has one main (or independent) clause and one (or more) subordinate (or dependent) clauses. In each sentence, the main clause is underlined, and the subordinate clause is in italics. After the storm subsided, we went out to inspect the grounds. The ticket that you received in the mail is the right one. You will be able to ride with us unless you would rather take the train. If the trees shed their leaves during the next two weeks, I could use some help with the raking. Activity Part One: Underline the main clause in each sentence. 1 After his assistant arrives, Van will go home. 2 Select a hat that will block the sun well. 3 Rob returned the library book as soon as he found it in his locker. 4 When my pencil broke during the exam, Sheila lent me hers. 5 Isaac gazed at the computer screen while you were reading the schedule. Part Two: Change these simple sentences into complex sentences by adding at least one subordinate (or dependent) clause. A. This is the video game. B. The cars sped by on the highway. C. Those winds continued to howl. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 81
79 compound-complex sentences A compound-complex sentence has two or more main (or independent) clauses and at least one subordinate (or dependent) clause. 7 After the winds ceased, the children went outside to play, and their parents started to rake the leaves. The main (or independent) clauses are ``the children went outside to play'' and ``their parents started to rake the leaves.'' The subordinate (or dependent) clause is ``After the winds ceased.'' 7 These maintenance workers who are cleaning up the park after last night's concert are my friends, and they are willing to work overtime to complete the task. The main (or independent) clauses are ``These maintenance workers are my friends'' and ``they are willing to work overtime to complete the task.'' The subordinate (or dependent) clause is ``who are cleaning up the park after last night's concert.'' Activity Add a clause to each sentence to make it a compound- complex sentence. 1 The deck is quite larger, and it will not require much care. 2 Several doctors reviewed the patient's charts, and they came to the conclusion . 3 Whenever I start to read a novel, I want to get to know the characters, and . 4 While the wedding band was warming up, the wedding singer practiced her lines, and . 82 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
80 Know the sentence's structure? Activity Each type of sentence (by design or structure)--the simple (S), the compound (CPD), the complex (CPLX), and the compound-complex (CC)--is used at least once in this activity. On the line before the sentence, write the corresponding letters for each sentence. 1 Several workers placed their lunch orders, and their kind boss drove to pick up the food. 2 Seldom has it rained for this long. 3 Even though Marnie searched hard for the misplaced earring, she was unable to find it. 4 An idea that the director introduced to the group was well received, and then their plans were revised. 5 I would like to visit my cousin soon. 6 The ship's captain made a wide turn, and the boat responded beautifully. 7 Edith sat still while the dentist examined her teeth. 8 Is this the address? 9 When the movie ended, the crowd of people exited quietly. The dealer shuffled the cards, and the players anxiously awaited their hands. A few marathon runners who had trained hard for the event sped along the course, but other less intense runners struggled. These computer monitors that are several years old can be stored here. You can stay, or you can go. She finished her meal in time. Is this the watch that you were given? Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 83
81 subject and verb agreement A sentence's subject must agree in number with its verb. Thus, singular verbs should be used for singular subjects, and plural verbs should be used for plural subjects. 7 In each of these sentences, the singular subject is underlined, and the singular verb is italicized. Sam holds the school record for the mile run. This woman knows that subject very well. Kara performs with the local dance company. 7 In each of these sentences, the plural subject is underlined, and the plural verb is italicized. These two seniors hold the record for the mile run. These women know that subject very well. They perform with the local dance company. Activity Underline the correct verb in each sentence. Then indicate if the verb is singular (S) or plural (P) on the line next to the sentence. 1 We (drive, drives) to school each morning. 2 Layla (read, reads) her textbook in class. 3 All of the workers (line, lines) up for their checks. 4 Some contestants (win, wins) much money on that show. 5 The experienced judge fondly (recall, recalls) her early days on the bench. 6 The cereal box (attract, attracts) many shoppers. 7 Most writers (do, does) their writing in comfortable locations. 8 The replica of the dinosaur (is, are) in the city's museum. 9 Today's weather conditions (is, are) favorable for the regatta. Seven plane tickets (was, were) given at no cost to the needy family. 84 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
82 agreement involving prepositional phrases A verb will agree in number with the sentence's subject. 7 In the sentence, ``One of the girls is counting the tickets,'' the subject is one and the verb is is. Both the subject and the verb are singular. 7 In the sentence, ``Many of the girls are counting the tickets,'' the subject, many, and the verb, are, are plural. Notice how in these example sentences the subjects and verbs agree in number. 7 The design for these few buildings is intricate. (The singular subject, design, agrees in number with the singular verb, is.) 7 The portraits in the White House are memorable. (The plural subject, portraits, agrees in number with the plural verb, are.) Note: When you are working with the indefinite pronouns that can be either singular or plural (all, any, more, most, none, and some), the verb will agree in number with the object of the preposition in the prepositional phrase that is associated with the verb. 7 Some of the newspaper is missing. (Because some can be either singular or plural, match the verb with the object of the preposition. As newspaper is singular, use is [not are] as the verb.) 7 Some of the newspapers are missing. (Because some can be either singular or plural, match the verb with the object of the preposition. As newspa- pers is plural, use are [not is] as the verb.) Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 85
83 knowing your prepositional phrases and agreement Activity Underline the subject of each sentence, and then circle the verb that agrees in number with it. 1 Many buildings in our city (is, are) managed well. 2 Outside the stores, several men (was, were) chatting. 3 This cryptic drawing, in addition to these others, (seem, seems) to be the work of a very talented artist. 4 The residents of this farm community (select, selects) a new mayor every six years. 5 Both of the monkeys in this large cage (is, are) very active. 6 The persons in this remote location (interest, interests) the scientists. 7 These cans, as well as this bottle, (has, have) been on the ground for several days. 8 A note sent to the senators (was, were) discussed at the private meeting. 9 Particles in the air (annoy, annoys) the flies. Juan's relative from the United States (live, lives) in Denver, Colorado. The antiques in this catalog (has, have) already been appraised. The cartoon monster with the hairy arms (frighten, frightens) my young cousin. Several of the new toys (excite, excites) the children in the store. The pair of earrings (belong, belongs) to my wealthy aunt. These notes on the board (need, needs) to be copied and memorized. 86 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
84 pronouns and their antecedents Take the sentence, ``The veterinarian took pride in her work.'' The pronoun her refers back to veterinarian, the subject of the sentence. In this context, vet- erinarian is the pronoun's antecedent, the word that the pronoun refers back to in the sentence. Usually, the antecedent comes before the pronoun in the sentence. In all cases, the pronoun and its antecedent must agree in number and gender. In the following sentences, the antecedent is italicized, and the pronoun is underlined. The flag has lost its colors over these two years. (singular antecedent and pronoun) Our teachers surely know their subjects well. (plural antecedent and pronoun) Dogs know their capabilities. (plural antecedent and pronoun) Activity In the following sentences, circle the antecedent, and underline the pronoun. 1 This superficial wound should heal itself. 2 These girls recalled their passwords. 3 Thetime. time that I spoke with Luca, he said that he would be here on last 4 When Jim and Joe play their guitars in school, they attract a large crowd. 5 Since wetowardsour cousins on the telephone, they have been more friendly called us. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 87
85 agreement between indefinite pronouns and their antecedents Singular indefinite pronouns agree in number with their antecedents. These pronouns are anybody, anyone, anything, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, neither, nobody, no one, nothing, one, somebody, someone, and something. 7 Everyone in the church is singing his or her best. (His and her are singular pronouns, and everyone is the singular antecedent.) Note: Use his or her if you assume that both genders are included, as in the preceding example. 7 Everything in this large closet has lost its value over the years. (Its is a singular pronoun that agrees in number with everything, the singular antecedent.) Plural indefinite pronouns, including both, few, many, and several, will serve as plural antecedents. 7 Both of the singers have their fans. (Both is the plural antecedent, and their is the plural pronoun.) 7 Several of the club officials raised their hands with questions. (Several is the plural antecedent, and their is the plural pronoun.) Some pronouns can be either singular or plural, depending upon their context within the sentence. These pronouns are all, any, more, most, none, and some. In these instances, look to see if the object of the preposition is singular or plural. The verb and antecedent will agree with the object of the preposition. 7 All of the newspaper is wet, and I cannot read it now. (Newspaper, the object of the preposition, is singular; use the singular pronoun, it.) 7 Most of the newspapers have raised their advertising prices. (Newspapers, the object of the preposition, is plural; use the plural pronoun, their.) 88 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
86 showing what you know about pronouns and their antecedents Activity In each sentence, underline the indefinite pronoun (the antecedent), and circle its corresponding pronoun. 1 Anybody who is here should have (his or her, their) permission slip ready. 2 Because none of the book is scary, you can read (it, them) late at night and not be frightened. 3 Some of these toys have lost (its, their) appeal with these children. 4 The producer said that any of these actresses can memorize (her, their) lines quickly. 5 Neither of those books lends (itself, themselves) to being read in a hurry. 6 Everybody clapped when (his or her, their) favorite dance group appeared. 7 Several of the famous drivers have already finished (his or her, their) practice laps. 8 We heard that one ofmorning. during rehearsal this the performers injured (his or her, their) ankle 9 Is it true that someone in this classroom has had (his or her, their) speech read over the loudspeaker? All of the sports jackets have new labels on (it, them). Because most of the surgeons had concerns, the hospital administrator listened to (his or her, their) issues. A few of the senators were hurrying to (his or her, their) offices. Any of these radio stations has (its, their) loyal listeners. Many of the seagulls were hungry so (he or she, they) searched for food. Each of the printers has (its, their) own number. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 89
87 indefinite pronouns The singular indefinite pronouns are anybody, anyone, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, neither, nobody, no one, nothing, one, somebody, someone, and something. As subjects, these pronouns agree in number with singular verbs. Everyone in these seats is invited to the party. Neither of the contestants has to leave the studio. Everything in those rooms was ready to be moved. The plural indefinite pronouns are both, few, many, and several. As subjects, these four pronouns agree in number with plural verbs. Both of the staircases need painting. Many of the brochures contain useful information. Several of the candidates in this year's election are debating in the auditorium. As subjects, some pronouns (all, any, more, most, none, and some) can be singular or plural depending on the object of the preposition in the prepositional phrases that follow them. All of the pizza was eaten. (All is a singular subject because pizza, the object of the preposition, is singular. Thus, a singular verb, was, is required.) All of the pizzas were eaten. (All is a plural subject because pizzas, the object of the preposition, is plural. Thus, a plural verb, were, is required.) Most of the project is completed. Most of the projects are completed. More of the room needs brighter colors. More of the rooms need brighter colors. None of this paper is stained. None of these papers are stained. 90 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
88 indefinite pronouns and agreement Activity Underline the subject in each sentence, and then circle the correct verb. On the line before each sentence, write S if the subject and verb are singular, or P if the subject and verb are plural. 1 Most of the inspected cars (pass, passes) the examination. 2 None of these dishes (has, have) been washed yet. 3 Everyone in these cabins (is, are) going to the assembly. 4 (Do, Does) both of these tigers eat that much each day? 5 Several of us (want, wants) to be included in the plans. 6 (Has, Have) someone forgotten to sign the register this afternoon? 7 Each of the stockings (was, were) near the fireplace. 8 (Was, Were) all of the pastries delivered on time? 9 More of this speech (is, are) getting better each time you practice it. Nothing on these tables (is, are) mine. A few of the turtles (swim, swims) in the pond back here. (Has, Have) several of these engineers surveyed the grounds? Neither of these essays (was, were) completed on time. Both of these girls (has, have) musical talent. No one on the grade level (read, reads) these kinds of articles. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 91
89 writing with indefinite pronouns Activity Now is the time to use indefinite pronouns in your writing. Think carefully about the agreement rules before you compose each sentence. Write your answers on a separate sheet of paper. 1 Use neither as the sentence's subject. 2 Use few as the sentence's subject. 3 Use most as a singular subject. 4 Use most as a plural subject. 5 Use someone as the sentence's subject. 6 Use some as a singular subject. 7 Use some as a plural subject. 8 Use any as the singular subject of a sentence that asks a question. 9 Use somebody as the sentence's subject. Use all as a plural subject of a sentence that asks a question. 92 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
90 compound subjects (part one) A subject is the doer of the action in a sentence. A compound subject has more than one subject. In each of these sentences, the compound subjects are underlined. The cat and the mouse ran around the room. Neither the cat nor the mouse heard him. Both the youngsters and the adults enjoyed square dancing. Here are two important rules when working with compound subjects. You will be introduced to several other rules on another page. 7 Rule #1: Singular subjects joined by and usually agree in number with a plural verb. This plant and a large tree were in the photo. The older boy and his companion have the boxes of fruit. His dad and my brother are on the same work crew. 7 Rule #2: Compound subjects that have a single entity agree in number with a singular verb. Bacon, lettuce, and tomato is Mitt's tastiest sandwich. (Bacon, lettuce, and tomato are a single entity here.) Chutes and Ladders was Ricky's favorite game. (Chutes and Ladders is a game--a single entity.) All the King's Men by Robert Penn Warren is a good book to read if you are interested in politics. (Though the book's title features a plural noun, men, the title is considered a single entity. Thus, the verb is should be used.) Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 93
91 compound subjects (part two) Here are some more handy rules about compound subjects to know and use in your writing. 7 Rule #3: When singular subjects are joined by or or nor, use a singular verb. Neither the kangaroo nor the ostrich was awake. Either the monkey or the giraffe is here. 7 Rule #4: Plural subjects joined by or or nor agree in number with a plural verb. The girls or the boys are going to the playground. Neither the girls nor the boys are at the playground. 7 Rule #5: When a singular subject and a plural subject are joined by or or nor, the verb agrees in number with the subject closer to it. Neither the assistants nor the police captain has called you. Either the police captain or her assistants have called you. Either he or his three friends are going to the library this evening. Neither they nor she is here. 7 Rule #6: If the compound subjects are in an interrogative sentence, answer the question to see which subject is closer to the verb. (Has, Have) either the boy or the girls reached the location? Answer the question: No, neither the boy nor the girls have reached the location. (Was, Were) either the girls or the boy with you at the dance? Answer the question: No, neither the girls nor the boy was with me at the dance. 94 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
92 working with compound subjects Activity Underline the correct verb in each sentence. 1 Laverne and Shirley (was, were) one of my grandmother's favorite shows. 2 Both specialist.and the cream (has, have) been ordered by our food the eggs 3 The bat and the catcher's mask (is, are) in the dugout. 4 Neither the stars nor the sun (was, were) discussed at length. 5 Either she or they (is, are) prepared to address the press corps now. 6 Neither the muscles nor the joint (has, have) yet to be covered in our anatomy class. 7 These cards and that board game (occupies, occupy) my grandfather's afternoons. 8 (Do, Does) the magician or the clowns entertain you more? 9 (Has, interest? books or that magazine article captured your Have) these Either the trombone or the clarinet (is, are) the instrument that you can play in this orchestra. Either the plate or the utensils (is, are) ready to be placed on the table now. Pride and Prejudice (is, are) Patsy's favorite book. Both the writers and their publishers (was, were) on attendance. Neither the sailboat nor these kayaks (is, are) on sale until next week. The book's author and illustrator (are, is) Patricia Polacco. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 95
93 subject-verb agreement situations Here are some important rules and situations regarding subject-verb agreement. 7 Singular nouns and pronouns use the contraction doesn't while plural nouns and pronouns use the contraction don't. This piece doesn't look like the one we need. (singular noun subject) He doesn't need to exercise that frequently. (singular pronoun subject) These occasions don't need to be photographed. (plural noun subject) They don't remember your saying that. (plural pronoun subject) Note: Avoid using contractions in formal writing. Contractions are allowable in dialogue. 7 A collective noun (a name that refers to a group of people, animals, or things, though they are singular in form) can be used as a singular or plural noun. 7 If the collective noun refers to a unit or as a whole, use a singular verb and pronoun. The squad is meeting this afternoon. Its president is Kanisha. (Squad is considered a unit since all of its members will be meeting as a unit. Thus, Its [not Their] is an appropriate pronoun reference.) 7 When a group is considered as individuals, the collective noun is plural. The squad brought their notebooks. (Squad refers to individual mem- bers so the pronoun their is warranted.) 7 Some nouns that look as if they are plural take singular verbs and pronouns. These nouns include civics, economics, genetics, gymnastics, mathematics, news, physics, social studies, and others. Physics is a challenging subject for Mitch because it demands much time and intelligence. (It is a pronoun reference to physics.) Social studies is an interesting subject. 96 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
94 more subject-verb agreement situations An expression of an amount, including fractions, measurements, percent- ages, and time periods, can be singular or plural depending on its use. Two-sixths equals one-third. (Two-sixths is considered a single unit.) Sixteen hours is a very long time to wait. (Sixteen hours is a unit of time, one block of time according to the sentence.) Five dollars were left on the table. (These are five separate dollars; use the plural verb, were.) Two-thirds of the drummers are practicing. (Drummers is plural; use the plural verb, are.) A verb that precedes the sentence's subject agrees with the subject in number. In the following sentences, the verb is in italics, and the subject is underlined. Here is a fortune cookie for you. (singular subject and verb) There are seven board games over there. (plural subject and verb) The title of a book, city, country, film, magazine, organization, painting, sculpture, or song that is plural still takes a singular verb. (The italicized subjects and the underlined verbs below are singular.) Des Moines is Iowa's capital city. The Rolling Stones was my uncle's favorite rock group. When a relative pronoun, such as that, which, or who, starts an adjective clause, the clause's verb agrees in number with the noun or pronoun to which the relative pronoun refers. The woman who is directing the chorus is Ms. Linden. (Who refers to the singular noun, woman.) The ladies who are singing together are Kate and Moe. (Who takes a plural verb, are, because it refers back to ladies, a plural noun.) Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 97
95 making the wrong right Activity Each of these fifteen sentences includes an incorrect subject-verb agreement. Without changing the subject, make the necessary verb change. 1 One of my friends are here in this room with the rest of us. 2 The pillow are too hard on my neck. 3 These oranges from Florida is juicy. 4 A few of the painters at that table has finished their work. 5 Before she started her workout, Lupita were listening to the broadcast. 6 The university officials is now admitting more students. 7 Proponents favors this new methodology of training doctors how to be more receptive to their patients' concerns. 8 Then the physician insert the fluid into the other vial. 9 The film festival that was held in the mountains were well attended. Concert attendees admires that singer who really knows how to entertain her audience members. The number of graduates are higher this year. The people in our neighborhood in Queens is very friendly. You does not have to be at the gate that early. Some soldiers is on our train heading for Portland, Oregon. They does not have the winning ticket in last night's lottery. 98 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
96 knowing your subject-verb agreement Activity Underline the correct verb in each sentence. 1 Thesesomeplace. (is, are) missing from the deck should be around here cards that 2 Each star on these maps (indicate, indicates) a newborn's home. 3 Melinda's new jeans (is, are) quite comfortable. 4 Tuesdays with Morrie (make, makes) me think, cry, and appreciate life. 5 The club's officers (meet, meets) today at noon in the caf´ . e 6 The cat that (has, have) been adopted is very playful. 7 The group (leave, leaves) for each game as a unified team. 8 The group members (leave, leaves) in separate cars. 9 Ken's family (exchange, exchanges) gifts with one another each holiday season. Forensics (capture, captures) my interest. Maureen, along with her three friends, (attend, attends) concerts. The Fifties (is, are) the decade that some refer to as ``Happy Days.'' Tonight's news (is, are) not that exciting. (Is, Are) the scissors near you, Antonio? The exercises which (has, have) been recommended to you will increase your stamina. Friends who (help, helps) you are good friends indeed. My new pants (need, needs) to be altered. This is the Web site that (provide, provides) much useful information. All who (attend, attends) this meeting will receive a free ticket to the movie. Robotics (is, are) a topic that James will soon study. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 99
97 subject-verb agreement parade Activity How well do you know your subject-verb agreement rules? Here are twenty sentences that will test your knowledge of these rules. Underline the correct verb in each sentence. 1 One-tenth of the test papers (has, have) been collected. 2 Mathematics (is, are) Harold's most challenging subjects. 3 Where (is, are) your books, Princess? 4 They (doesn't, don't) recall that incident. 5 Carrots (is, are) a good source of nutrition. 6 Only one-fourth of your time in the library (was, were) spent productively. 7 One-third of the participants (has, have) their cards. 8 There (is, are) only one dollar left in the box. 9 Where (is, are) your backpack, Carlos? Lyle (doesn't, don't) want to order the food just yet. Fifteen dollars (was, were) my change from the purchase. Twelve days (is, are) left for you to register for the new semester. All of the senators at today's session (wasn't, weren't) happy with what happened. Three dimes (is, are) at the bottom of the pool. Twenty percent of the order (has, have) been delivered. His statistics (is, are) fabulous. Statistics (is, are) my first-period class. Here (is, are) some advice for you, Ty. There (is, are) at least three reasons why you should join the organization. Three-fourths of the process (has, have) been completed. 100 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
98 practicing agreement Activity Practice using correct agreement by writing sentences that satisfy these directions. Write your answers on a separate sheet of paper. 1 Write a sentence using and to join a singular and a plural pronoun. 2 Write a sentence that starts with ``Most of the animals . . . '' 3 Write a sentence in which the plural pronoun them refers back to the subject. 4 Write a sentence using Anybody as the sentence's subject. 5 Write a sentence using Physics as the sentence's subject. 6 Write a sentence using the pair of correlative conjunctions, both and and. 7 Write a sentence using a male pronoun that refers back to the subject. 8 Write a sentence starting with ``My favorite team . . . '' 9 Write a sentence using Here as the sentence's first word. Write a sentence using a single subject joined with a plural subject by the coordinating conjunction or. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 101
99 How well do you know agreement? Activity Test your knowledge of agreement by underlining the correct choice in each sentence. 1 Mathematics (is, are) Allyson's easiest class. 2 Each of the female contestants took (her, their) place on stage. 3 Everybody, including the pilots in the other section of the plane, (was, were) eager to hear the news. 4 Neither the president nor her closest confidantes (is, are) prepared to address this situation immediately. 5 Most of the photographs have no dark spots on (it, them). 6 These lifeguards (doesn't, don't) become distracted when they are on duty. 7 Anyone who purchased a defective radio should bring (his or her, their) receipt and radio back to the store. 8 Here (is, are) the directions on how to make the dinner. 9 One-fifth of the new physicians (is, are) from other countries. Both of these walls (need, needs) to be repainted. His favorite sandwich (is, are) bacon, lettuce, and tomato. Our captain and team leader (is, are) Emma. All of this carpet (has, have) been intricately woven. Fifteen percent of the quarter's grade (is, are) class participation. The Outsiders (was, were) the last book that Rachel read this year. 102 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
100 regular verb tenses Most regular verbs form their past tense by adding -ed to the present-tense form of the verb. Examples of this include walked, talked, and recalled. If a regular verb ends in ``e,'' as in bathe or wave, simply add ``d'' to form the past tense. In addition to the present (expresses action that is occurring now) tense, as in, ``We remember that story,'' and the past (expresses action that has already happened) tense, as in, ``We remembered that story,'' there are other verb tenses that you should know. Following are definitions and some examples of these additional verb tenses: Present Perfect: expresses action that was completed at some other time, or action that started in the past and continues now. Add has or have to the past participle form of the verb to make the present perfect. I have climbed that small mountain every weekend since last April. Past Perfect: expresses action that happened before another past action. Add had to the past participle form of the verb. We had walked up that hill before they did. Future: expresses action that will happen in the future. I will walk with you on Tuesday. Future Perfect: expresses action that will be completed by a given time in the future. Add shall have or will have to the past participle. I will have walked to school by then. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 103
101 selecting the correct verb tense Activity Underline the correct verb in each sentence. 1 The commercial was (air, aired) five times last night. 2 Have the forensics students (review, had reviewed, reviewed) the evidence? 3 Each of the carpenters has (help, helped, have helped) with this project. 4 Were these models (suppose, supposed, had supposed) to be here this early? 5 Many of these windows (needed, has needed, needs) a thorough washing. 6 The chef (slice, sliced, have sliced) the roast beef. 7 We were (imagine, imagining, imagined) what you were doing at that same time. 8 Some of the newspapers (has been moved, have been moved) to the recycling bin. 9 Will our brother (invite, invited, shall invite) Mona to next month's prom? Hector and the other members of his rock band (had sanged, sang, had sang) at that venue last August. Have most of the light bulbs (replaced, been replaced, were replaced) during this past school year? The ducks that are in the pond behind my teacher's house were (quacking, quacked, quack) quite loudly. Our insurance representative (has been reviewing, review, reviews) our policy for several hours. I (had fall, had fallen, will have fallen) on that slippery floor two days ago. Carlotta (has been painting, have painted, will have painted) portraits for several years now. 104 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
102 irregular verbs (part one) Regular verbs form their past and past participle forms by adding -d or -ed to the verb's present tense. Thus, use becomes used, and call becomes called. Irregular verbs form their past and past participle forms differently. The present tense break becomes broke in its past- tense form and broken in its past participle form. The present tense verb buy becomes bought in its past and past participle forms. Present Past Infinitive Participle Past Participle (to + verb) (the -ing form) (Yesterday I . . . ) (I had . . . She has . . . You have . . . ) begin beginning began begun blow blowing blew blown break breaking broke broken bring bringing brought brought burst bursting burst burst buy buying bought bought catch catching caught caught choose choosing chose chosen come coming came come cost costing cost cost do doing did done draw drawing drew drawn drink drinking drank drunk drive driving drove driven eat eating ate eaten fall falling fell fallen feel feeling felt felt find finding found found freeze freezing froze frozen get getting got got (or gotten) give giving gave given go going went gone grow growing grew grown hold holding held held keep keeping kept kept know knowing knew known lay (to place) laying laid laid lead leading led led leave leaving left left Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 105
103 working with irregular verbs from part one Activity Underline the correct form of the irregular verbs that appear in Irregular Verbs (Part One). 1 All of the most talented golfers (came, come) to the big tournament last year. 2 Emma has (draw, drew, drawn) a caricature of her uncle spending a dollar that weekend. 3 Did this set of glasses (cost, costed) much money? 4 Has James already (drink, drank, drunk) the entire bottle of water? 5 Ellie (held, holded) her breath as her brother attempted to start his car. 6 These religious leaders (feeled, felt) the need to discuss the event with their congregation members. 7 Three days ago the Umpies (goed, went) to visit the Shorties. 8 Jimmy Baldino (grow, grew, grown) tomatoes in his backyard last summer. 9 You could have (get, got, gotten) better advice about the problem from Uncle John. Have Moe and Kate (chose, choose, chosen) their favorite tunes for the drive to the Cape? It had just (begin, began, begun) to rain when the horses were leaving the barn. Patsy (find, finded, found) an interesting way to repair this float. Jack (fall, fell, fallen) asleep listening to his oldies. Now I (begin, begun) to see exactly how she solved the mystery. Murphy (bring, brang, brung, brought) the scrap of food to his cage. 106 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
104 irregular verbs (part two) Regular verbs form their past and past participle forms by adding -d or -ed to the verb's present tense. Thus, like becomes liked, and walk becomes walked. Irregular verbs form their past and past participle forms differently. The present tense rise becomes rose in its past-tense form and risen in its past participle form. The present tense verb sit becomes sat in both its past and past participle forms. Present Past Infinitive Participle Past Participle (to + verb) (the -ing form) (Yesterday I . . . ) (I had . . . She has . . . You have . . . ) lie (to rest, to lying lay lain recline) lose losing lost lost make making made made ride riding rode ridden ring ringing rang rung rise rising rose risen run running ran run say saying said said see seeing saw seen sell selling sold sold send sending sent sent set setting set set shrink shrinking shrank shrunk sing singing sang sung sink sinking sank sunk sit sitting sat sat speak speaking spoke spoken steal stealing stole stolen swim swimming swam swum take taking took taken teach teaching taught taught throw throwing threw thrown tear (to rip) tearing tore torn tell telling told told throw throwing threw thrown wear wearing wore worn win winning won won write writing wrote written Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 107
105 working with irregular verbs from part two Activity Underline the correct form of the irregular verbs that appear in Irregular Verbs (Part Two). 1 I (wear, wore, worn) these running shoes whenever I go jogging. 2 Cousin Moe (write, wrote, written) a beautiful piece about her second- grade students. 3 Mervin (lose, loosed, lost) weight. 4 Could Ms. Short have (sing, sang, sung) any more beautifully than she did at that ceremony? 5 The court officer (sent, sended) a note about the jury to the judge. 6 Remember that the police officers had already (speak, spoke, spoken) to us about this situation. 7 The small group of musicians had (sat, sit) on this bench during their break. 8 Please (take, taken, took) these plates over to the machine. 9 My shirt (shrank, shrinked, shrunk) in the dryer last night. Jason (telled, told) that joke to us last Monday. Could Kayla have (write, wrote, written) that essay as quickly as she did? The tall boy (swam, swimmed, swum) twenty laps in the pool this morning. This cloth has been (teared, tore, torn) up by the hungry dog. With that amazing catch, the skilled receiver (win, winned, won) the game for her team. Wellington had (ran, run) for that office two years ago. 108 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
106 irregular verbs in context Activity Use the correct form of each of the irregular verbs within the parentheses. Write your answer in the blank space in the sentence. 1 a season? this team ever (win) Has fewer than ten games in 2 owned it. The sweater (shrink) over the years that I have 3 in the case. clue (lead) This the detectives to more important clues 4 (draw) The maid had the shades in the den. 5 stop this morning. (freeze) I nearly waiting for the bus to come to my 6 (catch) Yesterday, the fisherman three snappers. 7 (bring) Have you your camera with you, Mitch? 8 (begin) When the game , both teams played hard. 9 what they had discussed at that important meeting. indication of (give) Neither of the presidents much (ride) We all in the van to the mall. (give) None of us had been explicit instructions on how to get to the office. (rise) The balloon had in no time. (sink) The fishing line quickly after I released the reel's lock. (drive) My mom had us to this museum many times. (send) The misbehaving student was to the principal's office. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 109
107 Correct or incorrect? Activity If the underlined irregular verb is used correctly, do nothing. If the underlined irregular verb is used incorrectly, cross it out and write the correct verb form on the line after the sentence. 1 The police officer catched the thief quite easily. 2 My family had eaten at this restaurant several times before last night. 3 The truck sunk into the mud in a few seconds. 4 The track star could not have ran faster than she did at that meet. 5 We lost our way on those dimly lit roads as we drove to Uncle Arnold's cabin. 6 Shakespeare had wrote many memorable tragedies. 7 A representative from the railroad spoke to the passengers about the proposed plan. 8 Neil keeped his cool during these tense moments in the subway. 9 Loretta done all her work by herself. The powerful dog broke free from her leash and ran quickly down the street. I had gave her these peaches for a snack. Our candidate had won the election by a landslide that year. The proud grandparents had lain awake the night that their grandson was accepted into that prestigious college. Wendy and her friends had ridden on that scary roller coaster ride last summer. That rock star had sang in many different European cities during her career. 110 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
108 helping out with irregular verbs Activity This writer can use your help with irregular verbs (and other writing skills). The student has made many irregular verb errors. Cross out each incorrect irregular verb, and write its correct form above it. For this activity, you do not need to make any other changes. Last summer, we gone to the Rocky Mountains for our family vacation. On the way there, we sung many songs and keeped a log of our journey. After Dad had drove three hundred miles on that first day, Mom and he decided to stop in a hotel for the afternoon and night. The hotel have an indoor swimming pool. Since last year's bathing suit had not teared or loosed its color, I weared it in the hotel's pool where my brother and I swimmed for a while. Mom brung us some snacks and drinks that we ated and drunked by the pool. I also buyed some ice cream bars that I had saw in the snack shop. Later that evening, after all of us eaten a good dinner, we goed to our rooms to enjoy a good night's sleep. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 111
109 the verb ``be'' Forms of the verb to be are used very frequently in the English language. It is very useful to know all of the verb's forms. Here is a list to help you along with the verb's tenses. Present tense: The action either exists or is happening now. Singular Plural First person I am happy. We are there now. Second person You are tall. You are here with us. Third person (He, She, It) is in the room. They are laughing. Past tense: The action was started and completed already. Singular Plural First person I was there last night. We were happy. Second person You were in the recital. You were excited. Third person (He, She, It) was there. They were ecstatic. Future tense: The action will or shall occur later. Singular Plural First person I will (or shall) be there. We will (or shall) be there. Second person You will (or shall) be selected. You will (or shall) be here. Third person (He, She, It) will (or shall) be on They will (or shall) be with us. the panel. Past perfect tense: The action ended before another past action or state of being. Singular Plural First person I had sat in that room. We had been friends. Second person You had swum in that lake. You had helped my aunt. Third person (He, She, It) had been there. They had sung with them. 112 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
110 busy with the verb ``be'' Activity Underline the correct form of the verb ``to be.'' 1 I (has, have) been washing the car for thirty minutes now. 2 (Was, Were) you photographing these beautiful mountains? 3 All of them (is, are) very happy with you, Maria. 4 (Was, Were) they believing your story? 5 My younger sister will (be, been, being) going off to college this fall. 6 The audience members (was, were) awed by the contestant's knowledge. 7 (Was, Were) you and Mickey at the movies on Monday, Monica? 8 I (wasn't, weren't) in favor of these stricter rules. 9 These paleontologists have (been, being) digging intensely. It (wasn't, weren't) a good experience for any of us. He (was, were) blaming me for the problems in the house. Had you (been, being) hoping for an easier trip along the river? You (is, are) the committee's first choice. Many of the birds (is, are) flying toward the tower. (Wasn't, Weren't) you thinking the same thing, Clara? (Are, Is) this the correct address? These magazines (was, were) on the table for hours. (Was, Were) you trying to be funny? (Is, Am) I to believe that tall tale, Tom? You (is, are) going home with the other children. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 113
111 the nominative case Nouns and pronouns (I, you, he, she, it, we, and they, to name a few) used in the nominative case function as subjects and predicate nominatives in sentences. Subject examples: Patsy read the newspaper. I can assist you with the project. They will be doing the least favorite part of the job. Predicate nominative examples: The new champion is Tony. The new leader is he. Their choices for club leaders are you and Juanita. Note: In all cases, an appositive is in the same case as the word it refers to in the sentence. Thus, in certain situations, an appositive is in the nominative case. We neighbors must rely upon one another. (Because we refers to the sentence's subject, neighbors, we is in the nominative case.) The witnesses are we people. (Because we refers to the sentence's predicate nominative, people, we is in the nominative case.) The proposal's writers, Jess and Tess, were present. (Jess and Tess are the appositives and are in the nominative case.) Activity Tell whether the underlined word used in the nominative case is a subject (S), predicate nominative (PN), or apposi- tive (A). Write the corresponding letter(s) on the line before the sentence. 1 They will furnish their new apartment soon. 2 It was he who found your necklace. 3 She is the first born in her family. 4 The newest employees are we. 5 The performers, we pianists, have much practice ahead of us. 114 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
112 the objective case Nouns and pronouns (me, you, her, him, it, them, and us, to name a few) used in the objective case function as direct objects, indirect objects, and objects of the preposition. The direct object is a noun or pronoun that answers the question ``who?'' or ``what?'' after an action verb. 7 You asked me an interesting question. (What did you ask me?--an inter- esting question. Thus, question is the direct object.) 7 The dog drank the water and the lemonade. (What did the dog drink?-- the water and the lemonade. Thus, water and lemonade are the compound direct objects.) The indirect object is a noun or pronoun that answers the question ``for whom?'' or ``to whom?'' after an action verb. If a sentence includes an indi- rect object, it must also have a direct object. 7 George brought his mom some groceries. (Mom is the indirect object, and groceries is the direct object.) 7 We gave her and him a new car. (The two pronouns, her and him, answer the question ``to whom?'' did we give a new car. Therefore, her and him are the compound indirect objects, and car is the direct object.) The object of the preposition is a noun or pronoun that usually ends the phrase begun by the preposition. 7 Sherry walked into the cafeteria. (The prepositional phrase, into the cafe- teria, includes the object of the preposition, cafeteria.) 7 They sat beside her and me. (The prepositional phrase, beside her and me, includes the compound objects of the preposition, her and me.) Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 115
113 the possessive case The possessive case of a noun or pronoun indicates ownership or posses- sion. Pronouns such as his, her, its, my, mine, your, yours, their, theirs, our, and ours are all possessive case words. Here are several rules for the possessive case. A. Most singular nouns form their possessive by adding an apostrophe and an s. (the baboon's food; the girl's sweater; Marx's teachings; Burns's poetic lines; Dickens's characters) B. To form the possessive of a singular noun that ends with an s sound, take one of two actions. 1. If a name of two or more syllables ends in an eez sound, the posses- sive is formed without an additional s. (Ulysses' friends; Archimedes' theories) 2. Add an apostrophe and an s if the word would not be difficult to pronounce. (dress's cost; quartz's essence) C. Add only an apostrophe to form the possessive of a plural noun that ends in s. (the boys' gymnasium; the Murphys' home) D. If a plural noun does not end in s, add an apostrophe and an s. (the men's department; the mice's hiding spots) E. Use the possessive form for only the last name in compound nouns for organizations, literary titles, businesses, and relatives. If owned sepa- rately, use the possessive for both names. Tom's and Pete's reputations (separate reputations) Procter and Gamble's sales (combined ownership) mother-in-law's magazines (one woman's ownership) mothers-in-law's magazines (two or more women's ownership) F. For acronyms (words formed from the first letters of a series of words), add an apostrophe and an s. the NHL's (National Hockey League's) members AARP's (American Association of Retired People's) membership 116 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
114 the possessive case and pronouns A word used in the possessive case shows ownership. Possessive pronouns do not require apostrophes. The singular possessive pronouns are my, mine, your, yours, his, her, hers, and its. The plural possessive pronouns are our, ours, your, yours, their, and theirs. The possessive pronoun whose also does not require an apostrophe. This house is theirs. Their car is currently in the shop. Your notebook and my textbook are in the school's cafeteria. Is that package theirs or ours? The movie has lost its appeal with her children. His bike is locked up next to mine in your space. Note: Though a noun that precedes a gerund (word that ends in -ing and functions as a noun) requires an apostrophe, the pronoun that does the same does not require one. Nina's selecting that prize was very interesting. (Nina's, a possessive noun/adjective, requires an apostrophe.) Her selecting that prize was very interesting. (Her, a possessive pronoun/adjective, does not require an apostrophe.) Activity Fill in each blank with a singular or plural possessive pronoun. 1 diagrams were studied by the medical staff. 2 friends organized a trip. 3 Can you bring photo album to house tonight? 4 Will they not forget to follow directions to get to home? 5 These date. party youngsters were happy about choosing Friday for their Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 117
115 indefinite pronouns and the possessive case Indefinite pronouns form the possessive by adding an apostrophe and an ``s'' after the word. Is this someone's backpack? May I ask everyone's help here? Somebody's cell phone is ringing; please answer it in the other room. We would like to hear another's opinion. The other's situation is much different. If you use the word else after anybody, nobody, or somebody, place the apostro- phe and the ``s'' after else, not after anybody, nobody, or somebody. This is somebody else's radio, not mine. Your business is nobody else's concern. Activity Some of the personal pronouns in these sentences require the apostrophe followed by the ``s.'' Others do not. Under- line the correct word in each sentence. 1 Will the option be offered to (everybody, everybody's)? 2 (Somebody, Somebody's) car is making weird noises. 3 The pocketbook belongs to (nobody, nobody's) in this room? 4 Remember that this situation is (nobody's else's, nobody else's) matter. 5 We would certainly like to hear (everyone, everyone's, everyones') ideas. 6 (Somebody else, Somebody else's) entered the room after we left. 7 These cards belong to (somebody else, somebody else's). 8 (Anyone else, Anyone's elses, Anyone else's) proposals will certainly be considered. 9 (Nobody, Nobody's, Nobodys') permission slip is missing. (Somebody else, Somebody else's, Somebody's else's) will be assisting you shortly. 118 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
116 using the possessive case Activity On the line provided, write the possessive form for each of these phrases. The first one is done for you. 1 Lesley's house the house that belongs to Lesley 2 the house owned by both Joe and Jim 3 the two houses owned separately by Joe and Jim 4 the car that belongs to that woman 5 the cars that belong to the women 6 the value of a dollar 7 the salaries of the machinists 8 the motorcycle that belongs to my father-in-law 9 the plan of the committee the plans of the committees the suggestion that he made the store owned by Ulysses the address of it the bike owned by Tom the bike owned by Thomas Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 119
117 confusing usage words (part one) 1 accept: (verb) to receive willingly Will you accept this present as a thank-you for your work? except: (preposition) but; other than All of the dogs except Kenny's dog were in the park that afternoon. 2 adverse: (adjective) opposed; unfavorable Due to adverse weather conditions, the concert was postponed. averse: (adjective) not willing or inclined; reluctant Fortunately, the teen was averse to smoking cigarettes, even though her friends told her it was a cool thing to do. 3 affect: (verb) to influence How will this low test grade affect my quarterly average? effect: (noun) result; (verb) to cause to become; to accomplish; to produce The effects of the treatment will not be known for several days. (noun) This plan will effect immediate change. (verb) 4 aid: (verb) to help; to assist; (noun) help; assistance The nurse was able to aid the injured athlete on the field. Stu came to his aunt's aid. aide: (noun) one who helps or assists This doctor's aide really knows how to put a patient at ease. 5 among: (preposition) used to refer to two or more people, places, things, or ideas Sylvia divided the goodies among the five children. between: (preposition) used to refer to two people, places, things, or ideas Mom divided the chores between my sister and me. 120 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
118 confusing usage words (part two) 6 anywhere: in, at, or to any place I think that we can drive anywhere in this county. anywheres: This word does not exist in the English language. 7 as: (conjunction(As is also a a subordinate clause); (adverb) to the same degree, equally. that starts preposition.) Rex is already as tall as his dad. like: (preposition) similar to; resembling in some manner. (Like is also an adjective, a verb, and an adverb.) He is much like his brother when it comes to helping others. 8 beside: (preposition) by or at the side of; alongside Would you be willing to sit beside my sister and me at the graduation ceremony? besides: (adverb) in addition; as well Besides those math problems, what other homework do you have tonight? 9 bring: (verb) to move something to a place Bring the boxes back to the table. take: (verb) to move something away from a place Take the boxes to that table. borrow: (verb) to take or receive from another on the provision that it will be returned May I borrow some money for a few days? lend: (verb) to let another use or have Could you please lend me a few dollars for the weekend? Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 121
119 confusing usage words (part three) can: (verb) to know how to; to be able to I think that I can climb that fence with little effort. may: (verb) to be allowed to May I help you with those heavy bundles? cent: (noun) one penny; 1/100 of a dollar Lou found one cent under the couch. scent: (noun) a smell; odor; (verb) to smell; to perceive with the nose Do you smell the scent of raccoon? (noun) I scent a raccoon around here. (verb) cite: (verb) to quote A respected attorney will often cite several cases in her argument. site: (noun) piece of land; location Our favorite restaurant chain plans to build a new establishment on this site. continual: (adjective) happening over and over again The continual good behavior of the class members earned them free time each Friday. continuous: (adjective) happening without interruption The continuous noise of the hammers and saws disturbed the work- shop participants. doesn't: (contraction for does + not) does not Steven doesn't think that we will need three umbrellas for the beach today. don't: (contraction for do + not; considered substandard usage) do not or does not We don't know what the future will bring. 122 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
120 confusing usage words (part four) discover: (verb) to be the first to find The scientist discovered this element years ago. invent: (verb) to think out and produce Who will invent a better way to stop people from texting while driving? disinterested: (adjective) not biased or prejudiced; showing no favoritism We all want a disinterested judge to work in our judicial system. uninterested: (adjective) not interested Gracie is uninterested in that particular field of mathematics. emigrate from: (verb) to leave one country to go live in another The Greek family emigrated from their homeland and settled in Astoria, New York. immigrate to: (verb) to come to a new country or area These Irish brothers immigrated to Manhattan and established them- selves there in a short time. explicit: fully and clearly expressed or demonstrated The troop leader gave us explicit directions on what to expect during the trip. implicit: implied, rather than expressly stated Our dad's facial expressions implicitly told us that we should not behave in the same manner again. famous: (adjective) well known; having fame; renowned She became a famous singer whose name was known around the world. notorious: (adjective) well known; publicly discussed; widely, but unfa- vorably, known The notorious bank robber had spread fear throughout the city. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 123
121 confusing usage words (part five) good: (adjective) effective; efficient; (adverb) well; completely; fully Evelyn has been a good physician's assistant for many years now. (adjective) This is about as good as it gets for this group. (adverb) well: (adverb) in a pleasing or desirable manner; fittingly; to a large extent I felt well after the challenging mountain climb. Pierre fit in well with the new group of students in his new school. These girls are well schooled in how to stay fit. fewer: (adjective used to modify plural nouns) a smaller number Fewer people participated in last year's fundraiser. less: (adjective used to modify singular nouns) not so much; smaller in size or amount Edith felt less fear about going on that ride. have: (verb) helping verb I could have finished the recording in two hours. of: (preposition) used in prepositional phrases, but not in verb phrases She was a woman of great dignity and service to her country. imply: (verb) to suggest indirectly Did the speaker imply that we should be doing more to preserve the society? infer: (verb) to draw a conclusion from facts What did you infer from the speaker's words regarding global warming? it's: (contraction of it + is or it + has) It's starting to rain. It's begun to drizzle. its: (adjective) the possessive form of it The colorful umbrella has lost some of its color. 124 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
122 confusing usage words (part six) farther: (adjective and adverb) used to designate a physical distance This woman shot the arrow much farther than I did. further: (adjective and adverb) additional Let's wait for further instructions before we do anything else. healthful: (adjective) that which brings about good health; wholesome Doctor Geiger told his patient to eat a more healthful diet. healthy: (adjective) having good health; well; sound If you want to remain healthy into old age, exercise and eat good foods. in: (preposition, adjective, adverb) within Sis was in the dentist's chair for thirty minutes. into: (preposition) from the outside to the inside of Sis walked into the dentist's office at 2:20 this afternoon. leave: (verb) to exit; to let be or stay Most of the children and their parents had to leave once the weather changed. let: (verb) to allow; to permit Will you let me take care of your dog while you go on vacation? liable: (adjective) legally responsible Because the chipped stoop caused the delivery person to fall, the homeowner was liable for damages. likely: (adjective and adverb) probable; reasonable to be expected After we saw that ominous sky, we felt that a storm was likely. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 125
123 confusing usage words (part seven) learn: (verb) to acquire knowledge How did you learn to swim so gracefully? teach: (verb) to instruct Will you please teach me the eight parts of speech for this test? personal: (adjective) individual or private; intended for use by a single person This is a personal problem that I would not want to share with others right now. personnel: (noun and adjective) body of persons employed in an organization or a place The director said that the case involved a personnel issue involving several experi- enced workers. poor: (noun and adjective) the opposite of rich; not done well Will you be willing to contribute some money to help the poor? (noun) Your team showed a poor effort in not running out the grounder in the third inning. (adjective) pore: (noun) an opening Harold looked very closely at his skin pores and was amazed. pour: (verb) to cause to flow My aunt was nice enough to pour milk into my little sister's cereal. quotation: (noun) something that is quoted The quotations of Mark Twain and Yogi Berra are used quite often for various effects. quote: (verb) to repeat or cite Did you quote that author at any time within your term paper? respectfully: (adverb) politely We respectfully acknowledged their country's leader. respectively: (adverb) in precisely the order given Please line up these folders from A to Z respectively. 126 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
124 confusing usage words (part eight) right: (noun) claim or title; (adjective) proper; just; correct; (adverb) directly; (verb) to put in proper order Freedom of speech is one of our rights. (noun) Is this the right way to tie this knot? (adjective) Come right home after school. (adverb) Let's right the wrongs we committed. (verb) rite: (noun) a ceremony The religious woman performed the rite in front of twenty people. wright: (noun) a worker One of Mike's relatives worked as a wheelwright many years ago. write: (verb) to record in print Please write your name on this line. set: (verb) to put in place Please set the table for dinner, James. sit: (verb) to rest in a seated position Sit down for a while, and catch your breath. than: (conjunction) word used to compare two or more people, places, things, or ideas Yvonne is older than I. then: (adverb) at that time I then told him that he was doing the right thing. unless: (subordinating conjunction) in any other case than Unless you have a good reason, the coach expects you to be here with the rest of us. without: (preposition) lacking; with none of; (adverb) outside Without this card, I will not be admitted. (preposition) He ran without. (adverb) Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 127
125 matching up the confusing words Activity Match the fifteen words in Column A with their definitions in Column B. Write the correct letter on the line before the number in Column A. All of these words have been taken from the Confusing Usage Words lists that you have studied. Column A Column B 1. effect A. one penny 2. discover B. (used with singular nouns) not so much; smaller in size or amount regarding 3. invent C. result; cause to become; to accomplish 4. explicit D. by or at the side of; alongside 5. affect E. a smell; an odor 6. fewer F. in addition; as well 7. beside G. to think out and produce 8. cent H. a smaller number I. to let another use or have 9. implicit J. implied, rather than expressly stated 10. besides K. to take or receive from another with the 11. less intent of returning 12. scent L. to be the first to find 13. borrow M. fully and clearly expressed or demon- strated 14. imply N. to suggest indirectly 15. lend O. to influence 128 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
126 Which is the correct word? Activity Underline the correct word in the parentheses. 1 (Bring, Take) your supplies back to your desk. 2 Will you (borrow, lend) me a few dollars tonight? 3 The Olympic swimmer spent much time training (in, into) the pool. 4 Please (leave, let) me finish what I have to do here. 5 (It's, Its) going to rain tomorrow night. 6 Tell me some of your best (quotations, quotes). 7 Will you please (poor, pore, pour) me some milk? 8 The students were yawning sothe screen.that they were (disinterested, uninterested) in what was on I figured 9 What did you (imply, infer) from what the district manager said? A celebrity's (personal, personnel) life should be kept private. Do you have more experience (than, then) the other candidates seeking this position? Are you going to (set, sit) the table for tonight's meal? Do you think that you could (have, of) saved more money over the years? The criminals were quite (famous, notorious) in that part of the country. (Unless, Without) they reach Minneapolis by dark, they might have to go to another motel. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 129
127 select the correct word Activity Part One: Underline the correct word within the parentheses. 1 (Can, May) I have your permission to check the files? 2 As a homeowner, you are (liable, likely) for the damage. 3 Can you throw the ball any (farther, further)? 4 We sat right (beside, besides) the band members at the wedding. 5 My sister is studying to become a nurse's (aid, aide). 6 Wait for (farther, further) instructions about the new plan. 7 Fortunately, (fewer, less) problems plague the police department this year. 8 How many families have (emigrated from, immigrated to) their homeland to other countries? 9 The perfume's (cent, scent) was very pleasant. Should I turn (right, rite, wright, write) here? (Than, Then) I transferred to another college. Will the weather greatly (affect, effect) the bus trip? There seemed to be no parking (anywhere, anywheres). (Learn, Teach) me how to play the guitar. The religious leader plans to perform the (right, rite, wright, write) this afternoon. Part Two: Write five sentences, each one using one of the words in the parentheses within the above sentences. Write your sentences on a separate sheet of paper. 130 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
128 double negatives In mathematics, a negative number times a negative number yields a positive number. Similarly, in grammar, when two negative words are used (where only one is needed), the negatives cancel each other out, making the idea positive and not negative as intended. In the sentence, ``I cannot get no respect from them,'' the two negative words, cannot and no, cancel each other out. Thus, the sentence is really saying, ``I can get respect from them,'' a far different thought from what seems to be the sentence's original intention. Had the sentence read, ``I cannot get respect from them,'' or ``I can get no respect from them,'' the meaning is quite different from that when both negative words are included in the sentence. Here is another example of this double negative situation. Notice the different meanings when the negative words are included or deleted. Two negative words in the sentence: We didn't have no disappointments. One negative word in the sentence: We didn't have disappointments. One negative word in the sentence: We had no disappointments. Activity Correct these double negative problems. Write the improved version on the line provided. 1 Linda can't have no friends over tonight. 2 The nurse doesn't never give bad health advice. 3 I hadn't noticed nobody in the room. 4 This pen doesn't have no ink left in it. 5 After exchanging their presents, my friends didn't do nothing more to celebrate the occasion. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 131
129 misplaced and dangling modifiers Words, phrases, and clauses that describe or modify nouns and pronouns need to be properly placed within the sentence. This placement should clearly indicate which word is being described. A misplaced modifier is a word or group of words intended to describe a noun or pronoun, but is placed incorrectly within the sentence. Speaking to the state officials, the microphone held the reporter. (In this sentence, the underlined modifier, Speaking to the state officials, a participial phrase, is misplaced. The reporter, not the microphone, was speaking to the state officials. Thus, the sentence could read, ``The reporter speaking to the state officials held the microphone.'') Other misplaced modifier examples include these. See if you can correct each one. In the microwave, the man cooked the popcorn. Unhappy, the match was forfeited by the tennis player. A dangling modifier is a word or group of words intended to describe a noun or pronoun, but, according to the sentence's wording, has nothing to describe. To get to the airport, the tram needs to be taken. (In this sentence, the underlined modifier, To get to the airport, describes nothing. The corrected version should read, ``To get to the airport, you need to take the tram.'' Now the modifier has someone to describe--you!) Other dangling modifier examples include these. See if you can correct each one. To solve this challenging puzzling, patience is needed. Walking along the Thames River, the flowers looked beautiful. 132 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
130 revising sentences that have misplaced and dangling modifiers Activity Revise each sentence so that the misplaced and dangling modifiers work correctly. Add or delete words as needed. Write your revised sentences on a separate sheet of paper. 1 To move this heavy package, strength is needed. 2 Walking quickly, the road was crossed. 3 Emma read the cartoon laughing loudly. 4 While washing the dishes, my cell phone rang. 5 Glued to the present, Bob saw the bow. 6 Looking under the bed, my birthday gift was spotted. 7 Extending over three hundred miles, the car moved along the highway. 8 Shining in the distance, I saw a star. 9 Wrapped in silver foil, I ate my hamburger. Hal noticed a kangaroo driving his motorcycle. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 133
131 transitive and intransitive verbs A transitive verb is an action verb that has a direct object. Remember that a direct object (a noun or a pronoun) answers the question Whom? or What? after the action verb. Thus, in the sentence, ``The clown threw the toy into the air,'' the verb, threw, is transitive because (A) it is an action verb, and (B) there is a direct object, toy. Here are some other examples of transitive verbs. The verb is underlined, and the direct object is italicized. Danielle wanted pizza for lunch. The old shed really needs repairs. We believed him. An intransitive verb is an action verb, but it does not have a direct object following it. In the sentence, ``Veronica remained here after the incident,'' the intransitive verb, remained, does not have a direct object after it. No noun or pronoun receives the action of the verb. Some other examples of intransitive verbs are these. They laughed quite loudly. The boys sprinted from the alley. These scientists know about physics. Activity On the line before each, write T if the underlined verb is transitive or I if it is intransitive. 1 We walked slowly around the lake. 2 We walked the dog in the park. 3 Reggie wrote your card. 4 Reggie wrote. 5 Reggie wrote carefully. 134 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
132 Do you know your transitive and intransitive verbs? Activity Ten of these sentences include transitive verbs, and ten include intransitive verbs. Write the letter T (for transitive) or I (for intransitive) on the line next to the sentence. 1 These flowers need more sunshine during the next few weeks. 2 Walk more quietly down the hallway. 3 Drivers noticed the many potholes on the roads last spring. 4 Mrs. Littlefield helped Roger find his dog, Rex. 5 You do not need to help yet. 6 A newscaster examined the historical photographs. 7 We witnessed the beautiful sunrise. 8 That hurts him. 9 Bring the tickets with you this evening. My dog ran away last night. The rain came suddenly. Jasmine walked confidently down the street. The heavy winds lifted the table into the air. Larry spoke eloquently at the banquet. Dan rested often during the challenging climb. The scouts marched in size order at the jamboree. Did you give Candace the candy? My dad wished for clearer skies. These candles will glow for a long time. We interviewed Gussy after the memorable performance. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 135
133 active and passive voices Voice is a verb form that indicates if the sentence's subject performs or receives an action. There are two types of voice--active voice and passive voice. 7 If the sentence's subject performs the action, the sentence is written in the active voice. ``The pilot landed the plane'' is written in the active voice since the subject (pilot) performed the action (landed the plane). 7 If the sentence's subject receives the action, the sentence is written in the passive voice. ``The plane was landed by the pilot'' is written in the passive voice since the subject (plane) received the pilot's action (landed the plane). Note: Good writers use the active voice whenever possible. However, if you want to emphasize a specific point, you can use the passive voice. That is why the sentence, ``An exciting program was aired by our local television station,'' is acceptable, even though it is written in the passive voice. The writer wants to emphasize the program, not the television station. Activity Indicate, with an A for active voice, or a P for passive voice, the voice of the verbs in these sentences. 1 The construction worker heard the noise. 2 The noise was heard by the construction worker. 3 Our contest was won by Timbo. 4 Timbo won our contest. 5 A new SUV was purchased by that family down the block. 136 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
134 sound-alike words (part one) The words in these pairs sound alike. Study these quick definitions, and use these words in your writing and speech. 1 board: piece of wood Hillary hammered the pine board. bored: tired of; not interested Were you bored at the movies? 2 brake: the stopping device Push hard on the brake to stop the bike. break: a rest; to smash or shatter The tired workers deserved a break. Did the player break her leg in the collision? 3 capital: money; most important The company's owners put up the capital to start the project. Annapolis is the capital city of Maryland. capitol: building Each state has its own capitol where officials convene. 4 choose: to select Choose your dessert and take it to that table. chose: past tense of the verb choose The couple chose their wedding song. 5 desert: to abandon (di = zert); the dry region ( de = zert) Did the foe desert his army and go to the enemy's side? The Sahara Desert is huge. dessert: cake, pie, ice cream, pudding, fruit, and such served as the meal's final course We had ice cream for dessert. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 137
135 sound-alike words (part two) Here are some more paired words that sound the same. Review them, and then use them in your writings and speech. 6 formally: in a refined way He formally asked the girl to the banquet. formerly: in the past The new soldier had formerly lived in Duluth, Minnesota. 7 hear: to use the ears to pick up sounds Did you hear that animal's howl? here: this place; sentence starter I placed the card right here, and now it is gone. Here are the finalists in our contest. 8 its: personal pronoun for the neuter-gender words The contest has grown in its importance. it's: contraction for it + is It's going to be a good beach day tomorrow. 9 loose: opposite of tight The new bathing suit felt too loose on the swimmer. lose: to fail; the opposite of ``to find'' The coach did not want to lose the game in that manner. Did you lose your keys at the park? quiet: opposite of loud Please be quiet in the library. quite: to a high degree Winston was quite tall for his age. peace: opposite of war Most people prefer peace over war. piece: a portion or part May I have a piece of pepperoni pizza, please? 138 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
136 sound-alike words (part three) Here is the third set of sound-alike words. Study and use them well. plain: not adorned; piece of land She wore a plain dress to the event. The horses moved quickly across the plain. plane: a piece of aircraft How heavy is that plane with all those passengers aboard it now? principal: the school's leader; the most important The committee met in the principal's office. This highway is the principal road in this county. principle: rule of conduct or main fact Jeremiah could readily understand that science principle. their: owned by a group Their clubhouse was made by Frank Miller. there: place; sentence starter He lives right there. There are many reasons to vote for Brianna Feller. they're: contraction for they + are They're moving to Canada after the school year ends. theirs: possessive of their That boat is theirs. there's: contraction for there + is There's my dad on his motorcycle. to: preposition; start of an infinitive He went to school. ``To be'' is an infinitive. too: more than enough Perry was too tired to run fast. two: one plus one Two people were approaching the door. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 139
137 sound-alike words (part four) Here is the last of the sound-alike words. Study, review, and use them when you can. threw: past tense of to throw The hurler threw his best pitch right down the middle of the plate. through: preposition meaning ``in one side and out the other'' We walked through the many corridors of the large building. waist: the middle portion of one's body He exercised to decrease the size of his waist. waste: garbage The waste paper basket was in the corner. weak: opposite of strong After running twenty-six miles, the runner felt weak. week: the seven-day unit of time Sunday is considered the first day of the week. weather: outdoor conditions Will the weather be good for our picnic tomorrow? whether: a word used for alternatives I did not know whether to go to the cafeteria or to stay in the auditorium. who's: contraction of who + is Who's knocking at the door? whose: possessive of who Whose problem is it--yours or mine? your: possessive of you Is this your new backpack? you're: contraction of you + are You're the lucky prizewinner. 140 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
138 making your mark with sound-alike words Activity On the line next to each numbered sentence, write the corresponding letter of the correct word in each sentence. If your answers are correct, you will spell a fifteen-letter word that will help this activity's title make sense. 1 I was not (H) board (F) bored at the concert. 2 They will need to (I) break (A) brake the window to get into the shed. 3 Will you (M) chose (N) choose me to lead the game? 4 What's for (P) desert (G) dessert? 5 Liam was dressed (E) formally (L) formerly for the big event. 6 May I have a (B) peace (R) piece of that cake? 7 (P) It's (E) Its going to be sunny tomorrow. 8 You will need to be more (D) quite (R) quiet because your father is sleeping. 9 Have they introduced the new school (I) principal (H) principle, Ms. Morrison? The (S) plain (N) plane landed two miles away from here. (T) There (S) Their are many good reasons to attend that college. Is that (E) there (I) their fence? I am (O) to (N) too tired to read and understand this passage. My sister will start her new job next (A) weak (G) week. (S) Whose (N) Who's books are on my desk? The fifteen-letter word is . Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 141
139 regular comparison of adjectives and adverbs To show how they differ in degree or extent, most adjectives and adverbs have three degrees (or forms)--the positive, the comparative, and the superlative. One-syllable words form these degrees in a regular way. 7 The positive degree (or form) is used when an adjective or adverb modifier is not being compared. The young sister walked with her brother. (Young simply states the sister's age.) 7 The comparative degree (or form) is used when two people, places, things, or ideas are compared. Add -er to these words to form the comparative. The younger sister walked with her father. (The sister's age is being compared to the age of another sister.) 7 The superlative degree (or form) is used when more than two people, places, things, or ideas are compared. Add -est to these words to form the superlative. The youngest sister walked with her mother. (The sister's age is compared to the ages of at least two other sisters.) Positive Degree Comparative Degree Superlative Degree tall taller tallest fast faster fastest large larger largest small smaller smallest light lighter lightest Activity Fill in each blank with the correct form of the word in parentheses. 1 (smart) Johnny is the of the twenty students. 2 (nice) Mary is the of the four directors. 3 (bright) This new wallpaper is . 4 (smooth) This board is than the other one. 5 (long) ``This is the song that I have ever heard,'' stated Julio. 142 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
140 irregular comparison of adjectives and adverbs Adjectives and adverbs of two or more syllables form their comparative and superlative degrees (or forms) in an irregular way. The rules below will help you understand and utilize these forms. 7 Use -er, more, or less to form the comparative degree of many two-syllable modifiers or describers. 7 Adverbs that end in -ly always use more or less to form the comparative degree and most and least to form the superlative degree. 7 When forming the comparative and superlative degrees of modifiers (adjectives and adverbs) that have two syllables, ``Let your ear be your gear.'' In other words, if adding -er or -est makes the word hard or clumsy to pronounce, use more (or less) and most (or least) instead. 7 Modifiers of three or more syllables, such as intelligent, cumbersome, and beautiful, always form their comparative degrees with more (or less) and their superlative degrees with most (or least). Examples include less magnificent, more interesting, and most spectacular. Positive Degree Comparative Degree Superlative Degree lovely more lovely most lovely funny funnier funniest crowded less crowded least crowded plentiful more plentiful most plentiful Activity Fill in each blank with the correct form of the word in parentheses. 1 (frightened) My dog is the of all those dogs in the kennel. 2 (rigorous) Eddiepush-up. the rope climb is a exercise than the feels that 3 (happy) Are you today than you were yesterday? Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 143
SECTION THREE Mechanics Mechanics
141 periods, question marks, and exclamation marks 1 Use a periodone the end of a declarative sentence, a sentence that is a request, and at that includes a mild command. Our blue couch will soon be replaced. (declarative sentence) Please help me. (request) Let's be quiet. (mild command) 2 Use a period after abbreviations. Dr. (Doctor) Mr. (Mister) ft. (foot) in. (inch) 3 Use a question mark at the end of an interrogative sentence. Have you finished your dinner, Sven? Note: The speaker's exact words should be placed within the quotation marks. If those words form a question, place the question mark inside the quotation marks. Jason asked, ``Is this my slice of pizza?'' Note: If the speaker's exact words are a statement but are within a sentence that asks a question, place the question mark outside the quotation marks. Did Mollie say, ``Tomorrow is the deadline''? 4 Use an exclamation mark at the end of an exclamatory sentence. This is too good to be true! Note: If a speaker's exact words require an exclamation mark, place that mark within the quotation marks. ``What a great performance!'' Emma remarked to James. Note: If a speaker's exact words are a statement, and the entire sentence is an exclamation, place the exclamation mark outside the quotation marks. It is hard to believe that Mark ever said, ``I think that you're right''! 146 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
142 working with periods, question marks, and exclamation marks Activity Place the appropriate periods, questions marks, and excla- mation marks as needed. All other punctuation marks have already been inserted. 1 Can you remember your previous four phone numbers, Kyle 2 ``I wish that this test was already over,'' John Smithers said 3 Sheryl asked, ``Have any of those chickens crossed the road yet'' 4 Great You can see that these are the winning lottery numbers 5 Should these plants be moved into the shed for the season 6 Jackson exclaimed, ``This party is absolutely terrific'' 7 Did Anne say, ``My coat is in the auditorium'' 8 What is that extremely annoying sound 9 Please take that book to the bookmobile, Chauncey Let's see what surprises the workers have in store for us ``Was John Lewis with you during the experiment'' the professor asked her assistant Tell all of them to get down here immediately--or else Please call the housekeeper when you get a chance The office manager asked his maintenance official, ``When will you be able to have your workers wash these windows'' ``Did William Shakespeare, the renowned playwright, really write all of those plays, or did somebody else write some, or most, or all of them'' the English teacher asked her students Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 147
143 commas (part one) A comma probably has more rules and uses than any other punctuation mark. Below is an important comma rule. 1 Use commas to separate items (words, phrases, and clauses) in a series. James enjoys playing tennis, soccer, and basketball. (words in a series) The troop traveled into the mountains, across the plains, and along the river. (phrases in a series) The car dealer made sure that the purchaser's car was clean, that the license plates were ready, and that the ownership papers had been signed. (clauses in a series) Note: If all the items in a series are joined by and, or, or nor, commas are not required. The chef's exquisite dishes include filet mignon and roast beef and lamb. Note: If the conjunction and joins words that constitute a unit, team, or such, do not separate that name. Yet, you will still need the commas to separate items in a series. Peanut butter and jelly, ham and eggs, and spaghetti and meatballs are the children's favorite foods. Note: Some writers choose not to include the final comma in a series if by leaving the comma out, the meaning is still clear. Our social studies class members studied the Korean War, the Civil War, World War I and World War II. (It is clear that the social studies students studied four wars.) 148 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
144 commas (part two) Here are some useful rules when you are working with commas. 2 Use a comma after Yes and No when these words start a sentence. Yes, we have the show's starting time. No, there are no bananas in that store. 3 Use a comma both after consecutive introductory prepositional phrases and after a long introductory prepositional phrase. In the middle of New York City, the traffic is very heavy during rush hour. In the World Series' final game that was played in 1960, the Pirates hitter whacked a home run over the left field wall. Note: A comma can be placed after a short introductory prepositional phrase if the sentence's meaning and flow are improved by the comma. Read the sentence aloud to see if a comma is justified. In the first instance, the dog was in the back of the van. Without Greg's assistance, Ricardo would have spent many hours on that project. 4 Use a comma after an introductory participle or participial phrase. Intrigued, the young child looked into the fishbowl. Motivated by their drama coach's remarks, the cast members worked even harder than before. 5 Use a comma after an introductory adverb clause. Before we started our vacation, we had the mechanic check out our car. Note: In most instances (unless the sentence's meaning is unclear), an adverb clause that follows an independent clause is not preceded by a comma. I cannot recall a single instance when Jimmy was inconsiderate. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 149
145 commas (part three) Here are some additional helpful comma rules. 6 Use a comma to separate twoseparate the two adjectives with athe word check if a comma is needed, or more adjectives that precede noun. To and. If it sounds logical, a comma is required. She is an intelligent, fair leader. The draftee is a strong, athletic player. Note: In the sentence, ``We were served fried green tomatoes as part of our meal,'' fried is an adverb, not another adjective. Thus, a comma is not necessary.) 7 Use a for, and, to separate independent clauses joined by the conjunc- tions comma nor, but, or, and yet. The singer wanted to perform at Carnegie Hall, but her schedule prevented that. You can drive, or you can walk. Note: When you use the conjunctions for, so, and yet to join independent clauses, always use a comma before the conjunction. For the conjunctions and, nor, but, and or, a comma is not required as long as the independent clauses are relatively short, AND the sentence is understandable and clear without the comma. Our principal understood and she responded immediately. (no comma needed) 8 Use a comma to set off a word or words in direct address. Ellie, would you like us to pull you on the float again? This situation, Eve, is drastic. Will you lend a hand here, Nicky? 9 Use a comma to set off parenthetical (provides additional informationas, and is loosely connected to the sentence's content) expressions, such ``I believe,'' ``For example,'' ``On the other hand,'' ``In the first place,'' ``As a matter of fact,'' ``To tell the truth,'' ``Of course,'' and ``However.'' This, I believe, is the best method. 150 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
146 commas (part four) Here is a very important comma rule. Study it, and use it well in your writing. Use a comma to separate nonessential or nonrestrictive clauses, particip- ial phrases, and appositives. A nonessential or nonrestrictive element adds information that is not necessary to the sentence's basic meaning. · Nonessential or nonrestrictive clauses The debate, which was attended by two hundred people, was exciting. (The fact that two hundred people attended the debate is not essential to the sentence's basic meaning.) ESSENTIAL CLAUSES: (Each underlined clause restricts the italicized word that it modifies.) The dress that Mom wore to the dinner last night was a gift from Dad. A man who has confidence will go far. · Nonessential or nonrestrictive participial phrases My two buddies, posing for their high school reunion photo, have worked for the government for the past thirty years. (The fact that these two buddies are posing for their high school reunion photo is not essential to the sentence's meaning.) ESSENTIAL PARTICIPIAL PHRASES: (Each underlined phrase restricts the italicized word that it modifies.) These cards left on the table belong to Gino. The woman hailing the cab is my sister. · Nonessential or nonrestrictive appositives Stuart, my best friend, loves to laugh. ESSENTIAL APPOSITIVE PHRASES: (Each underlined appositive phrase restricts the italicized word that it modifies.) Has your music teacher, Mrs. Brennan, given you the assignment? The address, 1313 Mockingbird Lane, should ring a bell with televi- sion viewers of that era. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 151
147 commas (part five) Here are some additional useful rules when working with the comma. Use a comma after the salutation of a friendly letter. Dear Marty, Dearest Mom, Use a comma after the closing in a friendly or business letter. Sincerely, Be well, Use a comma to separate items in dates and addresses. She was born on January 4, 1993, in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. The family's current address is 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, DC. Note: A comma is not needed · between the month and the day--April 18, 2010 · between the month and the year (when no day is offered)-- January 2020 · between the state (or state's abbreviation) and the ZIP Code-- Canton, MA 02021 · between the house or apartment number and the street-- 204 Joyner Court or Apartment 6A Twelfth Street Use a comma to separate the speaker from the speaker's direct quotation. Trey remarked, ``This blanket was already washed.'' ``My car needs new tires,'' Gabriella said. Note: Place the period and comma within the closing quotation marks. Use a comma after a mild interjection. Oh, I didn't realize that you were here, Nana. Note: Use an exclamation mark after a strong interjection. Rats! I left my wallet at the beach. 152 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
148 commas in action Activity Insert commas where needed. Each sentence needs at least one comma. 1 Wendall would like to go fishing but his father needs his help on the farm. 2 If Julio had not corrected the error he would have earned a lower grade. 3 Because Julianne studied diligently for the examination she passed with flying colors. 4 The long exhausting journey finally ended. 5 My dad met my mom on June 14 1975. 6 Clara asked ``Are these your violin strings?'' 7 The Angeles.members visited New Orleans Detroit Chicago and Los family 8 ``I moved from California to Utah last year'' the salesman declared. 9 Dear Nicolina (as the salutation of a friendly letter) Smitty will you please open that door for me? Mr. Pryal the esteemed English teacher knows the lyrics of many old songs. Our friends who are good bowlers will travel to Spain this fall. Since you look younger than twenty-one years old I will need to see some identification. Within a few weeks after her interview the movie actress purchased a home in Hollywood. As a matter of fact this is the way home. Hector married Louanna on August 7 2006. Stunned by the powerful punch the boxer retreated to his corner. Needless to say the Fourth of July celebration was joyous. Sincerely (as the closing of a letter) Yes this is the man I will marry next year. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 153
149 some more commas in action Activity Insert commas where they are required. Each sentence needs at least one comma. 1 After the initial stage of the project the manager made three changes. 2 Your neighbor who has three dogs in his backyard is the local bank president. 3 Yours truly (as the closing of a letter) 4 Well you can probably get there by then. 5 Excited by the news the cameraman sprinted to the scene. 6 Dearest Dad (the salutation of a friendly letter) 7 Can you read the next paragraph Rachel? 8 ``This documentary is very informative'' Roger told Ray. 9 To tell the truth my sister already knows about your plan. Because Eddie needs a ride I volunteered to take him. As soon as the song was played the children began to sing and dance. Yes you should begin the game without me. These dogs bark loudly and those cats love to scurry around the house. He lives in Richmond Virginia. Dan Marino who quarterbacked the Miami Dolphins for years was always a threat to pass for a touchdown. Joyce the Little League representative has been volunteering for many seasons. The skilled carpenter purchased nails hammers crowbars and putty at the local hardware store. Sincerely yours (as the closing of a letter) He was my first choice but the committee members thought differently. The meteorologist answered your brilliant intriguing question. 154 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
150 comma matching contest Activity Match the reasons for using a comma in Column A with their examples in Column B. Each answer is used only once. Write the letter from Column B on the line in Column A. The first one is done for you. Column A Column B 1. C after the salutation of A. In the middle of the night, the a friendly letter crickets were making loud noises. 2. after the closing of a B. Matthew asked, ``Are we meeting friendly or business letter here this afternoon?'' 3. to separate items in dates and addresses C. Dear Samantha, 4. to separate the speaker from the quotation D. Hunted down by the police, the criminal was finally caught. 5. to set off consecutive introductory prepositional E. A considerate, intelligent person phrases will inform you. 6. to separate nonessen- tial or nonrestrictive clause F. Sincerely, 7. to separate two or G. We shot the toothpaste commer- more adjectives that precede cial, but it has not aired yet. a noun 8. to separate indepen- H. Shawneeta, is that you in the dent clauses joined by a picture? conjunction I. I met you on August 30, 2007. 9. to set off words in direct address J. These veterans, who are going to 10. after an introductory the banquet later, all served in the participial phrase Korean War. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 155
151 the apostrophe Here are useful rules for the apostrophe. Learn them well, and use them in your writing. 1 Use an apostrophe to form sthe possessivepossessive ofand plural nouns. Add an apostrophe and an to form the of singular a singular noun. Joe + 's = Joe's car flag + 's = flag's colors day + 's = day's effort glass + 's = glass's cost Note: If a plural noun ends in s, just add an apostrophe. cars + ' = cars' interiors televisions + ' = televisions' locations Note: If a plural noun does not end in s, add 's to the word. mice + 's = mice's home women + 's = women's department Note: If a name of two or more syllables ends in an eez sound, the possessive is formed without an additional s. the tales of Ulysses = Ulysses' tales the speeches of Orestes = Orestes' speeches 2 To make the possessivethe alast word of the name. name of a co-owned business or organization, add 's to of compound word or the brother-in-law's shoes Jackson and Meyer's law firm Activity Make each phrase possessive. Write your answer on the line provided. A. the pictures owned by Mary B. the coat owned by the sister-in-law of John C. the speech delivered by Les D. the space owned by Fred and Garrett E. the address of Demetrius 156 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
152 more apostrophe situations Here are more situations involving the use of the apostrophe. Review them, and incorporate them into your writing. 1 Use an apostrophe in contractions (words that combine two words into one). had not = hadn't were not = weren't you would = you'd would not = wouldn't I will = I'll was not = wasn't 2 Form the plural of a lowercase letter by placing an 's after the letter. There are three a's in that word. Mind your p's and q's. You do not have to add an apostrophe to form the plural of capitalized letters, numbers, or symbols. We counted three Ts in that paragraph. (capitalized letters) How many 8s (or eights) are in that column? (numbers) Earl loves to use $s (or dollar signs) in his writing. (symbols) 3 Use an apostrophe to show where the letter(s) is left out in a word or number. The Class of '18 = The Class of 2018 Let's = Let us Gregory's = Gregory is or Gregory has 4 Use an apostrophe to form the plural of an abbreviation that ends with a period. B.A.'s (or BAs) = Bachelors of Arts M.A.'s (or MAs) = Masters of Arts PhD.'s (or PhDs) = Doctors of Philosophy P.A.'s (or PAs) = Physicians Assistants 5 Use followed by a period. Itthealso acceptable to write the plural not an apostrophe to form is plural of an abbreviation that is without the period. How many CD's (or CDs) do you own? How many different LSAT's (or LSATs) has Bertha taken? Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 157
153 working with apostrophes Activity On the line next to each number, form the possessive form of the person, place, or thing using an apostrophe. 1 the scarf that belongs to the woman 2 the scarf that belongs to Helen 3 the scarves that belong to the women 4 the bike that is owned by the boy 5 the bike that is owned by Chris 6 the bikes that are owned by the boys 7 the room occupied by the baby 8 the room occupied by the babies 9 the opinions of everybody the ideas of my uncle the backpack belonging to someone the home of my brother-in-law the car owned by Jim and Nicole the cars separately owned by Nicole and Jim the magazine of this month 158 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
154 the colon 1 Use a colon (:) to introduce a list or series of items. You should have the following books and supplies with you on the first day of class: Roget's Thesaurus, two pencils, a dictionary, and two notebooks. These are the eight parts of speech: noun, pronoun, adjective, verb, adverb, preposition, conjunction, and interjection. Note: A colon should not follow directly after a verb or a preposition. The following two sentences include incorrect uses of the colon. The two days of the weekend are: Saturday and Sunday. We saw our dog run into: the woods, the house, and the neighbor's backyard. 2 Use a colon after the salutation of a business letter. Dear Sirs: Dear Madam: 3 Use a colon between the hour and the minute of time. It is now 4:22. The train is due here at 5:08. 4 Use a colon between a title and a subtitle. Mary Shelley wrote the novel Frankenstein: or, the Modern Prometheus. Did William Shakespeare write Twelfth Night: Or What You Will? Activity Place colons where they are needed within these sentences. A. Please bring the following items with you watch, ring, cell phone, and pen. B. Dear Madam (as the salutation of a business letter) C. The following students have been selected for the varsity debate team Matthew, Hillary, and Sophia. D. My grandfather saw the movie Superman The Movie in 1979. E. Were you there at 440 that afternoon? Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 159
155 the semicolon 1 Use a semicolon unnecessary.independent clauses. In this case, be a conjunction is to join two The two independent clauses should closely related. Isaac is a champion discus thrower; he holds the state record. (This is an acceptable use of the semicolon.) Isaac is a champion discus thrower; his dad is a baker. (This is an unacceptable use of the semicolon.) The concert was not just good; it was fantastic! (This is acceptable.) 2 Usecertain transitional words. Use a comma after these transitional by a semicolon between a compound sentence's clauses that are joined words and phrases. See the sample sentences below. accordingly in other words as a result indeed besides instead consequently meanwhile for example moreover for instance nevertheless furthermore otherwise however that is in fact therefore The new tools are great; besides, they were perfect gifts for Dad. Your dance score was one of the highest in this early competition; consequently, you will now move on to the next round. 3 Use a semicolon between items in a series--if the items in that series contain commas. This movie's special people include Missy Swit, lead; Kate Lewis, direc- tor; Morty Mulis, producer; and Freida Ling, cinematographer. 4 To eliminate confusion,independent clauses. the coordinating con- junction that joins two use a semicolon before At the beach we collected shells, wood, and seaweed; and then we barbequed, walked the shore, and made a campfire. 160 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
156 colons and semicolons in context Activity Insert any colon or semicolon where needed. The other marks of punctuation are correctly placed in these sentences. 1 Harriet loved to go to the shore her brother really enjoyed going with her. 2 The boater annoy the people on the beach. two hours in fact, he was starting to was speeding around the lake for 3 starring Chevy Chase One Flew movies include the following Vacation, My great-grandfather's favorite Over the Cuckoo's Nest, starring Jack Nicholson and Funny Girl, starring Barbra Streisand. 4 Our fitness instructor recommends these healthy foods carrots, peanuts, apples, grapes, and celery. 5 Let us plan to meet at 110 on the train platform. 6 (The secretary started her business letter with the following words) Dear General McNamee We would like to invite you . . . 7 The authorSurfingthe Sport Like No Others.that she plans to entitle her next book told A audience members 8 Ouroftour guide offered the Gateway to thethese placesSan Francisco, the tal Alaska St. Louis, the group trips to West and Juneau, the capi- City by the Bay. 9 We need to phoneour goal of starting tomorrow. therefore we will step up our reach campaign $10,000 in two weeks The nurse spent much time with that one patient as a result, her time spent with the next few patients will be reduced. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 161
157 quotation marks (part one) When working with quotation marks (`` ''), follow these rules. This is the first of three pages about quotation marks. 1 Use quotation marks before and directly after a speaker's exact words. The lifeguard told the swimmers, ``Please move down between the green flags.'' Note: Use a comma to separate the speaker's exact words from the sen- tence's other parts. ``Please move down between the green flags,'' the lifeguard told the swimmers. Note: You do not have to use quotation marks around an indirect quota- tion. The lifeguard told the beachgoers to move between the green flags if they wanted to go into the water. Note: A direct quotation usually begins with a capital letter. If the quo- tation is not in its entirety, it often begins with a lowercase letter. Mikki believes that ``honesty is its own reward.'' 2 If a direct quotationis identified, the second part begins into two parts because the speaker that is a full sentence is broken up with a lowercase letter. ``Since the flowers are starting to bloom,'' said Chris, ``we should not step into the garden.'' Note: If the second part of a direct quotation is a complete sentence, start that part with a capital letter. Insert a period after the unquoted portion. ``This is beautiful!'' responded Mrs. Alsager. ``Keep it going!'' Note: If a person's exact words are more than a single sentence and are not divided, use only a single set of quotation marks. ``Waves gently lapped the shore. Children played in the sand,'' the man reported. 162 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
158 quotation marks (part two) This is the second of three pages dealing with quotation marks. Know these rules and include them in your writing. 3 Use amark if themark or anmark or the exclamation mark closing of the tion question question exclamation mark within the is part quota- quotation. ``Is this the correct tool?'' the assistant asked the machinist. The soldier screamed to his comrade, ``Move away now!'' Note: If a question mark or an exclamation mark is a part of the whole sentence (and not just a part of the direct quotation), place the mark outside the quotation marks. Did Mr. Boland say, ``You have only two choices left''? (The entire sentence, not the quotation, is a question.) I was so ecstatic when Jenny said, ``You are our choice for class rep''! (The entire sentence, not the quotation, is the exclamation.) 4 Use a comma, exclamationthe sentence. A period cannot do the same. quotation from the rest of mark, or question mark to separate the direct ``Please help me lift this rug,'' Mom requested Roberta. ``This is absolutely awesome!'' the captain told her crew. ``Will it be sunny tomorrow?'' the news anchor asked her staff. 5 Place colons and semicolons outside the closing quotation mark. There are two main characters in O. Henry's story ``The Gift of the Magi'': Jim and Della. Karen remarked, ``These two cars are full of supplies for the picnic''; only then did we realize that there was no room for any additional passengers. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 163
159 quotation marks (part three) This is the third of three pages dealing with quotation marks. Study these rules, and use them in your writing. 6 When you are writing dialogue, start a new paragraph each time the speaker changes. ``We need to remodel the upstairs bathroom,'' Mom said to Dad. He asked her, ``How much do you think that this job will cost us? I think that I will probably be able to do most of the work.'' ``Great!'' Mom replied. ``Let's talk about the project again tomorrow.'' 7 Use only the openingare quoting marks at themore than oneeach paragraph when you quotation a passage of beginning of paragraph. The only time to include the closing quotation marks is at the end of the concluding paragraph. ``The bridge was built after the immigrants began to come into the burgeoning city in large numbers. This bridge was not a luxury; it was a necessity. People demanded it, and the politicians responded quickly to their demands. ``Then the good times for construction workers began--and continued--for the next three decades. There was always work-- and plenty of it. To be able to use a saw and hammer meant that you were able to feed your family.'' 8 Use quotation markspoems, andthe titles of the following: chapters, songs, articles, short to enclose short stories. ``Before Hitting the Water'' (chapter) from Kayaking for Fitness ``America the Beautiful'' (song) ``More Strain, More Injuries'' (article) ``Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening'' (short poem) ``Beware of the Dog'' (short story) 164 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
160 italics, hyphens, and brackets 1 Use italics (or an underline) for the titles of the following: books (Brain Games) comic strips (Pogo) full-length plays (The Crucible) long poems (The Aeneid) magazines (Sports Illustrated) movies (The Sound of Music) newspapers (New York Times) ships and planes (U.S.S. Constitution, The Spirit of St. Louis) television and radio programs (Law and Order, All Things Considered) works of art (Piet` ) a 2 Use a hyphen · to syllabicate words at the end of a line of typing or writing. Divide words of two or more syllables ONLY between syllables. Do not divide single-syllable words. · to separate portions of certain compound nouns, such as father-in-law and editor-in-chief. · between two words that comprise a single adjective (only when these words precede the noun that they are describing). Examples include moth-infected clothing and rosy-cheeked elf. Note: If a word that comprises a single adjective ends with -ly, a hyphen is not necessary. (The rudely behaved spectator was spoken to by the usher.) 3 Use brackets to enclose explanations, comments, or a correction within quoted or parenthetical material. The reporter told the audience, ``The New York Mets' first world championship  was memorable for all New Yorkers.'' William Shakespeare (known as the Bard of Avon ) wrote many comedies, histories, and tragedies. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 165
161 parentheses, ellipsis marks, and dashes Use the following rules for these three punctuation marks. 1 Parentheses ( ) are used to · enclose numbers or letters in a series within a sentence There are three different types of learners: (1) visual, (2) auditory, and (3) tactile-kinesthetic. · enclose extra materials Priscilla Smith (n´ e Franklin) is a talented orator. e Marla's favorite U.S. president, John F. Kennedy (19611963), was our nation's thirty-fifth President. · enclose explanatory materials Her first year in office (2009) was a busy one indeed. 2 Ellipsis marks ( . . . ) are used to · indicate that material has been omitted from a quotation ``The best that has happened . . . was all due to your efforts,'' Michaela proudly told her brother, Nico. · indicate that a statement or series is not complete The rigorous examination includes essays on various topics (trade rights, antidiscrimination laws, . . . ) that challenge all of the law students. 3 A dash (--) is used to · indicate a sudden break in the sentence That was a hard fact to believe--even for the most cynical among us. · indicate an interruption in speech ``Well--um--I just thought that the plan would work,'' the embarrassed boy told his parents. · highlight or explain a word or series of words in a sentence These excellent singers--Mike, Joan, Terri, and Marcia--will continue to work here at the resort for as long as they want. 166 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
162 all sorts of punctuation problems Activity Insert the necessary punctuation where needed. 1 Will you please hand me that wrench asked Jimmy Bevy 2 She replied You can contribute any amount that you can afford We accept all donations 3 They will find Rex went on that this meal is very tasty 4 The storm arrives to her assistants We need to move this herd before the rancher said Lets get to it immediately 5 We swam thirty laps yesterday Ricardo stated We will swim an addi- tional twenty laps this morning 6 I have never met a man Nicky said whom I respected more 7 Look out Here comes that vicious dog Mr Boyle warned his children 8 Did Ms Wright say Yvonne can do no wrong 9 Laverne screamed Youre going to knock over that expensive vase Betty Can you take this heavy package to Tom Ted asked Tim You will need your car to haul it Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 167
163 All the punctuation is missing! Activity All of the punctuation marks in these ten sentences are missing. Insert whatever punctuation (apostrophe, comma, colon, semicolon, quotation marks, italics, hyphen, brackets, parentheses, ellipsis marks, and dash) is needed to make these sentences flow better. Each mark of punctuation is used at least once. Retain all of the original words. 1 Have you seen Rocky featuring Sylvester Stallone Lucy asked Malik 2 There are several genres of literature that we will study here in college this semester 1 short stories 2 novels 3 poems and 4 plays 3 The year Alfredo was born 1996 was the same year that his dad graduated from medical school 4 Many subjects physics, English, civics . . . challenge students to work diligently 5 These mummies have been in the museum for many years in fact they have been here since the museum's inception 6 Please bring these items to the work site this morning hammer chisel drill and saw 7 Miguels hat was found near the malls main office 8 May I ask your sister in law to dance Ronaldo asked Paula 9 ``I um think that well you can come with us now the shy manager informed Rita The conventioneers told of their 1967 actually 1968 summer experiences in Chicago that summer the professor informed her students 168 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
164 first capitalization list Here are names of people, places, and things to capitalize. This is the first of two lists of names that require capital letters. Albums (Abbey Road, Grease) Awards (Emmys®, Oscars®) Bodies of water (Atlantic Ocean, Lake Superior) Books (The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, the Bible) Buildings and other structures (the Taj Mahal, Empire State Building) Businesses (Moe's Greeting Cards, Tom's Beverage) Car models (Toyota Camry, Nissan Sentra) CD's (Nannie's Tunes, Three Famous Composers) Chapters and other parts of a book (``My Life,'' ``Soccer'') Cities (Fresno, Tallahassee) Comic strips (Peanuts, For Better or Worse) Computer programs (Microsoft Word, Excel) Constellations (Aquarius, Libra) Continents (Africa, Asia) Counties (Norfolk, Dade) Countries (Spain, Ireland) Days (Thursday, Saturday) Essays (``Self Reliance,'' ``The Philosophy of Composition'') Family names (Uncle John, Cousin Moe) Galaxies (Milky Way, Andromeda) Governmental bodies (U.S. Senate, Department of the Interior) Historical documents (Bill of Rights, U.S. Constitution) Historical events and periods (Battle of Bunker Hill, the Renaissance) Holidays (Labor Day, Fourth of July) Holy days (Ramadan, Yom Kippur) Institutions (Marquette University, City College of New York) Islands (Aruba, Crete) Months (January, December) Monuments (Mount Rushmore, Lincoln Memorial) Mountains (Rocky Mountains, Appalachian Mountains) Movies (Rocky, The Outsiders) Musical works (Dark Side of the Moon, If I Were a Rich Man) Nationalities (Greek, Chinese) Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 169
165 second capitalization list Here are names of people, places, and things to capitalize. Organizations (Girl Scouts of America, American Bar Association) Parishes (Vernon Parish, Terrebonne Parish) Parks (Yellowstone National Park, Bryce Canyon National Park) Periodicals (Time, Newsweek) Planets (Saturn, Mercury) Plays (Death of a Salesman, The Master Builder) Poems (``Boy Wandering in Simms' Valley,'' ``Richard Cory'') Product names (Hostess Twinkies®, Evian® water) Races (Caucasian, Indian) Regions (Southeast, Northwest) Religions and their followers (Catholicism, Protestants) Religious celebrations (Easter, Rosh Hashanah) Roads (Lincoln Highway, US 1) Sacred writings (Talmud, Koran) School subjects (capitalize only languages and courses that have a number or letter after them) (English, Math A, Biology 101) Ships (U.S.S. Constitution, Monitor) Short stories (``The Ransom of Red Chief,'' ``Luck'') Spacecraft (Mir, Sputnik) Special events (Mother's Day, Oklahoma State Fair) Stars (Pollux, Castor) States (South Carolina, Texas) Streets (Winters Avenue, Mansfield Drive) Teams (San Diego Chargers, Boston Red Sox) Television and radio programs (Week in Review, Car Talk) Titles of people's names (Dr. Landerson, Mrs. Pennington) Towns (Clinton, Canton) Townships (Daggett Township, Duplain Township) Trains (Golden Gate, Tulsan) Video games (Chain Reaction, Crossword Puzzler) Videos (The History of Independence Day, Golfing) Works of art (Piet` , American Gothic) a 170 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
166 using capital letters Here are some useful capitalization rules to follow. 1 Capitalize the first word of every sentence. Your poem was read at this morning's assembly. Begin the session now. 2 Capitalize the pronoun I as a word and in a contraction. This card is something that I cherish. I've a funny story to tell you. 3 Capitalize proper nouns and proper adjectives. South America--South American capitals Italy--Italian cities Emerson--Emersonian ideals 4 Capitalize the first word of a quoted sentence. ``Many surprises are awaiting you, Yogi.'' 5 Capitalize the interjection O. O, say can you see, by the dawn's early light . . . 6 Capitalize the abbreviations of proper nouns. Mount Rainier . . . Mt. Rainier Twenty-third Street . . . Twenty-third St. Reverend Jones . . . Rev. Jones 7 Capitalize the first word of the salutation and the closing of friendly and business letters. Dear Mrs. Lowe, Sincerely yours, Respectfully, Dear Madam: Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 171
167 capitalize these (part one) Activity Draw three lines beneath each letter that requires a capital letter. 1 mike's cousin lives in norwood, massachusetts. 2 will the pittsburgh penguins play the new york rangers this month? 3 is 242 northfield ave. the correct address? 4 we studied about the pacific ocean on wednesday and the atlantic ocean on friday. 5 us 10 runs through minnesota. 6 which is your sign--pisces or libra? 7 hank hall joined the boy scouts of america in november. 8 when will the members of the united states senate reconvene? 9 gino's pizza palace is in the next town. when was the empire state building opened? how many oscars has meryl streep won? three hundred guests attended the gala labor day event thrown by uncle joe. john and mary, two americans, owned wakefield beverage. have you received your notes on protestantism and judaism? charles lindbergh piloted the spirit of st. louis from new york to paris in 1927. 172 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
168 capitalize these (part two) Activity Draw three lines beneath each letter that needs to be capitalized. 1 my relatives, uncle ted and aunt flo, traveled in a boeing airplane last fall. 2 you will be intrigued by the movie murder on the orient express. 3 the statue of liberty is a symbol of freedom. 4 the bible and the koran are popular books. 5 miguel owns a toyota venza and a nissan ultima. 6 pride and prejudice, jane eyre, and one flew over the cuckoo's nest are among herb's favorite novels. 7 mathematics, social studies, french, and english were hard classes for juliet. 8 we purchased tickets for two broadway musicals, jersey boys and billy elliot. 9 chapter one, ``how to be a success,'' is very well written. this month we will read and discuss three short stories--``the gift of the magi,'' ``the necklace,'' and ``the open window.'' have you seen vincent van gogh's painting ``starry night,'' or edward hopper's painting ``nighthawks''? one of lisa's favorite films is citizen kane. my sisters especially enjoy two comic strips, ``archie'' and ``family circle.'' aunt gina and grandpa gino visited the grand canyon last october. yvonne attended cornell university in ithaca, new york. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 173
169 challenging spelling words Here are over 150 challenging spelling words that you should study and use. In addition, look up the meaning of any word that is not familiar to you. absence curiosity ideally nickel seize acceptable defendant immature niece separate accidentally definite immigrate noisy sergeant accommodate dilemma interfere nominal sizable acquaint disappear interrupt nonentity success acquire disaster irregular occasion symbolize aerial discipline jaunty occurred symmetry already eighth jealous occurrence tendency amateur emigrate justification omnipotent thief analysis emphasis knowledge operable thorough analyze emphasize kowtow paradigm through apparent exceed liberal parallel thwart appearance excessive license permanent tonal argument existence likelihood personal tragedy assistance flabbergast loneliness personnel truly belief foreign lonely persuasive unified believe fractious loveable pitiful unique benefit fragile luxury possess unnecessary bureau gauge mammoth prejudice usually business genuine manageable privilege vicious calendar grammar manipulate psychology villain catastrophe grateful marriage pursuit violin category gratitude mileage receipt weight cemetery grisly miniscule receive weird changeable guarantee miserable recommend wield column guilty misspell regrettable willful committed handkerchief mortgage reliable yield condemn height municipal reliance zany conscience heiress muscle resolution zealous conscious humane neighbor rhythm courageous icicle niceties secede 174 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
170 spell it right--and win the battle Activity On the line provided, write the corresponding letter of the correctly spelled word in each pair. Then write those twenty letters, in order, on the line beneath the last pair of words. If your letters are correct, you will spell out a word that helps this activity's title make sense. 1. (b) unecessary (c) unnecessary 2. (o) immigrate (p) imigrate 3. (u) icicle (v) iceikle 4. (m) minascule (n) miniscule 5. (s) apparant (t) apparent 6. (e) heiress (f) hearess 7. (r) knowledge (s) knowlidge 8. (p) existance (r) existence 9. (d) comitted (e) committed 10. (v) foreign (w) foriegn 11. (n) analize (o) analyze 12. (l) genuine (m) genuinne 13. (t) tendoncy (u) tendency 14. (s) predjudice (t) prejudice 15. (h) dilema (i) dilemma 16. (o) assistance (p) assistence 17. (n) occurrence (o) occurence 18. (a) misspell (b) mispell 19. (r) interrupt (s) interupt 20. (x) morgage (y) mortgage The twenty-letter word is . Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 175
SECTION FOUR Show What You Know Show What You Know
171 Where did all the letters go? Activity Each spelling word is missing one or more letters. Use the spaces provided to fill in the letters. 1. mile ge 21. amat r 2. i egular 22. a quire 3. colum 23. h ress 4. accom odate 24. exist nce 5. heig t 25. bel ve 6. un ecessary 26. wi ld 7. vill in 27. we rd 8. n ghbor 28. s rgeant 9. regre able 29. pre udice 10. occurr nce 30. cons ious 11. s ze 31. appar nt 12. o asion 32. mor gage 13. thor gh 33. condem 14. paradi m 34. gramm r 15. nic el 35. calend r 16. min scule 36. ben fit 17. manag able 37. genu ne 18. th ef 38. licen e 19. par llel 39. dis ipline 20. cem t ry 40. fore gn 178 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
172 grammar and Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea Activity Here is the opening passage from Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea, a novel by Jules Verne. Each sentence's number appears in parentheses before the sentence. Answer the questions on the lines provided for you. (1) The year 1866 was marked by a bizarre development, an unexplained and downright inexplicable phenomenon that surely no one has forgotten. (2) Without getting into those rumors that upset civilians in the seaports and deranged the public mind even far inland, it must be said that professional seamen were especially alarmed. (3) Traders, ship owners, captains of vessels, skippers, and master mariners from Europe and America, naval officers from every country, and at their heels the various national governments on these two continents, were all extremely disturbed by the business. 1 Name the two verb phrases in the first sentence. and 2 What part of speech is especially in sentence two? 3 Why are there commas in between the first few words of sentence three? 4 Name three adjectives in the first sentence. , and , 5 What word in the second sentence is acting as both an adjective and a pronoun? 6 Is the prepositionalor an adverb phrase? continents, in the third sen- tence, an adjective phrase, on these two 7 The noun clause in the second sentence is . Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 179
173 grammar, mechanics, and Alice in Wonderland Activity Here are ten questions about grammar and mechanics in this one-sentence passage from Lewis Carroll's book, Alice in Wonderland. Answer the ques- tions on the lines provided. The four sections of the text are numbered in parentheses after each section. Alice was beginning to get very tired of sitting by her sister on the bank, and (1) of having nothing to do: once or twice she had peeped into the book her sister (2) was reading, but it had no pictures or con- versations in it, ``and what is the use (3) of a book,'' thought Alice, ``without pictures or conversations?'' (4) 1 Name a proper noun in the first section of text. 2 What is the conjunction in the first section of text? 3 Is the prepositional phrase, by her sister, in the first section, an adjec- tive or an adverb phrase? (Circle one) 4 What is the infinitive in the second section of text? 5 What is the verb phrase in the second section of text? 6 Once and twice, found in the second section of text, are both what part of speech? 7 Name the three conjunctions in the third section of text. , , and 8 Use, in the third section, is what part of speech? 9 Why is there a comma after book in the fourth section? Why is the question mark inside the quotation marks in the last part of the fourth section of text? 180 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
174 phrases, clauses, and sentences found in ``One Thousand Dollars'' Activity Using this selection from O. Henry's short story, ``One Thousand Dollars,'' answer each question. The passage has been broken up into Sections A, B, and C. (Section A) ``One thousand dollars,'' repeated Lawyer Tolman solemnly and severely, ``and here is the money.'' (Section B) Young Gillan gave a decidedly amused laugh as he fingered the thin package of new fifty-dollar notes. (Section C) ``It's such a confoundedly awkward amount,'' he explained, genially, to the lawyer. ``If it had been ten thousand a fellow might wind up with a lot of fireworks and do himself credit. Even fifty dollars would have been less trouble.'' 1 The word repeated in the first section is written in what tense? 2 In Section A, solemnly and severely are both what part of speech? 3 Is the sentence inone) B, a simple, compound, or complex sentence? (Circle Section 4 What is the subordinating conjunction in Section B's sentence? 5 Name the adjective phrase in Section B. 6 What word does genially describe in Section C? 7 Section C's sentence, ``It's such a confoundedly awkward amount,'' is a simple, compound, or complex sentence? (Circle one) 8 Section C's sentence thatcompound-complex sentence? (Circle is a compound, complex, or begins with If and ends with credit, one) 9 Name the verb phrase in the last sentence of Section C. What is the antecedent of the pronoun himself in Section C? Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 181
175 find the mistake Activity Each sentence has one mistake. On the line before the sen- tence, write the corresponding letter of the underlined portion (A, B, or C) that contains the error. 1 None of these folders has (A) your signature or (B) your address, (C) Mike. 2 ``This mornings' (A) newspaper was delivered (B) at seven o'clock,'' (C) I told George. 3 ``Some (A) of those grass clippings were taking (B) to the dump by the sanitation workers,'' (C) Thelma told Louise. 4 The gift, a shell from the Atlantic Ocean, (A) was given to she and me (B) during their (C) party. 5 Joanna borrowed (A) me a book that (B) she had already (C) read. 6 Many of us had rode (A) down that path that you and I (B) scouted several weeks ago (C). 7 Our local department store's (A) childrens' (B) section is staffed by friendly ladies (C). 8 Me and Terry (A) gave (B) them over two hundred dollars' worth (C) of clothing. 9 Someone (A) said that Leroy's uniform (B) shrinked (C) after Mom had placed it in the dryer. ``I think,'' (A) Justin remarked to Jonah, (B) ``that they will stay at the picnic with the other's.'' (C) 182 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
176 five questions in five minutes (parts of speech, prepositional phrases, and clauses) Activity On the lines provided, answer these five questions in five minutes. 1 What part of speech joins words or groups of words? 2 Explain how a pronoun can be just a pronoun and how it can be a pronoun-adjective. 3 Usingitthe same prepositional phrase well as an adverbsentences, show how can be an adjective phrase as in two different phrase. 4 Which of the following your answer. start a sentence--adjective, adverb, or noun? Circle clauses cannot 5 Down can be used as how many different parts of speech? List them. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 183
177 five questions in five minutes (sentences and usage) Activity Circle the correct answers within five minutes. Get ready. Go! 1 Which sentence is a complex sentence? a. The maintenance worker, and her supervisor attended the meeting. b. While Rome burned, Nero fiddled. c. The man washed his car that was in the driveway, and his wife mowed the lawn. 2 Which sentence is a compound sentence? a. Are you going to the show with the rest of the class members? b. If you can pick the correct number, you will win a trip to Europe. c. My mom is tall, and my dad is strong. 3 What is the past participle of the verb bring? a. brang b. brought c. brung 4 Is the subject-verb agreement correct in this sentence? Most of the garbage pails has been emptied already. a. Yes b. No 5 Circle all the words that are irregular verbs. a. talk f. win b. grow g. laugh c. find h. remember d. smell i. sit e. run j. teach 184 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
178 five questions in five minutes (mechanics) Activity Circle the correct answers in five minutes. A question can have more than a single answer. Ready? Go! 1 Circle all those that should be in quotation marks. a. song titles b. titles of book chapters c. short story titles d. titles of magazine articles e. titles of short poems 2 Capital letters should be used for which of these? a. titles of novels b. names of the seasons c. days of the week d. names of planets e. proper adjectives 3 Which sentences illustrate the correct use of the comma? a. Because the weather is nasty, the young students must stay indoors. b. In my opinion, this method has more benefits than the other ones. c. He went home to Louisiana, after that. 4 Which words are spelled correctly? a. iregular b. villian c. occasion d. apparent 5 Which answers illustrate the correct use of the apostrophe? a. Helen's bike--for the bike that belongs to Helen b. the children's book--for the book that is designed for children c. Sue and Charley's house--for the house that is co-owned by Sue and Charley d. the senator's proposal--for the proposal that the senators made together Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 185
179 five questions in five minutes (verbals and subject complements) Activity Answer all of these questions within five minutes. Circle the answers. There may be more than one answer for any of these questions. Get set? Go! 1 Which verbal ends in -ing and acts like a noun? a. gerund b. infinitive c. participle 2 The underlined words in the sentence, ``To win the art contest was Melissa's goal,'' form what type of verbal phrase? a. gerund b. infinitive c. participle 3 Which sentence contains an underlined predicate nominative? a. Louis felt uneasy at the debate. b. Nancy was intelligent. c. Kyle was the captain. 4 Which sentence contains both a direct and an indirect object? a. When the singer entertains her audiences, the crowds applaud enthusiastically. b. The bluegrass fiddler gave his wife a new car. c. Most of these riddles can be solved if you really think about it. 5 Which sentence contains an underlined complete subject? a. Without his trusty friend by his side, Pete seemed lost. b. The intelligent officer made a wise decision in an instant. c. Walking into the crowded train station, the passenger searched for the right track. 186 Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved.
180 five questions in five minutes (confusing and sound-alike words) Activity Answer these five questions within five minutes. Circle the correct answers or write your responses on the lines provided. Ready? Go! 1 quite by writing two difference between theone includingwords quietquiet Show you know the illustrative sentences, sound-alike the word and and the other including the word quite. 2 whether? would you use for the outdoor conditions--weather or Which word 3 of the word principal used correctly in the sentence, The principal export Is that country is coffee? Yes No 4 Which word--affect, effect--can be used as both a verb and a noun? 5 Show you know the difference between the often confused words cite and site by writing two illustrative sentences, one including the word cite, and the other including the word site. Copyright © 2010 by Jack Umstatter. The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day. All rights reserved. 187
ANSWER KEY ANSWER KEY Section One: Grammar 1. The Noun 1 Rose, pet, office 4 Joshua, bridge, lighthouse 2 newspaper, table, classroom 5 computer, technician, Tuesday 3 group, hours, plan 5. Do You Know Your Personal Pronouns? 1 We 5 yours 9 mine We and they 2 her 6 they him us 3I 7 Theirs Our she, you 4 her 8 him us 6. Reflexive, Demonstrative, and Interrogative Pronouns 1 Who (INT), this (DEM), herself (REF) 2 those (DEM), yourself (REF) 3 Whom (INT), these (DEM) 7. Singular and Plural Nouns and Pronouns The singular nouns or pronouns are in numbers 1, 5, 6, 7, 9, 13, 15, 16, 18, and 20. The plural nouns or pronouns are in numbers 2, 3, 4, 8, 10, 11, 12, 14, 17, and 19. 188
8. The Adjective (Answers will vary.) 11. Is It an Action, Linking, or Helping Verb? Sentences 4, 6, 7, 10, and 11 include action verbs. Sentences 1, 5, 8, 12, and 13 include linking verbs. Sentences 2, 3, 9, 14, and 15 include helping verbs. 15. The Coordinating Conjunction 1 for 2 yet 3 but 4 or 5 so 16. The Correlative Conjunction (These are possible answers.) 1 Whether . . . or 2 Either . . . or; Both . . . and; Neither . . . nor 3 both . . . and; either . . . or; neither . . . nor 4 neither . . . nor 5 Not only . . . but also 17. The Subordinating Conjunction (These are possible answers. There could be others.) 1 since 2 as if 3 when 4 Unless 5 whenever 18. Combining Ideas with the Subordinating Conjunction (These are possible answers. There could be others.) 1 When the bell rang, the students moved to the next period. 2 Unlessgame. finish your science project, you cannot play your video you 3 We were watching the nightly news when we received a phone call from my aunt. 4 My cat, Belinda, started to hiss when the veterinarian approached. Answer Key 189
5 You will want to try an even harder puzzle after you solve this challenging puzzle. 6 Stand here while I take your picture. 7 If Johann gets a ride, he will go to the concert. 8 Francois explored the surroundings as his friends asked him questions. ¸ 9 The garbageearly morning. out in the street after the garbage collectors emptied the cans in the cans were left My brother, Eduardo, turned pale when he saw a ghost. 19. The Interjection (Answers will vary.) 20. Parts-of-Speech Review (Part One) Nouns are found in sentences 1, 3, 10, 17, and 18. A pronoun is found in sentence 6. Adjectives are found in sentences 5, 12, 15, and 20. Verbs are found in sentences 2, 11, 16, and 19. Adverbs are found in sentences 4 and 13. Prepositions are found in sentences 8 and 14. A conjunction is found in sentence 9. An interjection is found in sentence 7. 21. Parts-of-Speech Review (Part Two) Nouns are found in sentences 1, 8, and 16. Pronouns are found in sentences 5, 14, and 20. Adjectives are found in sentences 12 and 18. Verbs are found in sentences 4, 7, and 17. Adverbs are found in sentences 2, 3, and 15. Prepositions are found in sentences 6 and 11. Conjunctions are found in sentences 9, 10, and 19. An interjection is found in sentence 13. 190 Answer Key
22. Parts-of-Speech Parade (These are possible answers.) 1 This part of the trip is easy. 2 We must part now, but we shall see each other again very soon. 3 The network televised three presidential debates that year. 4 This Olympic match will be a televised event. 5 Lower this crate carefully. 6 This lower electric outlet is better. 7 I cannot go for I must sit with my younger siblings. 8 Manny grabbed for the ring during the carousel ride. 9 Before you go, please give me your phone number. George stood before the crowd. 23. Filling in the Parts of Speech 1 adjective (adj) 6 adverb (advb) adjective (adj) 2 conjunction (c) 7 verb (v) conjunction (c) 3 pronoun (pro) 8 noun (n) adjective (adj) 4 interjection (int) 9 pronoun (pro) verb (v) 5 preposition (prep) preposition (prep) adverb (advb) 24. What's Missing? (Parts-of-Speech Review) Nouns are found in sentences 8 and 13. A pronoun is found in sentence 3. Adjectives are found in sentences 5, 11, and 12. Verbs are found in sentences 9, 14, and 15. An adverb is found in sentence 1. Prepositions are found in sentences 4 and 10. Conjunctions are found in sentences 2 and 7. An interjection is found in sentence 6. Answer Key 191
25. Fun with Literary Titles (Parts-of-Speech Review) Nouns are underlined in titles 3, 10, 13, and 16. Pronouns are underlined in titles 11 (pronoun/adjective) and 18. Verbs are underlined in titles 1 and 6. Adjectives are underlined in titles 4, 5, 9, 11 (pronoun/adjective), 12, 14, and 17. Prepositions are underlined in titles 2, 8, 19, and 20. Conjunctions are underlined in titles 7 and 15. (There are no adverbs or interjections.) 26. Parts-of-Speech Matching 1D 4O 7I C A 2F 5E 8N J H 3K 6B 9M L G Section Two: Usage 27. Complete and Simple Subjects 1 Complete subject: Threatening skies; Simple subject: skies 2 subject: engineers Many engineers from neighboring communities; Simple Complete subject: 3 Complete subject: Huge trucks; Simple subject: trucks 4 Complete subject: The Padres; Simple subject: Padres 5 Complete subject: The talented actress; Simple subject: actress 28. Complete and Simple Predicates 1 Complete predicate: heard the blaring sirens; Simple predicate: heard 2 Complete predicate: were crying during the awards ceremony; Simple predicate: were crying 3 Complete predicate: give their best efforts all the time; Simple predicate: give 4 Complete predicate: yelled at the speeding motorist; Simple predicate: yelled 5 be chosenpredicate: will be chosen as this year's recipient; Simple predicate: will Complete 192 Answer Key
30. The Direct Object 1 brother 3 sting 5 wager 7 sweater 2 sign 4 string 6 beet 31. The Indirect Object 1 Indirect object: her; Direct object: compliment 2 Indirect object: me; Direct object: money 3 Indirect object: Mom; Direct object: dinner 4 Indirect object: you; Direct object: newspaper 5 Indirect object: her; Direct object: secret 32. The Object of the Preposition (The prepositional phrase is given and the object or objects of the preposition are underlined.) 1 for the trip 5 from China 8 of the puppets 2 for the occasion 6 after dinner 9 by Christina and Carla 3 to their home 7 by community volunteers for you and Moe 4 without me 33. Objects and 875 The direct objects are found in sentences 1, 5, 8, 10, 14, 17, 18, and 20. The indirect objects are found in sentences 2, 6, 12, 13, 15, 16, and 19. The objects of the preposition are found in sentences 3, 4, 7, 9, and 11. 34. Subject Complements--Predicate Nominatives and Predicate Adjectives (Answers will vary.) 35. Predicate Nominative, Predicate Adjective, or Neither? The predicate nominatives are in sentences 1, 4, 12, 13, and 15. The predicate adjectives are in sentences 2, 5, 7, 8, and 9. Answer Key 193
There are no predicate nominatives or predicate adjectives in sentences 3, 6, 10, 11, and 14. 37. The Verb Phrase (Answers will vary.) 38. The Prepositional Phrase (The italicized word is the object of the preposition.) 1 without him 6 in her backyard 2 throughout the neighborhood 7 during the movie 3 Beyond the river 8 with their equipment 4 of the sailors; aboard the ship 9 of the boats; along the river 5 In the meantime of the women; except Denise; at the meeting 39. The Adjective Phrase Numbers 2 and 3 are YES; numbers 1, 4, and 5 are NO. 40. The Adverb Phrase (These are possible answers.) 1 on Tuesday morning 4 after much discussion 2 into the living room 5 In the morning 3 by themselves 41. Adjective and Adverb Phrases' Review Sentences 1, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11, 13, 16, 17, and 19 include adjective phrases. Sentences 2, 3, 6, 7, 10, 12, 14, 15, 18, and 20 include adverb phrases. 42. Prepositional Phrases' Review 1 ADVB--by the maintenance workers 2 ADVB--in a few minutes 3 ADJ--to tomorrow night's concert 194 Answer Key
4 ADVB--within every sentence 5 ADVB--during their investigation 6 ADVB--in fact 7 ADJ--in this tank 8 ADVB--Without much fanfare 9 ADVB--in her van ADVB--instead of something else ADJ--with the basket ADJ--from Hester's living room ADVB--on duty ADVB--near our house ADVB--with both hands ADVB--in the bay ADJ--in the ocean ADVB--for a very long time ADJ--of surprise ADVB--into the heavens 43. The Appositive (Answers will vary.) 44. Appositive, Verb, or Prepositional Phrase? Sentences 2, 7, 8, 9, and 14 include appositive phrases. Sentences 1, 5, 6, 10, and 12 include verb phrases. Sentences 3, 4, 11, 13, and 15 include prepositional phrases. 46. Participial Phrase or Not? Sentences 2, 3, 6, 8, 9, 12, 13, and 14 contain participial phrases. Sentences 1, 4, 5, 7, 10, 11, and 15 do not contain participial phrases. 48. Gerund or Not? Sentences 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 12, 13, and 14 contain gerund phrases. Answer Key 195
50. The Many Uses of the Infinitive Phrase 1 ADVB--to meet his brother 2 N--to revisit Europe 3 N--To collect the entire series of presidential cards 4 ADVB--to display their artwork 5 ADJ--to teach well 6 N--to listen to Broadway tunes 7 ADVB--to buy some Italian hero sandwiches 8 ADJ--to invite to the ceremony 9 N--to call you last night ADVB--to participate in the contest ADJ--to improve your performance ADJ--to hold the musical instrument ADJ--to memorize the poem ADVB--to find the correct answer N--To do all of her illustrations well 51. Verbal Phrase Review 1 P--helping the English 11 students 2 I--to introduce the contestants 3 I--To learn the Greek alphabet 4 G--Participating in the Indy 500 this year 5 G--drawing on the board 6 P--Skateboarding most of the morning 7 I--to watch 8 P--Knowing how to get back to its nest 9 G--Watching the bathers swim P--recognizing his mistakes G--Running after his kite 196 Answer Key
G--Talking on the cell phone I--to catch the taxi P--held in New York City I--to win his town's art contest 52. Matching the Phrases in Context Selection One 1D 2C 3B 4A 5E 6F 7G Selection Two 1E 2G 3F 4D 5A 6C 7B 53. Showing What You Know About Phrases 1D 2C 3G 4A 5E 6F 7B 54. Happy in Ten Different Ways (These are possible sentences.) 1 We witnessed the parents' joy during the happy event. (prepositional phrase) 2 The happy sailing instructor cheered her students on during the regatta. (adjective) 3 Staying happy is not that easy for all people. (gerund phrase) 4 Happy after the victory, the excited participant hugged her teammates. (participial phrase) 5 Steve chose to remain happy even during the most challenging days and nights. (infinitive phrase) 6 Joe Burderi,phrase) photographer, warmly greeted the students before the shoot. (appositive the happy 7 adjective) These merchants were happy while the customers shopped in their stores. (predicate 8 Happy is an adjective. (subject of the sentence) 9 The woman with the happy children is Vera's aunt. (adjective phrase) The hostess was in a happy mood during the show's taping. (adverb phrase) Answer Key 197
55. Writing with Variety (These are possible answers.) 1 The dolphin in the larger pool amazed the children with his antics. 2 The dolphin was in the larger pool. 3 Walking across the beach, the fisherman carried his bait and tackle. 4 Alex's goal is to memorize the meanings of these fifty words. 5 Walking quickly across the beach was fun for the physically fit woman. 6 Joe DiMaggio, the Yankee Clipper, wore number five for the New York Yankees. 7 Four aviators who partook in the discussion answered all of our questions. 8 When the librarian ordered the books, she knew they would be big hits with the children. 9 Josephine immediately knew that today would be her lucky day. In the afternoon John likes to run around the lake. 56. Phrases Finale Sentences 1, 3, 4, 8, 11, 12, 14, and 15 are true statements. Sentences 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, and 13 are not true statements. 58. The Adverb Clause 1 While Rome burned 4 Even though Marcelle was tired 2 Until the weather conditions improve 5 if you have the custodian's permission 3 before we did 59. Nailing Down the Adverb Clause The adverb clauses are found in sentences 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 11, 13, and 14. 61. Recognizing Adjective Clauses (The adjective clause is listed first, the relative pronoun second, and the word that is being described by the relative pronoun last.) 1 that you will play tonight-- that--instrument 2 who has sixteen home runs--who--batter 3 that your dad purchased--that--motorcycle 198 Answer Key
4 for whom this award has been named--whom--president 5 that you submitted-- that--answers 6 who won last year's contest--who--Miguel 7 where the hide-and-seek game began last night--where--spot 8 which I have not watched--which--films 9 when most people should be getting ready for bed--when--hour whom I have already contacted--whom--graduates who is a very competent podiatrist-- who--Dr. Gavigan that the committee has questioned-- that--proposals that has an interesting origin--that--word who chose to leave the session--who--Those to whom I have told this personal information--whom--person 63. The Many Uses of the Noun Clause Noun clauses used as subjects are underlined in sentences 3, 7, 8, and 14. Noun clauses used as direct objects are underlined in sentences 1, 5, and 11. Noun clauses used as indirect objects are underlined in sentences 6 and 10. Noun clauses used as objects of the preposition are underlined in sentences 4, 12, and 13. Noun clauses used as predicate nominatives are underlined in sentences 2, 9, and 15. 64. Adjective, Adverb, and Noun Clauses 1q 3e 5t 7o 9e 2u 4s 6i 8n r The answers spell out questioner. 65. Identifying Phrases and Clauses 1C 4D 7B H G 2A 5E 8D E E 3G 6F 9I F A Answer Key 199
66. Do You Know Your Phrases and Clauses? 1E 4H 7A D I 2A 5B 8G D C 3G 6I 9B F F 67. Putting Clauses into Action (These are possible answers. There may be others.) 1 My sister, who is in the fifth grade, is tall. 2 As soon as the bell rang, three mice ran throughout the maze. 3 Last Tuesday, we visited the restaurant that is in the Sheldon Park Mall. 4 What I would like to buy are these two magazines. 5 Because Monday night's storm dropped ten inches of snow, school was canceled on Tuesday morning. 6 Whenever Lucy tells us scary ghost stories, we get frightened. 7 The deputy mayor will give whoever wins the potato sack race a blue ribbon as the prize. 69. Starting the Sentence 1E 2F 3A 4D 5G 6B 7C 70. It's All About Form 1H 3G 5D 7F 9I 2C 4E 6A 8B J 72. What's What? Sentences, Fragments, and Run-On Sentences Numbers 1, 4, 7, 11, and 15 are sentences. Numbers 2, 5, 6, 9, and 14 are fragments. Numbers 3, 8, 10, 12, and 13 are run-on sentences. 73. Making Sense (and Sentences) (These are possible answers.) 200 Answer Key
1 Mount Rushmore, located in South Dakota, is fabulous. 2 Before the storm started, we moved the tables and chairs into the shed. 3 If you think that it is a workable plan, let's go with it. 4 Oliver is a great friend who never speaks badly about anybody. 5 The funny James Short just arrived. 6 My friends and I like to get wonderful exercise by skateboarding. 7 While Nigeria. about the repairman fixed the dishwasher, we watched the documentary 8 After the author wrote for seven consecutive hours, she was exhausted. 9 Looking into the car's window, the police officer spotted the evidence. We like all the songs that the entertainer sang. 74. Types of Sentences by Purpose (These are possible answers.) I like chocolate ice cream. (declarative sentence) Do you like vanilla ice cream? (interrogative sentence) We won! (exclamatory sentence) Clean the table after you have finished eating. (imperative sentence) 75. ``Purposeful'' Sentences The declarative sentences are numbers 2, 6, 9, 14, and 17. The interrogative sentences are numbers 1, 5, 11, 13, and 20. The exclamatory sentences are numbers 8, 10, 12, 15, and 18. The imperative sentences are numbers 3, 4, 7, 16, and 19. 77. Simple and Compound Sentences The simple sentences are numbers 2, 5, 6, 9, and 10. The compound sentences are numbers 1, 3, 4, 7, and 8. 78. Complex Sentences Part One (The main clause is underlined.) 1 After his assistant arrives, Van will go home. 2 Select a hat that will block the sun well. Answer Key 201
3 Rob returned the library book as soon as he found it in his locker. 4 When my pencil broke during the exam, Sheila lent me hers. 5 Isaac gazed at the computer screen while you were reading the schedule. Part Two: Answers to A, B, and C will vary. 79. Compound-Complex Sentences (These are possible insertions.) 1 that my dad and uncle built 2 that an operation was unnecessary 3 I look for their admirable traits 4 that we had hired; the bride looked nervous 80. Know the Sentence's Structure? The simple sentences are numbers 2, 5, 8, and 14. The compound sentences are numbers 1, 6, 10, and 13. The complex sentences are numbers 3, 7, 9, 12, and 15. The compound-complex sentences are numbers 4 and 11. 81. Subject and Verb Agreement 1 drive (P) 4 win (P) 7 do (P) 9 are (P) 2 reads (S) 5 recalls (S) 8 is (S) were (P) 3 line (P) 6 attracts (S) 83. Knowing Your Prepositional Phrases and Agreement (The subject is listed first; the verb follows.) 1 buildings-- are 6 persons--interest antiques--have 2 men--were 7 cans--have monster--frightens 3 drawing--seems 8 note-- was Several--excite 4 residents--select 9 Particles--annoy pair--belongs 5 Both--are relative-- lives notes--need 202 Answer Key
84. Pronouns and Their Antecedents (The antecedent is listed first; the pronoun is listed after it.) 1 wound; itself 4 Jim, Joe; they 2 girls; their 5 cousins; they 3 Luca; he 86. Showing What You Know About Pronouns and Their Antecedents (The antecedent is listed before its corresponding pronoun.) 1 anybody; his or her 6 Everybody; his or her most; their 2 none; it 7 Several; their few; their 3 Some; their 8 one; his or her Any; their 4 any; their 9 someone; his or her Many; they 5 Neither; itself All; them Each; its 88. Indefinite Pronouns and Agreement (The number--singular or plural--is listed first; the subject is listed second; and the verb is listed last.) 1 (P) Most--pass 6 (S) someone--Has (P) few--swim 2 (P) None--have 7 (S) Each--was (P) several--Have 3 (S) Everyone-- is 8 (P) all--Were (S) Neither--was 4 (P) both--Do 9 (S) More--is (P) Both--have 5 (P) Several--want (S) Nothing-- is (S) No one--reads 89. Writing with Indefinite Pronouns (These are possible answers.) 1 Neither of us wants to miss the concert. 2 A few of the dishes need washing. 3 Most of the puzzle has been completed. 4 Most of the tickets have been collected. Answer Key 203
5 Someone in these rooms has left this package on the table. 6 Some of this newspaper is in the other room. 7 Some of the cards feel sticky. 8 Is any of the homework completed? 9 Somebody found Lester's cell phone in the locker room. Are all of the dresses in this department on sale today? 92. Working with Compound Subjects 1 was 4 was 7 occupy is were 2 have 5 are 8 Do are are 3 are 6 has 9 Has is is 95. Making the Wrong Right 1 One of my friends is here in this room with the rest of us. 2 The pillow is too hard on my neck. 3 These oranges from Florida are juicy. 4 A few of the painters at that table have finished their work. 5 Before she started her workout, Lupita was listening to the broadcast. 6 The university officials are now admitting more students. 7 Proponents favor patients' concerns. of training doctors how to be more receptive to their this new methodology 8 Then the physician inserts (or inserted) the fluid into the other vial. 9 The film festival that was held in the mountains was well attended. Concert attendees admire that singer who really knows how to entertain her audience members. The number of graduates is higher this year. The people in our neighborhood in Queens are very friendly. You do not have to be at the gate that early. Some soldiers are on our train heading for Portland, Oregon. They do not have the winning ticket in last night's lottery. 204 Answer Key
96. Knowing Your Subject-Verb Agreement 1 are 5 meet 9 exchange is need 2 indicates 6 has captures are provides 3 are 7 leaves attends have attend 4 makes 8 leave is help is 97. Subject-Verb Agreement Parade 1 have 5 are 9 is weren't is 2 is 6 was doesn't are is 3 are 7 have was has are 4 don't 8 is are are has 98. Practicing Agreement (These are possible sentences.) 1 Rick and his pals went to the city last night. 2 Most of the animals stayed in their cages during the hailstorm. 3 They forget to take their sunglasses with them. 4 Anybody who wouldweek. to go on the field trip should bring his or her money to the main office this like 5 Physics is a very challenging class. 6 Both the girls and their brother want to go to this restaurant for dinner. 7 Herman thought that he could move the bundles by himself. 8 My favorite team is the Detroit Tigers. 9 Here is tonight's plan. Either my dad or his friends are going to go fishing with us. 99. How Well Do You Know Agreement? 1 is 5 them 9 are has 2 her 6 don't need is 3 was 7 his or her is was 4 are 8 are is Answer Key 205
101. Selecting the Correct Verb Tense 1 aired 9 invite 2 reviewed sang 3 helped been replaced 4 supposed quacking 5 needed has been reviewing 6 sliced had fallen 7 imagining has been painting 8 have been moved 103. Working with Irregular Verbs from Part One 1 came 4 drunk 7 went chosen fell 2 drawn 5 held 8 grew begun begin 3 cost 6 felt 9 gotten found brought 105. Working with Irregular Verbs from Part Two 1 wear 4 sung 7 sat told torn 2 wrote 5 sent 8 take written won 3 lost 6 spoken 9 shrank swam run 106. Irregular Verbs in Context 1 won 4 drawn 7 brought rode sank 2 shrank 5 froze 8 began given driven 3 led 6 caught 9 gave risen sent 107. Correct or Incorrect? 1 caught 4 run 8 kept given 3 sank 6 written 9 did sung The verbs in numbers 2, 5, 7, 10, 12, 13, and 14 are correct. 206 Answer Key
108. Helping Out with Irregular Verbs (This paragraph shows the correct irregular verbs. Other writing errors may still be present.) Last summer, we went to the Rocky Mountains for our family vacation. On the way there, we sang many songs and kept a log of our journey. After Dad had driven three hundred miles on that first day, Mom and he decided to stop in a hotel for the afternoon and night. The hotel had an indoor swimming pool. Since last year's bathing suit had not torn or lost its color, I wore it in the hotel's pool where my brother and I swam for a while. Mom brought us some snacks and drinks that we ate and drank by the pool. I also bought some ice cream bars that I had seen in the snack shop. Later that evening, after all of us ate a good dinner, we went to our rooms to enjoy a good night's sleep. 110. Busy with the Verb ``Be'' 1 have 6 were was Is 2 Were 7 Were been were 3 are 8 wasn't are Were 4 Were 9 been are Am 5 be wasn't Weren't are 111. The Nominative Case 1S 2 PN 3S 4 PN 5A 114. The Possessive Case and Pronouns (Answers will vary.) 115. Indefinite Pronouns and the Possessive Case 1 everybody 5 everyone's 9 Nobody's 2 Somebody's 6 Somebody else Somebody else 3 nobody 7 somebody else 4 nobody else's 8 Anyone else's Answer Key 207
116. Using the Possessive Case 1 Lesley's house 6 a dollar's value his suggestions 2 Joe and Jim's house 7 the machinists' salaries Ulysses' store 3 Joe's and Jim's two houses 8 my father-in-law's motorcycle its address Tom's bike 4 that woman's car 9 the committee's plan Thomas's bike 5 the women's cars the committees' plans 125. Matching Up the Confusing Words 1C 4M 7D F K 2L 5O 8A B N 3G 6H 9J E I 126. Which Is the Correct Word? 1 Take 5 It's 9 infer have 2 lend 6 quotations personal notorious 3 in 7 pour than Unless 4 let 8 uninterested set 127. Select the Correct Word 1 May 5 aide 9 scent anywhere 2 liable 6 further right Teach 3 farther 7 fewer Then rite 4 beside 8 immigrated to affect Part Two: The answers will vary. 128. Double Negatives 1 Linda can have no friends over tonight. or Linda can't have any friends over tonight. 208 Answer Key
2 advice. doesn't ever give bad health advice. or The nurse never gives bad health The nurse 3 I hadn't noticed anybody in the room. or I had noticed nobody in the room. 4 This pen has no ink left in it. or This pen doesn't have ink left in it. 5 After exchangingAfter exchanging their presents, my friends didmore to celebrate the occasion. or their presents, my friends didn't do anything nothing more to celebrate the occasion. 130. Revising Sentences That Have Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers (These are possible changes.) 1 To move this heavy package, you need strength. 2 Walking quickly, we crossed the road. 3 Laughing loudly, Emma read the cartoon. 4 While I was washing the dishes, my cell phone rang. 5 Bob saw the bow glued to the present. 6 Looking under the bed, I spotted my birthday gift. 7 The car moved along the highway that extended for over three hundred miles. 8 I saw a star shining in the distance. 9 I ate my hamburger that had been wrapped in silver foil. Driving his motorcycle, Hal noticed a kangaroo. 131. Transitive and Intransitive Verbs The transitive verbs are in sentences 2 and 3. The intransitive verbs are in sentences 1, 4, and 5. 132. Do You Know Your Transitive and Intransitive Verbs? The sentences that include transitive (T) verbs are numbers 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 13, 17, and 20. The sentences that include intransitive (I) verbs are numbers 2, 5, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, and 19. 133. Active and Passive Voices The sentences written in the active voice are numbers 1 and 4. The sentences written in the passive voice are numbers 2, 3, and 5. Answer Key 209
138. Making Your Mark with Sound-Alike Words 1F 4G 7P N N 2I 5E 8R T G 3N 6R 9I I S The fifteen-letter word is fingerprintings. 139. Regular Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs 1 smartest 2 nicest 3 bright 4 smoother 5 longest 140. Irregular Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs 1 most/least frightened 2 more/less rigorous 3 happier Section Three: Mechanics 142. Working with Periods, Question Marks, and Exclamation Marks 1 Can you remember your previous four phone numbers, Kyle? 2 ``I wish that this test was already over,'' John Smithers said. 3 Sheryl asked, ``Have any of these chickens crossed the road yet?'' 4 Great! You can see that these are the winning lottery numbers. 5 Should these plants be moved into the shed for the season? 6 Jackson exclaimed, ``This party is absolutely terrific!'' 7 Did Anne say, ``My coat is in the auditorium''? 8 What is that extremely annoying sound? 9 Please take that book to the bookmobile, Chauncey. Let's see what surprise the workers have in store for us. ``Was John Lewis with you during the experiment?'' the professor asked her assistant. Tell all of them to get down here immediately-- or else! 210 Answer Key
Please call the housekeeper when you get a chance. The office manager asked his maintenance official, ``When will you be able to have your workers wash these windows?'' ``Did William Shakespeare, the renowned playwright, really write all of those plays, or did somebody else write some, or most, or all of them?'' the English teacher asked her students. 148. Commas in Action 1 Wendall would like to go fishing, but his father needs his help on the farm. 2 If Julio had not corrected the error, he would have earned a lower grade. 3 Because Julianne studied diligently for the examination, she passed with flying colors. 4 The long, exhausting journey finally ended. 5 My dad met my mom for the first time on June 14, 1975. 6 Clara asked, ``Are these your violin strings?'' 7 The family members visited New Orleans, Detroit, Chicago, and Los Angeles. 8 ``I moved from California to Utah last year,'' the salesman declared. 9 Dear Nicolina, (as the salutation of a friendly letter) Smitty, will you please open that door for me? Mr. Pryal, the esteemed English teacher, knows the lyrics of many old songs. Our friends, who are good bowlers, will travel to Spain this fall. Since you look younger than twenty-one years old, I will need to see some identification. Within a few weeks after her interview, the movie actress purchased a home in Hollywood. As a matter of fact, this is the way home. Hector married Louanna on August 7, 2006. Stunned by the powerful punch, the boxer retreated to his corner. Needless to say, the Fourth of July celebration was joyous. Sincerely, (as the closing of a letter) Yes, this is the man I will marry next year. Answer Key 211
149. Some More Commas in Action 1 After the initial stage of the project, the manager made three changes. 2 Your neighbor, who has three dogs in his backyard, is the local bank president. 3 Yours truly, (as the closing of a letter) 4 Well, you can probably get there by then. 5 Excited by the news, the cameraman sprinted to the scene. 6 Dearest Dad, (the salutation of a friendly letter) 7 Can you read the next paragraph, Rachel? 8 ``This documentary is very informative,'' Roger told Ray. 9 To tell the truth, my sister already knows about your plan. Because Eddie needs a ride, I volunteered to take him. As soon as the song was played, the children began to sing and dance. Yes, you should begin the game without me. These dogs bark loudly, and those cats love to scurry around the house. He lives in Richmond, Virginia. Dan Marino, who quarterbacked the Miami Dolphins for years, was always a threat to pass for a touchdown. Joyce, the Little League representative, has been volunteering for many seasons. The skilled carpenter purchased nails, hammers, crowbars, and putty at the local hardware store. Sincerely yours, (as the closing of a letter) He was my first choice, but the committee members thought differently. The meteorologist answered your brilliant, intriguing question. 150. Comma Matching Contest 1C 3I 5A 7E 9H 2F 4B 6J 8G D 151. The Apostrophe A. Mary's pictures D. Fred and Garrett's space B. John's sister-in-law's coat E. Demetrius' address C. Les's speech 212 Answer Key
153. Working with Apostrophes 1 the woman's scarf 7 the baby's room my brother-in-law's home 2 Helen's scarf 8 the babies' room Jim and Nicole's car 3 the women's scarves 9 everybody's opinions Nicole's and Jim's cars 4 the boy's bike my uncle's ideas this month's magazine 5 Chris's bike someone's backpack 6 the boys' bikes 154. The Colon A. Please bring the following items with you: watch, ring, cell phone, and pen. B. Dear Madam: (as the salutation of a business letter) C. The following students have been selected for the varsity debate team: Matthew, Hillary, and Sophia. D. My grandfather saw the movie Superman: The Movie in 1979. E. Were you at the site at 4:40 that afternoon? 156. Colons and Semicolons in Context 1 Harriet loved to go to the shore; her brother really enjoyed going with her. 2 The boater people on the around the lake for two hours; in fact, he was starting to annoy the was speeding beach. 3 Chevy Chase; One Flew favorite movies includestarring Jack Nicholson; and Funny My great-grandfather's Over the Cuckoo's Nest, the following: Vacation, starring Girl, starring Barbra Streisand. 4 Our fitness instructor recommends these healthy foods: carrots, peanuts, apples, grapes, and celery. 5 Let us plan to meet at 1:10 on the train platform. 6 (The secretary started her business letter with these words) Dear General McNamee: We would like to invite you . . . 7 The A Sport Like No Others. members that she plans to entitle her next book Surf- ing: author told the audience Answer Key 213
8 OurLouis, guide offered to the West; and San Francisco, Juneau, the capital of Alaska; St. tour the Gateway the group trips to these places: the City by the Bay. 9 We need to reachstarting tomorrow. in two weeks; therefore, we will step up our phone campaign our goal of $10,000 The nurse spent much time with that one patient; as a result, her time spent with the next few patients will be reduced. 162. All Sorts of Punctuation Problems 1 ``Will you please hand me that wrench?'' asked Jimmy Bevy. 2 Shedonations.'' can contribute any amount that you can afford. We accept all replied, ``You 3 ``They will find, ``Rex went on, ``that this meal is very tasty.'' 4 The rancher saidto ither assistants, ``We need to move this herd before the storm arrives. Let's get to immediately.'' 5 ``We swam thirtymorning.'' twenty laps this laps yesterday,'' Ricardo stated. ``We will swim an additional 6 ``I have never met a man,'' Nicky said, ``whom I respected more.'' 7 ``Look out! Here comes that vicious dog,'' Mr. Boyle warned his children. 8 Did Ms. Wright say, ``Yvonne can do no wrong''? 9 Laverne screamed, ``You're going to knock over that expensive vase, Betty!'' ``Can you take this heavy package to Tom?'' Ted asked Tim. ``You will need your car to haul it.'' 163. All the Punctuation Is Missing (These are possible answers. There may be others that are acceptable.) 1 ``Have you seen Rocky featuring Sylvester Stallone?'' Lucy asked Malik. 2 There arestories, (2) novels,literature that we(4) plays. here in college this semester: (1) short several genres of (3) poems, and will study 3 The yearschool. was born (1996) was the same year that his dad graduated from medical Alfredo 4 Many subjects (physics, English, civics . . . ) challenge students to work diligently. 5 Thesesince the museum's inception.museum for many years; in fact, they have been here mummies have been in the 214 Answer Key
6 Please bring these after drilltheoptional.) this morning: hammer, chisel, drill, and saw. (The comma items to is work site 7 Miguel's hat was found near the mall's main office. 8 ``May I ask your sister-in-law to dance?'' Ronaldo asked Paula. 9 ``I--um--think that--well--you can come with us,'' the shy manager informed Rita. ``The conventioneers told of their 1967 [actually 1968] experiences in Chicago that summer,'' the assistant professor informed her students. 167. Capitalize These (Part One) 1 Mike's cousin lives in Norwood, Massachusetts. 2 Will the Pittsburgh Penguins play the New York Rangers this month? 3 Is 242 Northfield Ave. the correct address? 4 WeFriday. about the Pacific Ocean on Wednesday and the Atlantic Ocean on studied 5 US 10 runs through Minnesota. 6 Which is your sign--Pisces or Libra? 7 Hank Hall joined the Boy Scouts of America in November. 8 When will the members of the United States Senate reconvene? 9 Gino's Pizza Palace is in the next town. When was the Empire State Building opened? How many Oscars has Meryl Streep won? Three hundred guests attended the gala Labor Day event thrown by Uncle Joe. John and Mary, two Americans, owned Wakefield Beverage. Have you received your notes on Protestantism and Judaism? Charles Lindbergh piloted The Spirit of St. Louis from New York to Paris in 1927. 168. Capitalize These (Part Two) 1 My relatives, Uncle Ted and Aunt Flo, traveled in a Boeing airplane last fall. 2 You will be intrigued by the movie Murder on the Orient Express. 3 The Statue of Liberty is a symbol of freedom. Answer Key 215
4 The Bible and the Koran are popular books. 5 Miguel owns a Toyota Venza and a Nissan Ultima. 6 Pride andnovels. Jane Eyre, and One Flew over the Cuckoo's Nest are among Herb's favorite Prejudice, 7 Mathematics, social studies, French, and English were hard classes for Juliet. 8 We purchased tickets for two Broadway musicals, Jersey Boys and Billy Elliot. 9 Chapter One, ``How to Be a Success,'' is very well written. This month we will read and discuss three short stories--``The Gift of the Magi,'' ``The Necklace,'' and ``The Open Window.'' Have you seen Vincent Van Gogh's painting ``Starry Night,'' or Edward Hopper's painting ``Nighthawks''? One of Lisa's favorite films is Citizen Kane. My sisters especially enjoy two comic strips, ``Archie'' and ``Family Circle.'' Aunt Gina and Grandpa Gino visited the Grand Canyon last October. Yvonne attended Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. 170. Spell It Right--And Win the Battle The correctly spelled words spell the twenty-letter word counterrevolutionary. Section Four: Show What You Know 171. Where Did All the Letters Go? 1. mileage 11. seize 21. amateur 31. apparent 2. irregular 12. occasion 22. acquire 32. mortgage 3. column 13. thorough 23. heiress 33. condemn 4. accommodate 14. paradigm 24. existence 34. grammar 5. height 15. nickel 25. believe 35. calendar 6. unnecessary 16. miniscule 26. wield 36. benefit 7. villain 17. manageable 27. weird 37. genuine 8. neighbor 18. thief 28. sergeant 38. license 9. regrettable 19. parallel 29. prejudice 39. discipline 10. occurrence 20. cemetery 30. conscious 40. foreign 216 Answer Key
172. Grammar and Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea 1 was marked, has forgotten 2 adverb 3 These are items in a series. 4 The adjectives are bizarre, unexplained, and inexplicable. 5 those 6 adjective 7 that professional seamen were especially alarmed 173. Grammar, Mechanics, and Alice in Wonderland 1 Alice 5 had peeped 2 and 6 adverb 3 adverb phrase 7 but, or, and 4 to do 8 noun 9 The comma separates the speaker's exact words from the other parts of that sentence. The quotation is a question. 174. Phrases, Clauses, and Sentences Found in ``One Thousand Dollars'' 1 past tense 6 explained 2 adverb 7 simple 3 complex 8 complex 4 as 9 would have been 5 of new fifty-dollar notes fellow 175. Find the Mistake 1A 3B 5A 7B 9C 2A 4B 6A 8A C Answer Key 217
176. Five Questions in Five Minutes (Parts of Speech, Phrases, and Clauses) 1 conjunction 2 If a pronoun is only replacing the name ofa aperson, place, thing, ororidea, it itisisa simply a pronoun. If a pronoun describes person, place, thing, idea, pronoun-adjective. This is fun. (pronoun only) This cat is lost. (pronoun-adjective) 3 Ninatoys on the stairs were in Nina's way. (adjective phrase) The fell on the stairs. (adverb phrase) 4 adjective clause 5 Downof speech.noun, verb, adjective, adverb, or verb. Thus, it can be five different parts can be a 177. Five Questions in Five Minutes (Sentences and Usage) 1b 2c 3b 4b 5 b, c, e, f, i, and j 178. Five Questions in Five Minutes (Mechanics) 1 a, b, c, d, and e 3 a and b 5 a, b, and c 2 a, c, d, and e 4 c and d 179. Five Questions in Five Minutes (Verbals and Subject Complements) 1a 2b 3c 4b 5b 180. Five Questions in Five Minutes (Confusing and Sound-Alike Words) 1 quite: We should be quiet during the ceremony. victory. quiet: The fans were quite excited after their team's 2 weather 3 Yes 4 effect 5 site: The restaurant will be located on cite several relatedlibrary.during the trial. cite: The experienced lawyer chose to this site near the cases 218 Answer Key
JOSSEY-BASS TEACHER With Easy-to-Copy, Lay-Flat Pages The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day 180 Ready-to-Use Lessons to Teach Grammar and Usage, Grades 5-12 The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day is a must- · 114 lessons and activities that shed light on have resource that features 180 practical, ready-to- the parts of a sentence, prepositional phrases, use grammar, usage, and mechanics lessons and a verbal phrases, clauses, and sentences by wealth of instructive and fun-filled activities--one construction and purpose; agreement; tense; for each day of the school year. The daily activi- regular and irregular verbs; voice; and the ties give students (grades 5-12) the confidence nominative, objective, and possessive cases they need to become capable writers by acquiring, · 30 lessons and activities that focus on essential improving, and expanding their grammar skills. elements of effective writing, including punc- tuation, capitalization, and spelling Written by veteran educator and best-selling author Jack Umstatter, this handy book will help · 10 lessons and activities that encourage classroom teachers and homeschoolers familiarize students to display their knowledge of the their students with the type of grammar-related topics covered in the book content found on standardized local, state, nation- al, and college admissions tests. The book is filled The book's enjoyable lessons and activities will with ready-to-use comprehensive and authoritative help your students improve their grammatical skills activities that can be used as sponge activities, and become self-assured and willing writers. extra homework, or regular daily lessons. In addi- tion, all the reproducible lessons are designed to "Jack Umstatter's The Grammar Teacher's be non-intimidating for students, and the author Activity-a-Day is a powerful grammar resource has included helpful tips on how to best use each for classroom teachers. Loaded with clear, specific topic or lesson in the classroom. concise definitions, examples, and practice activities, this is a valuable tool for all teachers, The Grammar Teacher's Activity-a-Day contains not just those who teach writing." · 26 lessons and activities that cover the eight --Tina S. Kiracofe, curriculum supervisor, parts of speech Augusta County Schools, Virginia JACK UMSTATTER, M.A., taught English for more than 30 years at both the middle school and high school levels. Selected Teacher of the Year several times, he is the best-selling author of numerous books, including 201 Ready-to-Use Word Games for the English Classroom, Brain Games!, Grammar Grabbers!, and Got Grammar?, all published by Jossey-Bass. Umstatter is a Photo by John Borland professional development workshop leader, training teachers and students across the nation on reading, writing, and poetry strategies. EDUCATION $19.95 U.S. | $23.95 Canada www.josseybass.com Cover design by Michael Cook
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